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"ITE, DOCETE," Go and teach, California, has been dyed with the was 'the command which fell from blood of many a pious priest and the lips of our Divine Lord, when devoted religious. From the marhe commissioned his disciples, who tyrdom of Father Juan de Padilla, then constituted the teaching body O. S. F., in New Mexico, in 1541, of the Church, to “go forth and down to the tragic death of Father teach all nations.” That divinely Dias, another Franciscan, at Nacogconstituted teaching body, into doches, La., in 1832, the Martyrwhose custody were given the words ologium Americanum includes 31 of eternal truth, has never forgotten Franciscans, 20 Jesuits, 2 Dominior neglected its high and holy con- cans, [ Sulpitian, and 2 secular mission. The Catholic missionary priests.* These are known to have has gone into all parts of the world fallen either at the stake, like Father to carry the glad tidings of man's John de Brebeuf; under the tomaredemption, and his name may be hawk, like the Saint Joques, in New read over and over again in the long York, or whilst ministering to his flock catalogue of martyrs, who have given like Father Daniel. But who shall evidence of the faith that was in estinate the number of those who them, and of the truth and holiness have fallen under the heat and burof their commission by sacrificing den of the day? The number of this their lives in the performance of its heroic band is known only to God. duties.
But it is not only from the fury of The very mention of the word the “sons of the forest" that the martyr carries us back to the days of Catholic missionary has had to suffer. the persecution of the early Chris- The penal laws of Europe crossed tians by the Roman emperors; and the ocean with those who came to we are too apt to forget that there is America for "conscience's sake," scarcely a country in the world that and when Protestant conscience perhas not its own martyrologium. Nor secuted Protestant conscience, it is our country an exception, for the cannot be wondered at if Catholic soil of New Mexico, Florida, Vir- conscience suffered likewise. It is ginia, Maine, New York, Illinois,
* See Dunigan's American Catholic Almanac for Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and 1859, page 38.
from this kind of presentation, grow. stant's warning, they were summoned ing out of an ignorance of Catholic to the village church of Gran-Pré, doctrines, that the early Catholics of and there told that this was to be their Pennsylvania suffered most. The home no more, and that the ships “ tolerant spirit” of William Penn were ready to bear them to their was not participated in by all the exile. They thought of their homes men who followed him to the colony desolated by the torch of the cruel he founded upon the banks of the usurper; they thought of him who Delaware. Hence it is that Father died broken-hearted on the seaCreighton first came to Philadelphia shore, and whose sad obsequies in the garb of a Quaker,* and Father Longfellow describes as follows: Schneider was sometimes obliged to travel incognito, under the name of “Having the glare of the burning village for funeral
torches, Dr. Schneider.
But without bell or book, they buried the farmer of The Catholics of Pennsylvania en
And as the voice of the priest repeated the service joyed comparative peace, however,
of sorrow, until the breaking out of the war
Lol with a mournful sound, like the voice of a vast
congregation, between France and England. Gov Solemnly answered the sea, and mingled its roar
with the dirges. ernor Morris, writing to Governor 'Twas the returning tide, that far from the waste of Dinwiddie, in January, 1775, for
With the first dawn of day came, heaving and hurthe purpose of taking precautionary
rying, landward. measures for protecting the colonies
Then commenced once more the stir and noise of
embarking : against the French, and condemning And with the ebb of the tide the ships sailed out of
the harbor, the course of the Assembly in refus- Leaving behind them the dead on the shore, and the ing to grant royal supplies in the
village in ruins." particular manner in which he de
This little band of broken-hearted sired, gave as one reason for the conduct of the Assembly: “ The
and dying Catholic Acadians was majority of the electors here are
looked upon with great suspicion Germans, unacquainted with our
and even with fear. “Such was language and constitution, and
their treatment,” says Mr. Walsh, many of them are Roman Catholics."
in a note to “Walsh's Appeal," Those fears were increased when,
“which they had experienced that, on November 18th, 1755, three ves
notwithstanding the charitable atsels arrived in the Delaware, bringing
tentions which they received after four hundred and fifty-four French
their arrival in Philadelphia, more Roman Catholics. The absurdity of
than one-half of them died in a short these fears will at once be seen when
time.” From these particulars we we remembers that these “ French
may judge how far they were fitted Neutrals," as they were called, were
“ to strengthen the parties which a part of those ill-fated Acadians,
hovered about the frontiers." Still, who had been shipped from the
the fears entertained concerning island of Nova Scotia by the infam
Catholics, at that time groundless ous order of the British government
as they were, led to the adoption of and scattered all over the country.
very stringent measures against them, Of the above number scarcely one
as we shall show further on. third were able-bodied men ; the
But, in spite of all opposition, others still longed for their beloved
the Lord's husbandman had visited Acadia, for the friends and relatives
the soil of Pennsylvania, and had from whom they had been ruthlessly
planted, with an open hand, the separated. They thought of that
seed of that faith which never dies. <wful moment, when without an in
The seed fell upon good soil, and
fructified, and lo! a great tree has * A tradition handed down by Archbishop Neale,
* Evangeline, close of Part I.
