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for differing here from Mr. Sparks, but we are not aware of it. We wish that this and a few other instances had been explained.
“The three Delaware chiefs.”-P. 175, bot. Page 173 mentions that there were but two. It may be worth while to have the number right in both cases.
- The Duke of Brunswick.”—P. 190. Should it not be the Duke of Cumberland! See p. 152. IIow could the Duke of Brunswick have been a patron of Braddock? We are not enough posted up to decide on the identity of the dukedoms, which was à possible thing in the royal family of that time, at successive periods at least, but suspect an error.
“Her husband, John Parke Custis."-P. 277. We believe it should be Daniel Parke Custis. Their son's name was John. Washington himself, in a letter or instrument written soon after his marriage, refers to the preceding husband of his wife under the name of Daniel.
“The Duke de Choiseul.”—P. 327. Count Vergennes must have been intended here. See p. 308. Choiseul was the rival of Vergennes, which may have unconsciously suggested the mistake. We see that the cheap edition has corrected it.
“General IIowe with the left wing.”—P. 476. Rather, with the right wing, if the statement at the top of the page be correct.
“Ă mile distant to the west.”—Vol. ii, p. 3. We should say to the east. Corrected in the new edition.
“Stationing Capt. Claiborne.”—P. 160. Confounded, it would appear in the next page, with Capt. Dearborn. Dearborn, we presume, was the man.
P. 197.-Nantucket shonld certainly be Nantasket.
Vol. iii, p. 144.-Delaware Bay is put for Chesapeake Bay. Corrected, we understand, in later copies.
“Lee was the son of the lady who first touched Washington's heart in his schoolboy days," &c.-P. 197. This does not exactly agree with the account in vol. i, p. 36, where the fact is only dubiously mentioned as a tradition. Perhaps, in the progress of his work, the anthor has lighted upon some confirmation of it. If so, the two passages should be harmonized.
“British detachment moving towards Monmouth.”—P. 429. The text seems to imply that the detachment moved the opposite way, towards Middleton. The error, if one, is the same in Sparks, , from whom the engraved sketch of the battle is copied.
“General Grey's incursion was rather to the northward than eastward.”—P. 474. By the way, at p. 216 of this voluine, Gen. Gray should have a different orthography to identify him with Sir Charles Grey, pp. 463, 474. Next to matters of fact, we descend to matters of expression.
Foreseeing that this work will make its way to the future as a classic, we would mention a few points in which the correction of mere phraseology may give it that character inore completely. Our list, like the preceding, is, as might be expected, quite brief, and is submitted rather in the way of suggestion than of authoritative decision. Such discussions, too, have something of a general interest.
Can we say that a frontier is “mariudeil by bands of savages?"-Vol. i, p. 233. We are macaquainted with any authority which gives the verb muraul other than a neuter signification. Yet, för anglit we know, some dominant writer, like Mr. Irving himself, may have changed the substantivo marand into a transitive verl), stamped the coin with his imperial authority, and rendered it as proper to speak of marau.liny a country as of officering an
- To this Prescott ile murril, that those employed to convey them, and who were alreadly jailed with toil, inight not return to his redoubt.”—P. 472. Except in the mere technical language of litigation, do we ever use the world them as signifying a verbal preply objecting to a previous proposition? Would the author have spoken of Prescott's surrejoinulering, if he had carried on the dispute further between him and Putnam?
Speaking of Morgan's riflemen : “ They will be found of signal efficiency in the sharpest contlicts of the revolutionary war." Vol. ii, p. 21. Observe, they are to be found by the reaclers of the history, who were not present in the sharp contlicts of the war. Mighť it not, therefore, be better said, they will be found to have bern of signal efficiency, &c.! The phrase, as it stands, befits a poem rather than a history. Only a vivid imagination can be supposed to transport the reader into the scene of the conflict.
76 Militia haul to be the opulener until a new army could be raisedl.”_-Vol.iii, p. 25. Such a bald colloquialism grates harshly in the midst of hundreds of pages of the purest classical writing; and, though justified by the high authority of Burke, we are not altogether reconciled to the use of dependence in an objective sense, to express the thing depended upon.
“ Such parts of the country which he might think the enemy intended to penetrate."--P. 86. Evidently a mere lipsus penna.
“ Ilis own valiant spirit required it.”—P. 198. *It should be Washington's own valiant spirit required it. The remark refers to Washington, and as he has not been mentioned for more than a half page, and the mention of other subjects and other personages has intervened, the word his conveys not immediately the author's meaning
Is it exactly correct to speak of the cover of a wood as equivalent to intrenchments ?--P. 231. The Americans do not appear to have had time to throw up intrenchments.
“Joined a force under General Fellows.”—P. 264. This force
had just been previously described, p. 260. So we would say, "joined the force,” &c.
In the rapidity of composition, there occurs some less than a half dozen sentences of an incomplete syntactical structure; such, for instance, as the following: “Israel Putnam was a soldier of native growth. One of the military productions of the French war, seasoned and proved in frontier campaigning."-Vol. i, p. 412.
“Stark hunters and bush fighters, many of them upwards of six feet high, and of vigorous frame, dressed in fringed frocks or rifle shirts, and round hats."-Vol. ii, 21. See also p. 14. The difficulty here, however, is rather one of punctuation than of style. The verbless subjects are evidently in apposition with the predicate nouns of the preceding sentences.
“Polemical battles" (vol. i, p. 11) we have heard objected to by high authority as tautological. But as usage confines the word polemical to controversial theology, the expression seems correct, and unaffected by strict etymology. Thus, there may be polemical as contradistinguished from military battles.
