fine the three kinds of clauses. Which names the other, the clause or the connective? 6. What words are used as subordinate connectives? Which of these are proper connectives 8 7. What is said of the number of these connectives, and of the clauses in which they stand ?


Select the subordinate connectives in the following sentences, tell what they connect, what office the clause performs, and what office in its clause the connective performs.

NOTE.-Be careful in this practice to give the entire clause when it is necessary to designate it.

Thorough work with this practice, which should be extended as far as may be needed, will very much assist in the analysis of complex sentences.

EXAMPLE. There could be no other such in a palace all whose utensils were silver or gold.

Whose connects its clause, viz., all whose * gold with palace; the clause is adjective in office; in its clause, whose is an adjective modifier of utensils.


1. The door which was opened by enchantment was now shut by the same means.

2. You ate up yesterday all the provisions that I had in the house.

3. After the princess passed by, Aladdin went home.
4. You must do as you please.
5. We touched at several ports where we traded.
6. The man succeeds best who tries most faithfully.

7. As the safety of the troop required this trick, the captain reluctantly consented.

8. Tell me whose is the fault. 9. I cannot tell you why this has been done. 10. Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 11. You have never told us how it was all brought about. 12. You must go when the bell rings.

13. She repeated the answer which she had received to the prince. 14. As you journey, sweetly sing.

15. They took their leave with all the respect and thanks that could well pass between people, where, on either side they understood not one word which they could say, and came back to the first island, where, when they arrived, they set eight of their prisoners at liberty, after they had given them a great feast. 16. On us through the unplastered wall,

We felt the sifted snow-flakes fall ;
But sleep stole on, as sleep will do,
When hearts are light and life is new.

A week had passed,
Since the great world was heard from last.
18. So, when in darkness sleeps the vale,

Where still the blind bird clings,
The sunshine of the upper sky

Shall glitter on thy wings! 19. It was the very witching-time of night that Ichabod pursued his travels homeward, along the sides of the hills which rise above Tarrytown, and which he had traversed in the afternoon. 20. I cannot feel that thou art far,

Since near at need the angels are.




THE way is now prepared to make a partial classification of sentences.

1. A sentence expresses a complete thought. This does not mean all that can be said about a subject, but such a statement, complete in itself, as a writer or speaker chooses to make.

2. The proposition is the basis of the sentence; the simplest possible sentence contains a proposition, and this defines a simple sentence as one which has but one proposition.

3. The proposition in any sentence may be modified or unmodified. Very few sentences are found containing only unmodified propositions, but the number of modifications does not affect the kind of sentence; this depends on what is essential to its structure, namely, the propositions.

4. The kind of sentence depends on (1) the number of propositions it contains, and (2) their relation to each other.

5. The sentence, life is short and art is long, contains two propositions and is, therefore, not simple ; so, also, the sentence, that life is long which answers life's great end.

6. These sentences are alike in the number of their propositions, but they differ in two respects. (1) By the omission of the conjunction and,' the first is made into two simple sentences with no change of meaning; the second cannot be so treated. The reason of this is the fact already stated, that the conjunction and forms no part of the material of the sentence, while the relative connective which does. (2)

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Either part of the first sentence may be taken by itself; we
may write life is short, or art is long, without the other;
these are, therefore, grammatically independent and equal.
Of the second sentence we can write, life is long, by itself,
but not, which answers life's great end. These two parts,
then, are grammatically unequal, one being dependent and
the other independent.

7. The first sentence differs from the second, not in the
number, but in the relation of its propositions. These are
coördinate in the first, and principal and subordinate in the

8. Because the parts are combined in different ways, these sentences receive different names. Those which contain two, or more, independent propositions are COMPOUND sentences; those which contain a principal and a subordinate proposition, or more than one, are COMPLEX sentences.

9. The test to be applied is this : take each proposition with all that belongs to it, and ask whether it can be used by itself; if so, that part is independent; if all the propositions in a sentence can be so used, the sentence is compound; if any one cannot be so used, that one is dependent, or subordinate, and the sentence is complex.

10. Strictly, entire propositions must be compounded to make a sentence compound ; doubling one of the parts makes that part compound, but not the sentence. Such sentences as James and Charles study, James studies and recites, James is good and diligent, are simple sentences with compound subject, etc., or they are partially compound ; such sentences as life is short and art is long, are compound, because the entire proposition is compounded.

11. In structure, then, sentences are simple, partially compound, compound, and complex.


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(a) A simple sentence is one which contains but one proposition.

(6) A partially compound sentence is one whose subject, copula, or attribute is compound.

(c) A compound sentence is one which contains two or more entire propositions, independent of each other.

(d) A complex sentence is one which contains one or more independent propositions and one or more subordinate propositions.

12. Compound and complex sentences have their parts joined by connectives either expressed or so clearly implied that it is not necessary to express them. A successionthree or more—of propositions may be joined in pairs, or the last two only may be joined ; these are all considered to be united by the connectives which are expressed. Illustrations of the omission of connectives necessary in grammar are found in the following sentences :

Two, three and four make nine. I want the book you have. I went to the house, I rang the bell, I delivered my message and I came away instantly. Horse and foot, , officer and private, regular and volunteer, were mingled in the confused retreat.

13. This is to be noticed about compound sentences; their constituent parts are sentences, and they can be broken up nto sentences by the simple omission of the connectives.. Partially compound sentences may be made into simple or complex sentences by supplying the necessary parts; but they are to be named and analyzed as they stand.

14. It is very important to keep in mind that the classification of sentences is based on the propositions they contain; the added elements go for nothing in this matter.

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