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nothing to eat. 16. After my first voyage, I was destined to spend the rest of my days at Bagdad. 17. The sun was about to set. 18. I was ready to die with grief. 19. What could that favor be, except to increase his treasure? 20. It was not worth while to vex himself about a trifle. 21. I have seen a legion of boys scamper over our grass-plot under the chestnut trees. 22. He made every possible remonstrance to the king not to expose him to such a law. 23. He was appointed as second in command. 24. It is always honest to speak the truth. 25. I consider him the best speaker in the bouse. 26. Madame Roland heard herself condemned to death with perfect composure. 27. Do you consider me worthy to share the fate of the good ? 28. We resolved to have ourselves painted too. 29. First count all men of equal caste, then count thyself the least and last. 30. What have you here to eat?

LESSON XXXI.

CONNECTIVES: THEIR KINDS AND GENERAL DIVISIONS.

In order to prepare the way for elements not yet presented, a preliminary lesson on Connectives is necessary.

1. Any word whose office, wholly or in part, is to join other words or elements, is a connective in the most general

sense.

2. The copula, in all its forms, is a link between the subject and the attribute of a sentence ; but this word asserts such connection, its verbal force not being lost in its connect

ing office; it is not, therefore, classed as a connective, but as a verb.

3. Prepositions connect by showing relation of ideas. They have been considered already.

4. Connectives, generally so called, are of two classes ; pure, and impure or mixed.

5. The distinction between them is this : the first connect parts which are grammatically equal but form no part of the material of such elements ; the second connect parts which are grammatically unequal and also form part of the material of one of these two parts. In other words, the first connect only, and the second connect and do some other office besides. For example : in, you have a book and I want it, the two propositions are connected by and; this word, however, forms no part of the material of either proposition ; it simply stands between them as a link to make them into one sentence. In, you have a book which I want, it is seen at once that which takes the place of and and it in the preceding sentence; which stands between the propositions making them one sentence as before, and it is a constituent part of one, being the object of the verb want.

6. Because some connectives perform two offices they are called impure conjunctions; that is, they are not purely connective in their office. Those which connect only are pure conjunctions.

7. Pure conjunctions are also called coördinate, because they connect parts of the same rank; that is, they connect two sentences, two subjects, two adjectives, two objective elements, etc. The second are called subordinate because they always join a dependent element to that on which it depends.

8. The pure conjunction is always a coördinate one, and

the impure is always a subordinate one and joins a dependent clause to its principal.

QUESTIONS.

1. Define connective, in its general sense. 2. How is the copula a connective? How is it classed ? 3. How do prepositions connect? 4. What two general classes of connectives? 5. What is the distinction between them ? Illustrate by examples. 6. Why are they called pure and impure? 7. What other names for the two classes ? 8. What is the pure conjunction, always ? What is the impure? What does the latter connect ?

PRACTICE.

For practice in this lesson, select from the sentences in Lesson XXXIV all the connectives, read the sentences without them, and notice carefully what parts are necessarily dropped out if the connective is omitted.

LESSON XXXII.

PURE OR COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.

1. THE coördinate conjunctions are divided into three classes of one conjunction each, according to the nature of the connection they make ; namely, the copulative and, the disjunctive but, and the alternative or, negative, nor.

2. The first of these denotes addition of equal parts; the second, opposition of equal parts; the third, a choice between equal parts.

3. There are no other pure conjunctions in the language ; that is, there are no other words which connect, and do this

as their sole grammatical office. The words as and for come very near to being pure conjunctions, but these put their clauses into the relations of cause and of manner. The most common connective in the language is and.

4. With these are joined other words which assist and increase their connecting force by expressing some additional idea. With AND are joined also, too, moreover, hence, etc.; with BUT, nevertheless, yet, notwithstanding, etc.; with or, otherwise, else, etc.

5. These additional words are not themselves the proper connectives of the parts, but they modify the relation between the parts as expressed by the real connectives, and, but, or. They are for this reason properly called auxiliary connectives and cannot stand without their principals. They assist in connecting the same parts as the conjunctions with which they are associated.

6. Their modifying effect is various, and can be learned only from their use in sentences; in general, it is to refer the mind to what has gone before, and to indicate that the phrase or clause in which they stand is connected in thought with some part of it, or with the whole.

7. Sometimes the principal connective is not expressed, but this does not essentially change the office of these auxiliary words.

QUESTIONS. 1. What classes of coördinate conjunctions ? What is the principle of classification ? What are the conjunctions ? 2. What does each denote? Give a sentence containing each, and explain the connection. 3. What other pure conjunctions? Which is the most common? 4. What are joined with these ? 5. What is the office of these words? What are they called ? What do they assist in connecting ? 6. What is their modifying effect? 7. Is the principal conjunction always expressed ?

PRACTICE.

Tell what each coördinate connective in the following connects, giving the entire parts connected and naming them ; also, give the auxiliary connectives, and tell as definitely as possible what their force is. Parse the words and phrases in italics.

SENTENCES.

1. 'Tis true he was monarch and wore a crown,

But his heart was beginning to sink. MODEL. And connects the two predicates, was monarch, and wore a crown. But connects the two sentences, 'Tis

crown and his * * * sink. 2. Sing, or else leave the class. Or connects the two sentences; else assists in connecting them ; its force here is, as an alternative: or, that is, if you do not sing, leave the class. 3. He had tried and tried, but could not succeed,

And so he became quite sad. 4.

Again it fell, and swung below,
But up it quickly mounted.

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5. It is a hard task ; nevertheless, it must be done.

6. James went, and Charles went too, but George staid at home.

7. The gift was offered but refused, yet no ill-will was apparent on either side.

8. It may cost treasure and blood; but it will stand, and it will amply compensate for both.

9. And they must drink or die.

10. We must make the attempt, but we must also be prepared for failure.

11. I did not say pride, but proud.

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