Mental Evolution in Man: Origin of Human Faculty
Kegan Paul, Trench, 1888 - 452 oldal
"In now carrying my study of mental evolution into the province of human psychology, it is desirable that I should say a few words to indicate the scope and intention of this the major portion of my work. For it is evident that "Mental Evolution in Man" is a subject comprehending so enormous a field that, unless some lines of limitation are drawn within which its discussion is to be confined, no one writer could presume to deal with it. The lines, then, which I have laid down for my own guidance are these. My object is to seek for the principles and causes of mental evolution in man, first as regards the origin of human faculty, and next as regards the several main branches into which faculties distinctively human afterwards ramified and developed. In order as far as possible to gain this object, it has appeared to me desirable to take large or general views, both of the main trunk itself, and also of its sundry branches. Therefore I have throughout avoided the temptation of following any of the branches into their smaller ramifications, or of going into the details of progressive development. These, I have felt, are matters to be dealt with by others who are severally better qualified for the task, whether their special studies have reference to language, archaeology, technicology, science, literature, art, politics, morals, or religion. But, in so far as I shall subsequently have to deal with these subjects, I will do so with the purpose of arriving at general principles bearing upon mental evolution, rather than with that of collecting facts or opinions for the sake of their intrinsic interest from a purely historical point of view"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
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able abstract actions admit advance already analysis animals appears argument articulate association become begin brute called chapter child communication comparatively concepts concerned condition connotative consider consideration continuous course denotative difference distinction distinguished doubt elements evidence evolution existence expression extended fact faculty further gesture give given grounds hand higher human ideas ideation important indicative individual instance intelligence judgment kind language less logic lower matter means mental merely mind names natural never objects observed opponents origin particular perception philology possible pre-conceptual predication present previously primitive principles probably Professor proposition proved psychological qualities question quoted reason receptual regard relation remark represent resemblance result roots seen self-consciousness sense sentence shown sign-making signs similar sounds speak speech stage stand suppose things thought tones true truth understand utterance verb whole words
383. oldal - The baby new to earth and sky, What time his tender palm is prest Against the circle of the breast, Has never thought that 'this is I :' But as he grows he gathers much, And learns the use of 'I,' and 'me,' And finds 'I am not what I see, And other than the things I touch.
19. oldal - ... a distance. For if they have any ideas at all, and are not bare machines (as some would have them), we cannot deny them to have some reason. It seems as evident to me that they do some of them in certain instances reason as that they have sense, but it is only in particular ideas, just as they receive them from their senses.
211. oldal - When bartering is going on, each sheep must be paid for separately. Thus, suppose two sticks of tobacco to be the rate of exchange for one sheep, it would sorely puzzle a Dammara to take two sheep and give him four sticks.
447. oldal - This preservation photocopy was made and hand bound at BookLab, Inc. in compliance with copyright law. The paper, Weyerhaeuser Cougar Opaque Natural, meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).
19. oldal - For it is evident, we observe no footsteps in them of making use of general signs, for universal ideas ; from which we have reason to imagine, that they have not the faculty of abstracting, or making general ideas, since they have no use of words or any other general signs.
191. oldal - As thou knowest not what is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones do grow in the womb of her that is with child: even so thou knowest not the works of God who maketh all.
195. oldal - But how can we feel sure that an old dog with an excellent memory and some power of imagination, as shown by his dreams, never reflects on his past pleasures or pains in the chase ? And this would be a form of self-consciousness.
364. oldal - When we treat of sexual selection we shall see that primeval man, or rather some early progenitor of man, probably first used his voice in producing true musical cadences, that is in singing, as do some of the gibbon-apes at the present day; and we may conclude from a widely-spread analogy, that this power would have been especially exerted during the courtship of the sexes — would have expressed various emotions, such as love, jealousy, triumph — and would have served as a challenge to rivals.
338. oldal - Metaphors are her stuff: examine Language; what, if you except some few primitive elements (of natural sound), what is it all but Metaphors, recognized as such, or no longer recognized; still fluid and florid, or now solid-grown and colourless? If those same primitive elements are the osseous fixtures in the FleshGarment, Language, — then are Metaphors its muscles and tissues and living integuments.
15. oldal - ... fertile islands. He has discovered the art of making fire, by which hard and stringy roots can be rendered digestible, and poisonous roots or herbs innocuous. This discovery of fire, probably the greatest ever made by man, excepting language, dates from before the dawn of history. These several inventions, by which man in the rudest state has become so pre-eminent, are the direct results of the development of his powers of observation, memory, curiosity, imagination, and reason. I cannot, therefore,...