given in full further on.
grown up which has borne abundant nut Streets. Watson, in his Annals fruit.
of Philadelphia, mentions a second The minutes of the proceedings chapel, built before 1736,* near the of the Provincial Council of the Col- corner of Second and Chestnut ony of Pennsylvania, held in Phila- Streets, which seems to have somedelphia in July, 1734, will give an what annoyed the non-Catholic peoidea of the difficulties and obstacles ple, on account of its being used as a which surrounded the establishment "papal chapel in so public a place." and early career of Catholicity in Miss Elizabeth McGawley'schapel,on this State. They are extracted from the Nicetown Road, was well known the Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, to Catholics in 1729. It was atpublished by the State:
tended by the Rev. John Michael « The Governor then informed Brown, of whom we shall speak the board that he was under no small further on. concern to hear that a house, lately Among the earliest missionaries built in Walnut Street, in this city who labored in Pennsylvania may (Philadelphia), had been set apart be mentioned the Rev. Josiah Creighfor the exercise of the Roman Ca- ton, S.J., the founder of St. Joseph's tholic religion, and is commonly Church, who, “in 1733, was forcalled a Popish Chapel, where several mally commissioned by the proper persons, he understands, resort on authority in Maryland to settle in Sunday, to hear mass openly cele- Philadelphia. By him a lot was purbrated by a Popish Priest ; that he chased near Fourth Street and south conceives the tolerating the public of Walnut Street, and a small chapel exercise of that religion to be con- erected of one story. It was deditrary to the laws of England, etc., cated to St. Joseph, and afterwards etc.; but those of that persuasion, enlarged to the dimensions of 40 x 40 imagining they have a right to it feet as the society increased in numfrom some general expressions in the bers.''p Besides Father Creighton Charter of Privileges, granted to the we have Rev. William Wappelar, inhabitants of this government by S.J., who founded the mission at the late honorable proprietor, Wil- Conewago; Rev. Theodore Schneiliam Penn, he was desirous to know der, S.J., the father of the mission the sentiments of the board on the at Goshenhoppen ; the Rev. Robert subject.”
Molineaux, S.J., and the Rev. James In consequence of the different Pellentz, S.J., who, together with views of the law, the matter was, the Rev. Ferdinand Farmer, S.J., after much discussion, “left to the Rev. Luke Geisler, and the Rev. Governor, if he thinks fit to repre- Joseph Ritter, S.J., appear to have sent the matter to our superiors at attended all the stations comprised home for their advice and direction within the limits of the present Dio
ceses of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and It is evident, therefore, that a Newark, N. J. Father Farmer extendnumber of Catholics must have set- ed his excursions as far as New York. tled in Pennsylvania at the very com- The Rev. John Michael Brown mencement of the colony, for, as (mentioned above) was one of the early as 1686, William Penn makes first priests of Philadelphia, and misallusion to “the old priest of Phila- sionary to the earliest emigrants and
delphia.” Bernard U. Campbell, in Indians. He had a chapel, as al· his Life and Times of Archbishop ready stated, on the Nicetown Road,
Carroll, says that the first chapel about a mile and a half from the where divine worship was offered in 1686, was a wooden building, on the The late Bishop O'Connor, of Pittsburg, in his
Seminary Report for 1840, fixes this date at 1700.
+ Mease's Picture of Philadelphia in 1811.
