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to be phrases. 31. What is an indirect object? 32. To what may it be joined ? 33. Find an example of each. 34. Write or find a sentence containing three objects, at least one of them being indirect. 35. Write or find five sentences containing an adjective followed by an indirect object. 36. The same of nouns followed by an indirect object. 37. With what may some indirect objects be confounded ? 38. Give some illustrations. 39. How can they be distinguished ? 40. What is an object of kindred meaning? 41. What are the kinds ? 42. Write, or find out of this book, five illustrations of them. 43. What is a reflexive object ? 44. How may some prepositions following verbs be treated ? 45. When may this principle be applied ? 46. Write, or find out of this book, two sentences containing two complex adjective phrases. 47. The same with two complex objective elements of any kind. 48. The same, with two adverbial word-elements. 49. The same, with a complex adjective and a complex adverbial phrase. 50. The same, with all three elements now considered, each being a phrase and complex.
PRACTICE. Write out the analysis and parsing of the following sentences—as far as the teacher directs—and parse in full the words in italics.
1. On their way down the river, between walls of verdure bright in the autumnal sun, they saw forests full of grapevines.
2. Gurth, the son of Beowulph, is the born thrall of Cedric of Rotherwood.
3. The dingy walls of the rude sea-front gradually faded from sight.
4. Their love for the church was not the effect of study. 5. His soldiership was not justly a subject of derision.
6. For the basis of descriptive passages the author is indebted to early tastes.
7. The indignation of the members of the convention was proportionate to the greatness of the offence.
8. Sweet was the sound of village bells at evening's close. 9. Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway.
10. In America the regard for Irving was a national senti. ment.
11. Thus mused I on that morn in May.
Raked the meadows, sweet with hay.
you I sing, in simple Scottish lays,
The lowly train in life's sequestered scene. 16. Then suddenly would come a dream of a far different character-a tumultuous dream, full of music.
17. Still less do I put forth any pretensions of my own.
18. The late foes rode side by side, without an angry look, to the little cluster of palm-trees near the spring.
19. Time unrevoked has run his wonted course.
20. The venerable age of this great man will not allow a word of censure on my part.
THE INFINITIVE MODE OF THE VERB AS A GRAM.
THE Infinitive mode has so far been excluded from the sentences used for practice, that the work of analysis might be fairly started, without this troublesome member. If the student will examine any piece of writing of even half a
page in length, he will find that this is a very common element, occurring in the simplest as well as in the most complex sentences. It would be a good exercise to make out from any piece of writing a list of elements and structures not yet accounted for.
It is now time to introduce the INFINITIVE PHRASE, that the view of Adjective, Adverbial and Objective Elements may be completed.
1. The Infinitive mode is always verbal in its nature, but its uses are very various.
2. The Infinitive mode of any verb expresses what other modes of the same verb express, but in an unlimited and general manner, and not as a declaration, or command, or a supposition. This mode makes no assertion, it is always dependent, and is rather the name of the action, etc., than any affirmation of action.
3. The Infinitive mode is accompained by the prefix to. Whatever this word may have been in the Saxon language, in English it is an inseparable prefix; it is not a preposition, but a mode-sign or handle.
NOTE.-Grammarians do not agree on the function of the word to; some, as Gould Brown, regard it as a preposition, and the verbal word which follows as its object. The argument for this view of it is based on its use in the Saxon language, from which it comes to us. Others, is Professor Greene and Professor Whitney, regard it as being now a mere prefix, or mode sign. The latter says, Essentials of Grammar, p. 212: “The root-infinitive usually has before it the preposition to, which is called its SIGN, and is to be considered and described as part of it. In the oldest English this preposition was only used with the infinitive, when it had a real prepositional value.
But we add it now to the infinitive in a mechanical way, as if it were a mere grammatical device for pointing out that t..e following word is an infinitive.”
4. As the infinitive mode expresses action, etc., there must be a doer of the act, etc.; that is, the infinitive verb, when it is used as a verb, has a subject expressed or understood. When it is used in other offices it appears abstractly, or without reference to any subject.
5. The subject of the infinitive mode is not expressed when it is the same as the subject of the principal verb on which it depends. For example : in I wish to go, I do the wishing and I am to do the going; there is but one subject expressed. To express both subjects, the nearest equivalent sentence would be, I wish that I may go. The same is true when this mode is used independently to introduce a sentence; for example, to confess the truth, I was wrong, which is equivalent to That I may, or If I should confess, etc.
6. When the subject of the infinitive mode is expressed, it is in the objective case. This is evident from examples in which the form of the subject shows the case; as in He wished me to go. Who wished ? He.
Who wished ? He. Who is to go? me. Here are two actions—wishing and going—two subjects, one in the nominative and one in the objective case.
There are not, however, two assertions. Other examples containing pronouns, are, He wished him to go, her to go, etc.
The same is true in examples in which the form of the word does not show the case of the subject. For example : in at first they thought the crier (to be) mad, He never knew that noise to cease, crier and noise are as plainly objective as the pronouns in the preceding sentences.
This usage is analogous with that of other languages.
NOTE.—Objective-subjects are a stumbling-block to many students. The reason is obvious. The rule, “ The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case,” is repeated and applied till it carries with it the
impression that every subject is in the nominative case. But the rule itself leads the student to expect another rule for verbs not finite. Besides, when infinitives are reached in analysis and parsing they are very often not thoroughly studied, and the point escapes the student again.
The uses of the infinitive mode without a subject are considered in Lesson XXIX.
7. The infinitive mode with its subject makes another form of objective element.
Consider again the sentence, he never knew that noise to cease. What is the object of the verb knew? What did he know? These questions cannot be answered by the words, to cease, or that noise. The least that will rightly answer the question is the entire group following the verb, viz., that noise to cease.
If the sentence is changed to this form, he never knew the cessation of that noise—which is not exactly equivalent—this may seem plainer. So in, he wished him to go, him to go is the simplest answer to the question, what did he wish ? in, they thought the crier (to be) mad, the crier (to be) mad is the simplest answer to the question, what did they think?
8. It must be carefully noted wherein this objective element differs from those already considered. The difference is not that the objects have two parts—many verbs have two or more objects—but that (1) the two parts have direct relation to each other; and that (2) the two together make one object. On the other hand, a direct and an indirect object are separately connected with their verb. For example : in the first sentence above, to cease and noise are related as verb and subject, or as action and that which acts, and the two together are the object of the verb knew. In, He lent the book to me, book and me are each added to the verb lent,