Select, as in the preceding lesson, the elements of which this lesson treats, change the voice of the verb when the sentence admits such change, and parse all the attributive objects. Here again new symbols are required, if these objects are to be specified in the written analysis. If thought best, in. dicate all double objects by the numeral 5.


1. The next morning found him

well man.

2. Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief. 3. The Indians despised white men as base poltroons. 4. He next called the speaker a villain. 5. The boys all desired him for their leader. 6. The general was ridiculed by the troops as a coward. %. They named the place Saint Joseph. 8. We were obliged to cast anchor. 9. He was ordered by the governor to proceed with all speed. 10. These people were doomed to become a thorn to New England. 11. Some chanced to come before the rest. 12. He happened to be mistaken. 13. The bird seemed to be aware of his foolish behavior. 14. He was not accustomed to live in this hard way. 15. They used to come frequently. 16. I ask you this plain question. 17. The haughty Briton refused to recognize any provincial officer as his superior. 18. You have taught me language. 19. I will never call her daughter

20. The great count always considered the Hurons as his friends. 21. I regard him as entirely competent. 22. The general took him for a spy. 23. All the school esteemed him as a wise and faithful teacher. 24. Choose me for your captain. 25. They all agreed to acknowledge him as their king.




1. The infinitive mode without a subject expresses action, etc., with no reference to any particular actor, and is used in various offices in sentences. In all these offices, however, it retains its verbal idea, and may receive any additions or modifications of the verb in other modes.

2. It may, as a noun, be the subject-nominative, predicatenominative, object of a verb, or, in some cases, of a preposition; as, to sing is pleasant, and to see the sun is pleasant; to hear is to obey, this is to deceive; we wish to go, we desire to live long and happy lives; what went ye out for to see?

As predicate-nominative, it denotes, for the most part, identity with the subject.

3. It may be used, as an adjective modifier, to denote various modifications of the noun; some of these approach very closely to indirect objects; as, time to come is called future; a desire to succeed influences all ; aptness to learn is a good quality.

4. The infinitive verb in the passive voice is used in two ways: (1) adjectively; as, his conduct is to be despised, which is equivalent to his conduct is despicable : (2) to denote what is necessary, determined upon, or futurity; as, this is to be considered, it is to be settled soon.

5. It may be used, again, to denote purpose, and some other adverbial relations; as, he went to visit friends, he did his best to succeed. Sometimes the phrase in order is used

between the verb and the word on which it depends; as this was done in order to prevent confusion.

6. It may also be used as the leading term in a collection of words introducing a sentence not grammatically independent; as, to confess the truth, I was wrong. These will be more fully explained in Lesson LVI.

Other uses of this phrase are difficult of classification.
%. Synopsis of the uses of the infinitive phrase.
with its objec as double object of

tive subject, verb or preposition.
The Infin-
itive Phrase

with or with

as a noun in various is used,

relations, as an adjec

out added el. without its obtive, as an adverb, in

ements. jective subject, introductory phrases,

in other ways,


1. How does the infinitive mode without a subject express action ? How is it used ? What does it retain in all uses? 2. Give its uses as a noun, with examples. As predicate-nominative, what does it denote? 3. Give its uses as an adjective, with examples. 4. How is it used in the passive voice? 5. Give its use as an adverb, with examp What phrase sometimes accompanies it in this use? 6. What other use? 7. Give a synopsis of the uses of the infinitive mode.


Explain, with great care, all the infinitive phrases in the following sentences, and parse each one, taking the sign to as part of it.


1. I went to see him immediately. 2. The neighbors came to assist at the funeral. 3. I always took great care to save my money. 4. To doubt would be ingratitude. 5. This

gave me an opportunity to escape. 6. The question is to be settled on its merits. 7. We stopped on the way to rest. 8. There is a time to laugh. 9. Another tried to escape by the door. 10. An invitation to join them was refused. 11. Frontenac asked the chief to join them. 12. He was to do so by gathering them into the church. 13. Who is there left to mourn for Logan? 14. She crept forth at night to seek for food. 15. He had patience to hear my story. 16. He had the good fortune to find a hatchet. 17. In their zeal to cultivate the higher nature they forgot the lower. 18. I sat down upon the

to recover my

breath. 19. This bait failed to tempt him. 20. The company was to receive a thousand pounds.



ANALYZE the following sentences according to the models given, paying special attention to the elements mentioned, and parsing italicized words and phrases.

NOTE. The distinction between the two forms of double objects-the infinitive with its subject and the object with an attribute joined directly with it—is often a very nice one, and the habit of accurate discrimination it will cultivate will repay the labor, even if it does not result in entire agreement in a class of students A useful question in doubtful cases is this : does the first part of the object seem to denote its principal idea, or does the second part ?

These additional objective elements may be simply indicated as objective in the written form of analysis; the numeral 5 marking all varieties of double objects. Additional particulars may be indicated in the written short parsing. For example :

SENTENCE. I thought him to be wrong in every partic ular.


I thought { him to be wrongó { in every particular.? Parsing, by groups of words: 1. I thought, proposition. 2. him to be wrong, double object-person and quality—of 2. 3. in every particular, adverbial phrase, modifying wrong in 2. Double object parsed : 1. him, pronoun, objective subject of 2. 2. to be, infinitive verb, with him as subject.

3. wrong, adjective, attribute of 1. Or, each word may be written out in order, as heretofore.


1. I desired him to let me go. 2. May I be there to see. 3. He reckoned the distance to be fifty miles. 4. He bound himself by a vow to remain in Canada. 5. They sent for him to join them in council. 6. The Indians had long ceased to exist. 17. He ordered his men to fire. 8. They told us to help ourselves. 9. The statement was at once seen to be untrue. 10. The king had to send soldiers to save them from destruction. 11. I was overjoyed to hear my own language. 12. What have we to do with thee? 13. The blind man was to hear for the deaf man. 14. Little Two Eyes had to go out to look after the goat. 15. They have

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