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ILLUSTRATION. SENTENCE. The daughter of the miller, who was a very poor man, went timidly to the king, as he sat in state, and while she stood before him in not a little fear a great shout arose from the people who had assembled to see the games and were becoming impatient at the long delay.

and while who 1. FORMULA. A (a') A > b? + c < B > d' P + P. 2. The sentence is a compound one consisting of two sentences connected by and. The first sentence is complex, consisting of one principal and two subordinate clauses, one adjective and one adverbial: the second sentence is complex, consisting of one principal clause, one adverbial clause, and - one adjective clause with a compound predicate.

3. A is the principal clause of the first sentence: a1 is an adjective clause modifying A ; b2 is an adverbial clause modifying A ; c? is an adverbial clause, modifying B; B is the principal clause of the second sentence ; d' is an adjective clause, with two predicates, modifying B.

[blocks in formation]

5, 1. the daughter, common noun, subject of 4.
2. of, preposition, showing relation of 3 and 1.
3. the miller, common noun, completing relation of 2.
4. went, verb, predicate of 1.
5. timidly, adverb, modifying 4.
6. to, preposition, showing relation of 7 to 5.
7. the king, common noun, completing relation of 6.

6. How is the miller described ? How poor was he? Principal parts of went? Compare timidly. What is the adjective form of timidly? the verbal form ? what is the opposite of timidly? What question does to the king answer about the verb went? What does the as-clause modify? What then is its uame ? What does as connect? Who is he? How did he sit ? Principal parts of sat ? etc., etc.

NOTE.—In succeeding lessons a few questions on the sentences are given as a guide to the kind of questions that may be asked. The parts printed in italics are to be parsed.

LESSON XXXVIII.

COMPLEX SENTENCES: ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.

1. ADJECTIVE clauses perform three offices ; (1) that of defining or restricting the application of a noun; (2) that of expressing some quality, or in some way describing that to which they are joined ; (3) some of the offices of nouns in apposition.

2. The general connectives of the first and second kinds are the relative pronouns; of the third the connectives are various.

3. It is necessary to make a careful discrimination between restrictive, or definitive, and descriptive clauses. The distinction is the same as that between limiting and descriptive adjectives, and is best learned by examples. In the sentence, I want the book which you have in your hand, the word the shows that some particular book is in the speaker's mind, but it does not tell the hearer what book is meant; that is done by the adjective clause which follows; the clause in this case, then, is definitive, or restrictive. In the sentence, I want a book which is full of pictures, no particular book is meant; any one answering to the description, which is full of pictures, meets the desire expressed; the clause in this case is descriptive.

4. The determining question is, does the clause simply make definite, or does it add something about, that with which it is joined.

5. Other examples of definitive clauses are : There are two principal things that I had to live for. The prayer which he uttered was long. I summon from the shadowy past the forms that once have been. Not to give up all the questions which I was determined to solve.

Not all clauses, however, which refer the mind to the definitive word the in some other part of the sentence, are definitive ; in the following the clause is descriptive : They were basking in the beams of the sun, which on that morning shone with all the warmth of summer'.

6. Other examples of descriptive clauses are: He wore a wig that flowed behind. In his hand was a torch, which lighted up the cave. The silversmith gave him a double sum, which supported him for a long time. I hoped to find some creek that I might use as a port.

Not to give up questions which I was determined to solve.

%. Of adjective clauses explanatory of nouns, or performing any office which, in the case of nouns, would put them in apposition with what they modify, these are examples: The question, what is to be done, must now be considered. Our fear that all was lost was soon confirmed. The inquiry, how it can be done, was raised. You do not tell me the reason why (or that) it is necessary. The decision whether we go or stay cannot be delayed. The connecting power of that, how, why, etc., is not so obvious in these uses ; the words are rather introductory than directly connective; still there is no other link between the two clauses than these words.

8. It will be seen by the foregoing that some adjective clauses have an adverbial, or other connective; that is, the connective performs an adverbial office in its own clause, or it is one which is often other than adjective in office. Examples of this are: He came to the spot where the fort once stood. He lived in a time when votes were venal. He felt the presentiment that this stranger had come with good intent.

QUESTIONS.

1. What offices do adjective clauses perform ? 2. What are their connectives? 3. Distinguish between restrictive and descriptive clauses. 4. What is the determining question ? 5. Give the examples of definitive clauses, and find others. 6. The same of descriptive clauses. 7. Give examples of explanatory clauses and others joined to nouns. 8. Give examples of adjective clauses whose connective is an adverbial word.

PRACTICE.

Analyze, according to the general directions given, the following sentences.

NOTE.–From this point on, words in italics are to be parsed. It is expected, of course, that particular attention will be paid in each lesson to the subject of the lesson ; for example, to adjective clauses in the following exercise.

SENTENCES.

1. I eagerly listened to the echo that reverberated again and again.

2. In a moment my pursuers appeared on the bank above me, which here rose to the height of ten or twelve feet.

3. I never see a broad sheet of ice by moonlight without thinking of that snuffling breath, and of those ferocious beasts that followed me so closely down that frozen river.

4. The deep affections of the breast,

That Heaven to living things imparts,
Are not exclusively possessed

By human hearts.
5. A parrot, from the Spanish main,

Which had been early caged, came o'er,
With bright wings, to the bleak domain

Of Mulla's shore.
6. To spicy groves where he had won

His plumage of resplendent hue,
His native fruits, and skies, and sun,

He bade adieu. 1. A story is told of another fox who displayed great sagacity in getting out of an equally bad scrape.

8. I determined to get sight of the young girl's drawingbook, which I suspected to have her heart shut up in it.

9. Hearest thou voices on the shore

That our ears perceive no more? 10. The theory that the earth is a plane was long since exploded.

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