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snow. Dan. vii. 7. And the Messiah appears to Daniel clothed in linen. Dan. x. 5, 6, and xii. 7. Spiritual purity is represented by the colour white. Isai. i. 18. "Though thy sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow.' Dan. xii. 10. "Many shall be purified and made white." The high priest had broidered garments such are spoken of as representing righteousness. Ezek. xvi. 9, 10." Then I washed thee with water; I thoroughly washed away thy blood from thee; and I anointed thee with oil. I clothed thee also with broidered work—and I girded thee about with fine linen."
It is manifest that the legal uncleannesses were types of sin, they are said to be an abomination to the Lord. Yea, they are called sin in the law of the sin-offering. Levit. vi. 6—8, and xiv. 13, 14. 19; 22. 24, 25. 53, xv. 30. Moral impurities seem to be represented by legal impurities, Hag. ii. 11-14. One thing that was a legal pollution, was blood. This is made use of by the prophets to represent sin. Ezek. xvi. 6. "When I saw thee polluted in thy blood." So 9.22. Isai. i. 18. "Though your sins be as scarlet-and red like crimson." Chap. iv. 4. "When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning."
One kind of legal uncleanness was through menstruous blood. Moral or spiritual pollution is compared to this. Isai. lxiv. 6. “All our righteousnesses are as filthy rags," or menstruous clothes, as it might have been rendered. The leprosy was one kind of legal uncleanness. Sin seems to be compared to this, in Isai. i. 6. "From the sole of the foot even unto the head, there is no soundness in it, but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores."
The legal purifications by washing the hands in the laver, and other parts of the body in water, is what a spiritual cleansing from sin is compared to. Ps. xxvi. 6. "I will wash my hands in innocency, and so will I compass thine altar;" alluding to the priests washing their hands at the laver before they compassed God's altar. Zech. xiii. 1. "In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness." Ps. li. 2. "Wash me from my iniquity; cleanse me from my sin." Isai. i. 16. "Wash ye, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings." Jer. iv. 14. "Wash thy heart from wickedness." Prov. xxx. 12. "There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes, and yet is not cleansed from their filthiness." Isai. iv. 4. "When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion." Ezek. xvi. 4. Neither wast thou washed in water." Ver. 9. "Then washed
I thee in water." Ezek. xxxvi. 25. "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean from all filthiyour ness."
That the anointing under the law typified something spiritual, is confirmed by this, that what is spiritual is called anointing. Ezek. xvi. 9. "I anointed thee with oil." It is an argument that those officers that were anointed, were types of the Messsiah that his name is Messiah, or the anointed. The holy anointing oil represented the Spirit of God, because the Holy Spirit is represented by holy anointing oil. Zech. iv. 2-6. 12, and Isai. Ixi. 1. "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me." By which last words it may also be confirmed, that the anointing of the officers of the Jewish church represented the spiritual anointing of the Messiah.
Something spiritual that shall be in the Messiah's times is compared to the wine of the drink-offering. Zech. ix. 15. "They shall drink and make a noise as through wine. They shall be filled like bowls and as the corners of the altar."
We have the testimony of the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament, that the golden candlestick with its bowl on the top and its seven lamps, and oil for the lamps, is a representation of the church of the Messiah. Zech. iv. taken with the preceding chapter. be arThe sanctuary or temple was a type of heaven, as may gued from this, that heaven is called in the Old Testament his dwelling place, his holy habitation, his sanctuary and his temple. 1 Kin. viii. 30. "Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place." So 39. 43. 49. 2 Chron. vi. 21. 30. 39.; and 2 Chron. xxx. 27. ; and Psa. xxxiii. 13, 14. "The Lord looketh from heaven, he beholdeth all the sons of men; from the place of his habitation he Isai. lxiii. 15. looketh on all the inhabitants of the earth."
"Look down from heaven and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and thy glory." Jer. xxv. 30. “The Lord shall roar from on high and utter his voice from his holy habitation." Deut. xxvi. 15. "Look down from thy holy habitation." Psa. lxviii. 4, 5. "Sing unto the Lord; sing praises unto his name; extol him that rideth on the heavens by his name Jah.-A Judge of the widows is God in his holy habitation." Psa. cii. 19. "For he hath looked down from the height of his sanctuary, from heaven did the Lord behold the earth." Psa. xi. 4. "The Lord is in his holy temple; the Lord's throne is in heaven."
That the great, costly, or precious stones that were the foundation of the temple, spoken of 1 Kin. v. 19. ; and of Solomon's house, chap. vii. 10, represented the Messiah, is confirmed by Isai. xxviii. 16. Psa. cxviii. 22. Zech. iii. 9, and iv. 7.
It is a confirmation that the frame of the tabernacle and temple were typical, from the agreement there is between it, and the
visions under which God sometimes manifested himself. The mercy seat with the cherubims is called the chariot of the cherubims. 1 Chron. xxviii. 18.; agreeable to the vision that Ezekiel had of God riding in a chariot drawn by cherubims. Ezekiel's vision of the chariot of the cherubims was also agreeable with the frame of the chariot, in which the lavers were set, and represented as drawn by lions, oxen and cherubim; agreeable to the shapes of Ezekiel's living creatures. See 1 Kin. vii. 27-39.
