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12. Here are two books; take one and leave the other ; or, else, take both ; but be sure to return them to me.
13. He lived in want, sickness, and neglect.
And smooth or rough, with them, is right or wrong. 17. This course is right, and, moreover, it is expedient. 18. Make haste to strike; otherwise, the cause is lost. 19. The pursuers, too, were close behind.
20. Run and tell the news to all, or else the opportunity will be lost.
1. COÖRDINATE conjunctions combine grammatical elements of all kinds into compound elements.
2. A compound element is composed of two or more similar elements joined together. Words, phrases, clauses and sentences may in this way be made compound. Only the first two are now considered.
3. The distinction between compound and complex elements should be carefully noted. The former are made of two or more similar elements, that is, two adjectives, two adverbial phrases, etc., each performing the same office in the sentence ; each modifying the same word, but having no direct grammatical relation with each other. The latter consist of dissimilar parts joined into one whole. The dif
ference is in the manner of union of the parts. be seen at once in the following: we study grammar and geography ; we study Kerl's Grammar. In the first are two objects depending on the same verb, and joined into one compound object by the coördinate conjunction and; in the second is one object, made complex by the modifying word, Kerl's.
4. Compound elements may also become complex by the addition of modifiers ; in this case it is necessary to describe them as compound and complex ; for example: we study Kerl's Grammar and Smith's Geography.
5. Compound elements may be principal or subordinate: only the latter are considered at present.
NOTE. —Notice that the conjunction is no part of either element which it joins ; it stands only as a link between them.
1. What is the office of coördinate conjunctions ? 2. Of what is a compound element composed? 3. What is the distinction between complex and compound elements? Illustrate by examples. 4. How may compound elements become complex ? 5. What elements may be compound?
Analyze the following sentences according to the model given, writing the conjunctions, both principal and auxiliary, between the two parts which they join.
EXAMPLES. The rainbow is the fairest and most fairy-like thing in all the world.
and The rainbow is the thing
in all the world.'
So now he began to think of pitching his tent and spending the night on the shore.
on the shore.?
spending the night,3 NOTE.-When more than two elements are joined, only one conjunc. tion may be used, and generally between the last two ; let such elements be written as they stand, that is, write the conjunction only when it is given in the sentence.
Elements modifying each part of a compound element may be written opposite both, with a brace, as on the shore above.
1. A crow, ready to die with thirst and eagerly desirous of finding water, spied a maid with a pitcher on her head.
2. Goldielocks had a black velvet coat, trousers of the same, and shoes of shining leather.
3. He did not say a word to his father or to any of his brothers about his plan.
4. On this particular morning, the breakfast consisted of hot cakes, some nice little brook trout, roasted potatoes, and coffee for King Midas. - 5. The affair was conducted in a manner energetic enough, but not pleasing
6. He gazed long and earnestly upon the scene before him. 7. He dreamed of his home, of his dear native bowers.
8. With great pain and difficulty I guided my raft to the shore.
9. I knew not what to do, nor where to go, nor how to rest my weary limbs.
10. Next morning Aladdin behaved with much reserve and great sadness.
11. The first dawn of comfort came to him in a determination to stand by that boy through thick and thin, and to help him, and cheer him, and bear his burdens, for his good deed of that night.
12. The snow had been heaping field and highway with a silence deep and white. - 13. Stern and unmoved by all his misfortunes, he stood there.
14. He was fond of books and music, too.
15. This is the perpetual work of thy creation, complete, old, but never faded.
1. SUBORDINATE connectives join dependent clauses to some word on which the clause depends. They cannot, therefore, be used in simple sentences.
2. The essential difference between coördinate and subordinate connectives, is that the latter, besides their office as connectives, perform some office in their clause, and so are a part of that clause, while the former connect only. The sentence already given illustrates this; viz., You have the book which I want. Which is, plainly, the connective between the two propositions; as, if it is omitted, they are disjoined. It is also, plainly, the object of the verb want ; as, if it is omitted, that verb has no object expressed. The double office appears more plainly by writing the sentence in these forms : (1) You have the book; I want the book.
(2) You have the book and I want it. (3) You have the book which I want.
3. This form of connection between the two parts of the sentence makes the latter part grammatically dependent on the first.
4. Subordinate connectives are divided into three classes according to the office of the clauses in which they stand ; viz., Substantive, Adjective and Adverbial.
5. Substantive clauses are those which perform the office of a noun; Adjective and Adverbial perform the office of the parts of speech of the same name. The clause names the connective, not the connective the clause.
6. Subordinate connectives are, in general, relative and interrogative pronouns and adverbs, and the pro-sentence that. The latter is treated in Lesson XL. The relative words are proper connectives, and they perform this office by referring their clause to an antecedent term. The others are not strictly connective, but interrogative, or substitutes, or merely introductory.
7. The number of these connectives is small, but the variety of relations into which they put their clauses is very great, and they will be best understood by taking them up in detail. They are all found in complex sentences, and the classification of sentences will naturally precede their analysis. For preliminary practice, that their nature and office may be understood, only those which present no special difficulty are given.
1. What do subordinate connectives join? 2. What is the essential difference between these and coördinate connectives ? Illustrate by examples. 3. Into what relation does this ccnnection bring the parts of the sentence? 4 How are they divided into classes ? 5. De