Owing, we presune, to the same cause of rapid writing before suggested, no explanation accompanies the mention of the “Quebec'act," vol. i, p. 403. The other occasions of colonial discontent had been sufficiently elucidated. Marshall, or Sparks, gives or describes the Quebec act.
“ Arnold's old adversary, Major Brown.”_Vol. ii, p. 155. No opposition has yet been seen between Arnold and Brown.
“ Assisted by the cannon at Governor's Island.”—P.351. We have not yet been told how Governor's Island got out of American into British hands. Marshall specifies the occasion.
P. 477.-It has not been shown how and where Gates returned
to his army.
“His former encampment at Philipsburgh.”—P. 509. Not mentioned, we believe, before.
We dislike, in a work of such elevation and dignity, the introduction of such provincialisins as perriaruers, which occurs on page 272 of the same volune. To a large majority of readers, this word will be utterly unintelligible, except as they may collect the meaning from the tenour of the narrative. It is the French pirogue, Americanized into perriauger.
P. 488.- We must quarrel with the prosaic translation of the epitaph on Col. Rahl:
“ Hier liegt der Oberst Rahl,
Mit ihm ist alles all.”
With him all is over.)" Had our anthor kept a poet laureate to share the honour of his historic labours, he might have been helped to some such inadequate couplet as this:
Here lies the chieftain Rahl,
Such, we believe, is the amount of our prying, yet dubious, animadversions through three bulky tomes. If we have made them with any exceptionable purpose, we are sufficiently punished by the result. We could not have framed a handsomer compliment to Mr. Irving's standing as a writer. A list of delinquencies like this would not have injured the reputation of a deliberately written letter of three pages, much less of three delectable, valuable, and remarkable volumes.
So the pedant inspector dismisses his more gifted and thorough-bred pupil from the stand.
ART. III.-LIFE AND WRITINGS OF MALMONIDES.
Opera Maimonidis. 8 vols. in 4. Folio. Vienna. WHILE the Israelites can boast of a liost of Rabbins, highly distinguished in the various branches of literature; in the great man, of whose life and writings we are now going to treat, they have produced a profound philosopher and divine, whose literary fame has elicited for him that immortal and well-known Jewish proverb, " From Moses to Moses, there was none like to Moses," i. e., from the great Lawgiver to Moses bar Maimon.
Maimonides has, in their esteem, exercised the greatest influence, not only on his contemporaries and on his nation, but also on the civilized world in general: an intluence which still, after the lapse of centuries, is felt, and even found on the increase, the more the improvements of mankind place them on a level with a sage, whose great mind and enlightened liberality outstripped his own age, and has not yet been attained by ours.
Rabbi Moses bar Maimon, called ** Moses the Egyptian," “Hasphardi” (see Nachmanides), “IIacordovi” (see Wolf and De Rossi), “Abu Amran Musah ben Abdallah ben Maimon" (see Casiri), or, with the Greek termination that has since been affixed, “ Maimonides," and among the Israelites, by a peculiar species of abbreviation with which they are familiar, “Rambam," was born at Cordova, a city of Spain, on passover ere, being the 30th of March, A. D. 1131, according to Wolf and De Rossi, or 1135, according to Carinoly and Zeenz, or 1139, according to others, at the expense of his mother's life, who died in giving
Said to be descended from Rabbi Judah the IIoly (the compiler of the Mishna), and therefore by a female line froin king David.
Rabbi Maimon, his father, held the dignity of judge of the Israelites in his native city, Cordova. He was very highly distinguished for his great learning, and is said to have been descended from an ancient and distinguished family, which had, during seven successive generations, held the dignified office of judge.
Buxtorf quotes this his own statement of honourable pedigree, as found in the conclusion of his commentary on the Mishna : “I, Moses, son of Maimon the judge, son of Joseph the sage, son of Isaac the judge, son of Joseph the judge, son of Obadiah the judge, son of Solomon, son of Obadiah the judge;" yet, the renown he himself acquired has eclipsed all these.
In early life, however, Maimonides was remarkably indolent and unpromising in genius. His slothful disposition, which rendered vain and useless all paternal efforts to educate him, completely alienated him from his father's affections, who, in a moment of passion, very severely chastised and reproached hin. This kind of treatment the pride of the youth could not endure, even at the hands of his father. He, therefore, quitted his paternal home and sought refuge in the synagogue. Being overcome with grief, le
fell asleep; and on awaking he resolved to throw off his habits of - idleness, and, by industry and intense application, to render himself worthy of a long line of distinguished and virtuous ancestry.
In accordance with this firm resolution, he took the road to Lucena, a city of Spain, Andalusia, thirty miles S. S. E. of Cordova. In this place he found a very warm friend in the person of Rabbi Meir, son of Rabbi Joseph ben Megas, who took him as a pupil; and in his very celebrated school, our youth made a considerable progress in the manifold branches of learning then taught. Up to about A. D. 1150, the youthful student was almost neglected by his father. The peace of Maimon's fainily was very much disturbed during almost all the period of the youth's absence. An effort, therefore, on the part of Maimon to find out his son and bring him home, would have been only adding one more trouble to his many other troubles. This was owing to the general confusion which then prevailed throughout the Moorish dominions in Spain, in consequence of the persecutions to which the Almohad monarch, Aabd-al-Mumen, in his zeal for the propagation of Islamisin, subjected the Israelites—persecutions which raged with very particular severity at Cordova, under the immediate eye of the Moslem despot. Indeed, so severe was the persecution, that at one time any Israelite staying a month longer, without embracing Mohammedanism, was to forfeit his life, and his children were to be reduced to slavery.
On leaving Lucena, his benevolent teacher kindly furnished him with letters of recommendation to several influential Israelites