The student must detect the propositions and the connective to determine what name to give to a sentence.

15. There are as many kinds of sentences as distinct sorts of relations among propositions shown by their various connectives. This topic will be completed in Lesson LXI, and a full synopsis will be given.


1. What does a sentence express ? Explain what is meant by this? 2. What is the basis of the sentence? What, then, is the simplest form of sentence? 3. How may propositions appear in any sentence? What alone affects the kind of sentence ? 4. On what two things does the kind of sentence depend ? 5. What does each of these two sentences given contain ? 6. In what are these two sentences alike? In what do they differ first? In what do they differ second ? 7. What is the relation of the proposition in each of them ? 8. What are they named ? 9. What test is to be applied to determine how propositions are related ? 10. How do compound differ from partially compound sentences ? Illustrate by examples. 11. How are sentences divided according to structure? Give examples of each. 12. How are the parts of complex and compound sentences connected ? Give examples showing the omission of connectives. · 13. What is to be noticed about compound sentences ? What about partially compound ones? 14. What must the student look out for in determining to what class to assign a sentence ? 15 How many kinds of sentences are these?


For this lesson sentences containing other elements be. sides propositions and connectives are given. Remember that the kind of sentence is not affected by any number of modifying elements.

Once again, look out for PROPOSITIONS only; the two ques

tions to be asked are, how many statements does this sentence contain, and how are they related ?

From the following sentences select and write the propositions with their connectives only, and from this skeleton determine the structure of each and name it.

EXAMPLE The lesson in grammar which I assigned to the class this morning must be learned before all other les


SKELETON. The lesson which I assigned must be learned : here are two propositions, connected by which ; one can be taken by itself, the other cannot. The sentence, then, contains a principal and a subordinate proposition, and is complex.


1. Custom is the most certain mistress of language, as the public stamp makes the current money.

2. How is literature to avail itself of the new words which it needs for complete expression ?

3. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

4. Who is he that every man in arms should wish to be?
5. My heart smote me the moment he shut the door.
6. Then take me on your knee, mother,

And listen, mother of mine;
A hundred fairies danced last night,

And the harpers, they were nine. 7. Now this is all I heard, mother,

And all that I did see ;
So, prithee, make my bed, mother,

For I'm as tired as I can be.

8. America cannot be reconciled till the troops of Britain are withdrawn.

9. While I am speaking the decisive blow may be struck.

10. Life has passed with me but roughly since I heard thee last.

11. Unless the gods smile human toil is vain.

12. Arrived on the scaffold, Mary seated herself on the chair provided for her, with her face toward the spectators, calm and unmoved, and holding in her hand a golden cross. 13. The bride kissed the goblet, the knight took it up;

He quaffed off the wine, and he threw down the cup. 14. You must do as you think best, but you must abide by the result of your action.

15. I watched them until their forms disappeared over a neighboring hill, and then taking off my skates I wended my way to the house.




Enough has now been done to begin the general analysis of sentences and paragraphs, by omitting from them such peculiar elements as still need special explanation. These latter will be introduced in successive lessons.

The question of using some form of representation to the eye as an aid to grammatical analysis is one not easy to settle. On the one hand, the oral analysis of a long sentence involves so many words and so many repetitions that it is both very difficult to hold in mind and very tedious to all

parties. On the other hand, any system of ocular presentation, to be useful, should be simple, comprehensive, and a real aid to analysis, not a substitute for it. Some of the systems in use are, with all their merits, cumbersome and confusing, and their tendency seems to be to lead students to make diagrams as the end of the study of analysis ; that is, to put the means for the end.

In this book the sentence is treated as made up of propositions and modifiers ; a simple way of writing these so as to show to the eye their structure and relation has been given and practiced in preceding lessons, so far as relates to simple propositions with their modifiers. If now, sentences of all kinds, such as are found following one another in books, can be reduced to propositions with their direct modifiers, and then these can afterward be reduced to their last elements as heretofore, this would seem to be sufficient. If a system of diagrams fits only selected sentences, it is, of course, inadequate to its proper purpose. The great variety of combinations in sentences makes it next to impossible to represent all to the eye without such multiplication of symbols and devices as tends to make the whole subject wearisome, if not disgusting. The following way of reducing compound and complex sentences to their first elements of propositions and modifiers is suggested as an aid to the analysis of sentences just as they stand in books, and as a convenient form for class work. It is adapted from a little tract given to the anthor many years ago by the late Professor Gibbs, of the Yale Divinity School, and believed to have been first published in the Massachusetts Teacher. Each teacher is likely to have his own way of writing sentences on the blackboard; the form is not essential, provided it represents to the eye what the teacher desires to have represented. It is given for

the assistance of those who have no better way of their own. It is, as it is meant to be, only a notation.



1. Let the capital letters A, B, C, etc., stand for full independent propositions; the small letters a, b, c, etc., for full propositions subordinate to these.

2. If it does not seem to the teacher to make the notation too cumbersome, adjective, adverbial, and objective clauses may be designated by the numerals, 1, 2, 3, etc., as heretofore.

NOTE.—These numerals were used to denote the different word- and phrase-elements in the order in which they were taken up; adverbial clauses are presented after objective, because they are more numerous and more difficult; but it is not necessary to change the significance of the numbers, as at first used.

3. To express the connection of clauses, let the sign + stand for all coördinate relations, and the sign > for all subordinate relations. As these would thus express only general connections, and as the relation of these parts is of great importance, let the connective be written over the sign; as, but, when, +, >,

4. The Algebraic vinculum or bar may be used to show that the parts influenced by it are to be taken together.

5. The parenthesis enclosing a letter may be used to show that the parts of clauses are inserted within each other.

6. In writing sentences according to this notation, (1) express by some symbol every part of the sentence; (2) express every part in the order in which it stands; (3) if connectives are omitted, put into the formula the punctuation mark

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