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but they have no direct grammatical relation with each other.
9. The verb in the infinitive mode with its objectivesubjective may conveniently be called a double object. The student must note that this is a different thing from two objects. The subject may be modified in any way which its nature admits, and the verb may take any modifications of a verb of its sort. In case of such modifications the element is, of course, complex.
10. The verb of the double object may be attributive ; or it may be the copula or a copulative verb, followed by an attribute of the subject, as, I knew him to be good, or I knew him to be a scholar. In the latter instance, of course, the attribute is in the objective case; as the subject is.
11. The two points which will at first puzzle the student not familiar with this manner of disposing of such elements are the objective-subject, and the combination of two related parts to make one element. Practice with sentences will make the student “ see these points."
12. The infinitive mode with its subject is used in doubleobjects only, but these objects may follow prepositions as well as verbs; as, For you to do this is a wonder indeed. He sent for me to come.
INTRODUCTION. Why has the infinitive mode been excluded so far? What exercise is now recommended ? 1. What is the nature of the infinitive mode? its uses ? 2. What does it express ? How does it express this? 3. By wbat is it accompanied ? What is this word ? NOTE. What opinions do grammarians hold about this? Give Professor Whitney's statement. 4. When has this form of the verb a subject ? 5. When is the subject not expressed ? Illustrate by examples. 6. In what case is the subject when expressed ? Illus
trate by examples. Note. Why are these subjects stumbling-blocks to students ? 7. What does the infinitive with its subject make? Explain in full by the examples given. Find others of the same sort. 8. How do these objects differ from two or more objects joined to the same verb? Show this by examples. 9. What are these objects called? How may the parts be modified ? 10. What may the verb in such combinations be? 11. What two points may perplex the student ? 12. What may these double objects follow? Has the infinitive mode with its subject any other use? Verify this by search among all the infinitives you can find in books.
Select, without formal analysis, the double objects in the following sentences, explain the relation of the parts of each, and find, outside of this book, at least ten other illustrations of this element.
1. He found it to be a palace. 2. The chief made us sit down on the ground. 3. The noise made Aladdin turn his head that way. 4. At first they thought the crew mad. 5. The witness made the point clear to all. 6. The prince thought himself the most happy of men. 7. He believed me to be dead. 8. The Puritans held it to be a duty to labor. 9. They compelled him to hold a candle. 10. I had heard mariners speak of this miraculous bird. 11. He made it a custom to spend much time here. 12. Her father ordered her to be called. 13. The sultan bade him take any ground he pleased. 14. He bids the frosts retire. 15. The king angrily declared him to be a traitor. 16. The general desired me to repeat my story. 17. For this I invited you to come to Cesarea. 18. No man can believe him to be such a villain. 19. I supposed myself led to an interview with some poet. 20. I never saw men eat so much.
OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS COMPLETED.
Two other forms of objective complements, or elements, remain to be noticed, that all varieties of this modifier may be presented.
1. Some verbs are followed by an object and an attribute of that object; as, The teacher appointed HIM MONITOR. In this sentence him seems to be a direct object of the verb; monitor is not in apposition with him, and yet some relation between the two exists. The sentence means, that by the teacher's appointment he became monitor. If the verb in the infinitive mode is supplied, as some prefer, and the sentence reads, The teacher appointed him to be monitor, the whole expression, him to be monitor, does not seem to be the simplest object of the verb as in the sentences given in Lesson XXVII. It seems best, therefore, to say that this is another form of double object, consisting of a direct object with an attribute of it.
2. Sometimes the word as is used between the object and the attribute; e. g., The teacher appointed him as monitor. The meaning, of course, is the same as before, but there is an additional word to dispose of. As the sentence stands, as must be considered to be simply a connective between the two; the term monitor remains an attribute of the direct object. The word as is unnecessary to the sense as the infinitive to be is. The word for is sometimes used in the same way.
3. The verbs which take this kind of object are particu
larly those of naming, calling, appointing, esteeming, constituting, and the like. When the verb is in the passive voice the attributive object remains after the verb; as, They named him John; in this, him is the direct object of the verb, and John the attributive object. In the passive form the sentence is, he was named John by them, in which John remains after the verb, but the case of the word to which it is joined being changed, the case of John is changed to correspond. As some grammarians express it, the attribute is attracted into the case of the word to which it is joined. Some, however, will prefer to say that such words remain as objects after the verb in the passive voice.
4. It is to be noticed about this kind of object that (1) both parts may be personal words, as in the sentence above; (2) the first may be a personal word and the second one denoting office, characteristic, etc.; as, they chose him president; (3) they may both be words denoting things, as, he called an untruth of every sort a lie.
5. Some verbs are followed by two objects, each of which seems equally direct; as, I teach you grammar, I ask you a question. These seem to be confined to the two verbs teach and ask; others seem to take objects more clearly, though in varying degrees, direct and indirect; as, I give (to) you permission. It is to be noticed that one of these objects denotes a person, and the other a thing.
6. The other form is this. Some words require something after them to complete their meaning, which cannot be called, in any strict sense, an objective element, but which come nearer to this than to any other commonly recognized element. Such are found in these sentences : I happened to find, etc.; I chanced to come; it appears to be true ; it seems to be a mistake, etc.
It seems necessary to take these phrases with the preceding word in order to express any complete idea ; it is very difficult-to the author, impossible—to tell what their modifying effect is. They may be disposed of in the analysis by considering them as verbal completions of the preceding idea, and connecting them by a hyphen with the preceding word.
7. The synopsis of objective elements must be completed by adding these : (a) two forms of double object; (1) that composed of a verb in the infinitive mode with its objectivesubject, with or without added words ; (2) a direct object followed by an attribute denoting character, office, etc.; (b) two direct objects after the same verb; (c) phrases after certain words, which may be called phrases of verbal completion.
8. This is to be noticed in reference to double objects : they are composed of an objective word-noun or pronounnoun or pronoun—followed by (a) a verb of action, (6) a copula or copulative verb with adjective, noun, etc., (c) an attribute joined to the object with or without a word between them. They differ, then, from propositions in only expressing what these formally assert. In all future analyses, give the composition of double objects.
QUESTIONS. 1. By what are some verbs followed ? Illustrate by examples. How may these objects be described ? 2. What auxiliary words are sometimes used ? 3. Mention the verbs specially used with such objects? What becomes of the second object in the passive voice? What two ways of disposing of them ? 4. What varieties are to be noticed ? 5. What objects do the verbs teach and ask take? 6. What other form of objective complement ? Give examples. Find others, if you can. What may they be called ? 7. Complete the synopsis of objective elements. 8. How do double objects differ from, and how resemble, propositions ?