used, to show such connection ; (4) supply only such elements as are really necessary to make the sentence clear, and indicate any not in the text by enclosing their symbol in brackets, [ ].

7. Of course, no notation is needed for simple sentences standing by themselves. To complete the notation of a paragraph, they are indicated by the sign A, as often as they


Symbols for other parts will be given, as sentences requiring them are introduced.

PRACTICE. The object of the practice is to show the manner of using the notation. The points are, (1) to tell what each letter stands for, and to reduce each part to final elements; (2) to describe the sentence as a whole from the formula.

1. Instantly all were in motion ; and messengers rode off in all directions.


FORMOLA. A + B. The sentence is compound, consisting of two simple sentences connected by and.

2. Great was the excitement throughout all the colonies, and great was the wonder in England.


FORMULA. A + B. 3. At one time it was part of Pennsylvania, but it was always a small and peaceful community.


FORMULA A + B. 4. The people of New Netherlands were not very fond of church going, but they were steady in support of public worship, and they had great respect for their ministers.

but and FORMULA. A + B + C.

5. There was a sound of revelry by night,

And Belgium's capital had gathered then
Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright
The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men.

[blocks in formation]

6. We


not live to the time when this declaration shall be made good.

when FORMULA. A > al.

A = We may live

{ to tie time,

al =

this 1 {declaration shall be made good } when.?

7. The children of the forest were touched by the sacred doctrine, and they renounced their revenge, which was a second nature to them.

and which FORMULA. A + B > al.

8. Then he lay tranquil till he saw that the boat was approaching the wharf.

till that FORMULA. A >a? > b 3.

9. An encampment was formed on Capitol Hill; but a detachment marched along Pennsylvania Avenue to the

President's House, of which the great hall had been converted into a magazines and before which some cannon had

been placed.


of which,

but which and
FORMULA. A + B > a? + bé.
A = An encampment was formed { on Capitol Hill ?.

along Pennsylvania Avenue,?
B = a detachment marched

to the President's House 2. al great,

the hall had been converted } into a magazine, b' = some' {cannon had been placed } before which.? 10. A frightful tumult succeeded to the stillness which had reigned in the city when the troops first entered it.

which when

FORMULA. A > al > b.? 11. I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose rights he has trodden under foot, and whose country he has turned into a desert.


whose whose

FORMULA. A > al + b. 12. When thou goest forth by day, my bullet shall whistle by thee : when thou liest down at night, my knife is at thy throat.

when when

FORMULA. a? < A: b2 < B. 13. Not until noon was the heavenly orb again revealed ; . then the glorious light was again unmasked and again the Syrian valleys rejoiced.


FORMULA. A; B + C. 14. William Penn remained two years in his colony, and then he went back to England, where he staid a long time, because he was in poor health.

and where because FORMULA. A + B > al > b.?

and what



15. This event did not happen, and we lay still a long time waiting for what might come; but at length I told them there would be nothing done that night and I promised that we would find a way to escape if we could use some stratagem to get them ashore.

but [that] and FORMULA. A + B > a4 + C > h3 + D > c3 > d?. 16. A peace which consults the good of both parties is the best because both are interested in its preservation.

which because

FORMULA. A (a?) A > b?. For partially compound sentences, it seems desirable to make the following changes in the notation:

1. To indicate two or more subjects put a small + before the letter which stands for the clause ; thus + A = James and Charles study.

2. To indicate that two attributes or two entire predicates belong to one subject, put the same sign after the letter ; thus A + = James is good and wise or James studies and plays.

3. When it is necessary from the structure of the sentence to indicate the subjects or the predicates separatelyas when one or both are modified by clauses--do so by writing S + S before the clause-sign for subjects, and P + P after it for predicates; thus, the reason which you give and the additional information which I have convince me of its

which necessity = S > a' + S > b? A; that is, a sentence with two subjects, each modified by a clause. 17. Few and short were the prayers we said,

And we spoke not a word of sorrow;
But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,

As we bitterly thought of the morrow.

and which


[which] and

but FORMULA. A + >al + B + C > b?. 18. The captain commanded his men to fire and then immediately ordered a retreat.

FORMULA. A + or A P + P. NOTE.—For convenience of separating what any letter represents into final elements it will often be better to use the symbols for each part of the proposition. When few or no modifiers are joined to parts made compound, it is simpler to indicate such parts by the added + merely.

19. You are sad and moody when you come to the senate.

when FORMULA. A + > a?.



For all future analysis the following order of steps is suggested, to be observed as minutely and fully as the teacher judges to be desirable.

1. Write a formula of each sentence, according to the notation given.

2. Describe the sentence as a whole and reduce it to clauses, by the formula written.

3. Describe, as a whole, what each letter represents.

4. Write an analysis of each clause according to the form already given.

5. Parse, in short, as much of the text analyzed as seems best, according to the form in Lesson XII. Parse at least the words and phrases printed in italics.

6. Question the sentence in all directions.

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