But a very great and clear evidence, that the city of Jerusalem, the holy city and the temple in all its parts and measures, and its various appendages and utensils, with all its officers, services, sacrifices, and ceremonies, and so all things appertaining to the ceremonial law, and indeed many things appertaining to the civil state of the people as divided into twelve tribes, were typical of things appertaining to the Messiah and his church and kingdom, is that these things are evidently made use of as such, in a very particular manner in the vision of the prophet Ezekiel; that we have an account of in the nine last chapters of his prophecy. These there mentioned, which are the same which were in Israel under the law of Moses, are mentioned as resemblances, figures, or symbolical representations of spiritual things. So that God has in these chapters determined, that these things are figures, symbols, or types representing the things of the Messiah's kingdom, because here he plainly makes use of them as such.
It is no argument, that the things that have been treated of were not designed as types of the Messiah, and things pertaining to his kingdom, that God when he instituted them, did not expressly declare them to be so. For there is no more necessity of supposing that all types signifying future events, when given should be explained, than that all visions and prophecies signifying future events should be explained. The things that were exhibited in visions, were truly a sort of types of future events; as Abraham's smoking furnace and burning lamp, which was not explained nor expressly declared to represent any thing future. The twelve fountains and threescore and ten palm-trees at Elim, were evidently types of the twelve tribes, and threescore and ten elders; but yet it is not expressly said so. The like might be observed of Jacob's taking Esau by the heel at his birth, and God's making Eve of Adam's rib, and Moses's rod's swallowing up the magicians' rods, and many other things.
Corollary. Seeing it is thus abundantly evident by the Old Testament itself, that the things of the Old Testament were typical of the Messiah, and things appertaining to him, hence a great and most convincing argument may be drawn that Jesus is the Messiah; seeing there is so wonderful a correspondence, and evident, manifold, and great agreement between him and his
gospel, and those types of 'the Old Testament. And as it is so plain by the Old Testament, that the ancient state of things amongst the Jews was all typical of the Messiah; and the Jews themselves acknowledge it. So it is a great argument, that Jesus and his kingdom were the end and antitype of these things, because presently after he comes and sets up his kingdom, God puts a total and final end to that typical state of the Jews, and all things appertaining to it, blots out all those types at once, and wipes them clean away, and poured the utmost contempt upon them, and covered them with the most dreadful darkness, and utterly destroyed, as by one great fatal and final blow, that whole typical world, and has now continued their abolition for so many ages, much longer than he did their existence, and has followed all that reject the antitype, and will cleave to the types, with so awful and continual a curse, and all this agreeably to the prophecies of what God would do, when the Messiah, this great antitype, was come.
That typical representations were looked upon by God, as no trifling matters, but things of great IMPORTANCE, as is manifest in that it is spoken of in scripture as a matter of such importance, that Christ's body should not see corruption, before it was raised. It was common for NAMES to be given by a spirit of prophecy. (See Owen on Heb. vii. 2, p. 112.)
We have reason to suppose, that very many things in the Old Testament are intended as types, seeing it is manifest in some instances, that so very minute circumstances were so ordered, such as the negative circumstances of the story of Melchizedeck, there being no mention made of his father or mother, of his birth or death.
That all things, even to the least circumstance, pescribed by God about the tabernacle, and its services, were types of heavenly things, appears by the Apostle's manner of arguing, (Heb. viii. 5,) from those words of God to Moses, "See that thou make all things according to the pattern showed to thee in the Mount." And if they were all types, they were all for our instruction, and if they were for our instruction, then we must endeavour to understand them, even those of them that are no where explained in scripture.
Heb. ix. 3-5. The Apostle there mentioning the ark, mercy seat, tables of the covenant, the golden censer, pot of manna, Aaron's rod that budded, concludes thus, "Of which I cannot now speak particularly;" i. e, I cannot now explain particularly the design of those things, and tell you particularly what evangelical and heavenly things were represented thereby; which proves evidently, that many things in the tabernacle were typical, and intended to represent to God's
people evangelical things, which signification is not explained to us in scripture.
The Jews of old seemed to look on the redemption from Egypt as a type of the redemption which should be accomplished by the Messiah. (See Pool's Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14.)
It is an evidence that legal uncleanness was a type of sin, that it is in effect called sin. (See Pool's Synopsis on Lev. xii. 8.) That the temporal things of the Old Testament were types of the spiritual things of the New. (See Pool's Synopsis on 2 Sam. ii. 10.)
An OBJECTION is raised from the abuse that will be made of this doctrine of types. Answer. I do not know that the types of scripture are more abused by people that are enthusiastic and of teeming imagination, than the visionary representations of the book of Revelation; and yet none make that an objection against all attempts to understand and interpret that book. We have as good warrant from the word of God to suppose the whole ceremonial law to be given in order to a figurative representing and signifying spiritual and evangelical things to mankind, as we have to suppose that prophetical representations are to represent and signify the events designed by them, and therefore have as good reason to endeavour to interpret them.
The principles of human nature render TYPES a fit method of instruction. It tends to enlighten and illustrate, and to convey instruction with impression, conviction, and pleasure, and to help the memory. These things are confirmed by man's natural delight in the imitative arts, in painting, poetry, fables, metaphorical language, and dramatic performances. This disposition appears early in children.
This may be observed concerning types in general, that not only the things of the Old Testament are typical; for this is but one part of the typical world. The system of created beings may be divided into two parts, the typical world, and the antitypical world. The inferior and carnal, i. e. the more external and transitory part of the universe, that part of it which is inchoative, imperfect, and subservient, is typical of the superior, more spiritual, perfect, and durable part of it which is the end, and as it were the substance and consummation of the other. Thus the material and natural world is typical of the moral, spiritual, and intelligent world, or the city of God. And many things in the world of mankind, as to their external and worldly state, are typical of things pertaining to the city and kingdom of God: as many things in the state of the ancient Greeks, and Romans, &c. And those things belonging to the city of God, which belong to its more imperfect, carnal, inchoative, transient, and preparatory