present St. Stephen's Church. Wil- missions in the infancy of the colliam Penn and ex-Governors Logan ony. From data at hand it appears and Dickinson claimed his lands by that Philadelphia was attended by a a grant from the Crown. This clergyman from that place during chapel, it is supposed, was built by several years. Within a few miles Miss McGawley, and was “connected of Goshen hoppen there once stood, with her house, to enable Catholics and perhaps still stands, a house, to attend divine service under the which was pointed out by the people protection which was afforded by a of the neighborhood, where their private residence,”* as “public mass- ancestors told them that the first houses” were objectionable to most priests had resided. Protestants then in power. Father Old St. Mary's Church, LancasBrown died in 1750, and was buried ter,* was founded in 1745, and was near his chapel, which was still stand attended by Rev. Father Wappeler, ing in 1864, in which year Rev. M. Father Geisler, and the Rev. FerdiW. Gibson, pastor of St. Stephen's nand Farmer, of holy memory. Church, Nicetown, had the remains In 1763 St. Mary's Church, Philaremoved to the cemetery attached delphia, was built on Fourth Street, to his church. The original head- above Spruce (then out of the builtstone over Father Brown's grave was up part of the city). It was worth broken by a band of fanatics during about $50,000. The lot on which the memorable riots of 1844. . the church was built was granted to
Among the oldest churches (mis- Rev., Robert Harding in 1760. It sions) in that portion of the State was given on condition that a church now under consideration, we may be erected there. The church was mention St. Joseph's Church, Phila- transferred by will from Father Harddelphia, which was founded in 1733, ing to the Rev. John Lewis, by him forty-three years before the reading to the Rev. Father Molineaux, and of the Declaration of Independence. again by him to the Rev. Francis The Church of the Sacred Heart at Neale. A body of trustees was recConewago was founded in 1741, as ognized as a body politic by an was also the Church of the Blessed act of the Pennsylvania Legislature, Sacrament at Goshenhoppen. This dated September 13th, 1788. These latter mission seems to have been a trustees were incorporated, to adminsort of mother-house for the country ister the finances of the church, and missions. It was founded by the were the source of endless vexations, Rev. Theodore Schneider, S.J., in and sent the first two Bishops of Phila1741, and, four years later, he built delphia prematurely to the grave. the original chapel. Father Schnei- St. Mary's was enlarged in 1810. der was succeeded in 1764 by the In 1788 the number of German Rev. Joseph Ritter, S.J., and he by Catholics was sufficiently large to Father Krakowski, a Livonian Jesuit, warrant their building a church who was succeeded in 1836 by the for themselves. Accordingly Holy present incumbent, the Rev. Augus- Trinity Church, corner of Sixth and tine Bally, S.J., who is its fourth Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, was pastor, and has for over forty years erected in that year. It was quaint in ministered to the wants of the Ca- shape, being what might be called tholics of that region. Goshenhop- half-hexagon. It was built of old-fashpen (now Churchville) appears to ioned brick, and the roof was trussed have been considered of more im- and girded. Its original dimensions portance than all the others by those
* There is a small church, about seven miles from Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, which the tradi
tion of the neighborhood describes as the very oldest * B. U. Campbell's Life and Times of Archbishop in the State. - Bishop O'Connor's Seminary ReCarroll.
port for 1840.
was 100 x 61 feet, and was without John's was built in a style of splengalleries. It was considerably dam- dor and magnificence that surpassed aged by fire in June, 1860, but has that of every other church then in since been very handsomely remod- Philadelphia. This was followed by elled inside.
the erection in rapid succession of St. Peter's Church, Reading, was St. Michael's (1831), St. Francis's, founded in 1791. Prior to this the the present St. Joseph's, St. Philip's Catholics of Reading worshipped in (1840), and St. Patrick's (1841), the a little frame structure, erected by last two being spacious and commodithe early missionaries. In this year ous, and built on the free-seat plan. a brick building was erected near In the Picture of Philadelphia for where the Reading Railroad now 1811, it is stated that there were suppasses, and this was attended occa- ported at St. Joseph's Orphan Asysionally from Goshenhoppen, Lancas- lum (incorporated 1807) fifteen orter, and Philadelphia. In 1844 a new phans. In 1842 there were supported brick church was erected by the Jesuit at the asylums of St. Joseph's and Fathers who then attended the mis- St. John's more than one hundred sion. Rev. Terrence J. O'Donoghoe, and sixty orphans. We might men. founder of St. Michael's Church, tion in this connection that the SisPhiladelphia, was also instrumental ters of Charity arrived in Philadelin the erection of this church. phia September 29th, 1814; this was
In 1793 a small brick church known the first colony sent out by Mother as Christ's Church, was built at.West Seton from her budding community Chester, at the western end of Gay at Emmettsburg, Md. It consisted Street, near the brow of what was of Mother Rose White and three long known as “Chapel Hill.” In Sisters. They immediately took pos1853 it was replaced by a much larger session of an asylum which harbored and handsomer church dedicated to thirteen ragged little children, and St. Agnes. In its early days, this which was burdened with a debt of mission like the one at Reading and $4000. This asylum had been orothers, looked to Goshen hoppen, ganized in 1797 by a charitable assoPhiladelphia, and later to Wilming- ciation, for the purpose of sheltering ton, Delaware, for its spiritual min- those poor little unfortunates whose istrations. The old baptismal regis- parents had been carried off by the ters bear the names of Rev. P. R. yellow fever. They were for a time Kenrick (now Archbishop of St. domiciled in a house near the Church Louis), Rev. Goerge A. Carrell, S.J. of the Holy Trinity. This institu(late Bishop of Covington, Ky.), tion eked out a precarious existence, Rev. Peter Kenny, and Rev. Patrick and would have failed entirely more Reiley, now the venerable and hon- than once had it not been for the ored Vicar-General of the Diocese of persevering efforts of Rev. Michael Wilmington, Del.
Henley, pastor of St. Augustine's In the year 1800 St. Augustine's (in 1807), and by the generous aid Church was solemnly dedicated to of Mr. Cornelius Thiers. The adthe service of Almighty God. It vent of the Sisters was most proviwas built by the Rev. Dr. Matthew dential. In less than three years Carr, a hermit of St. Augustine, who their many trials and privations were arrived in Philadelphia with a band rewarded by seeing their asylum reof Augustinian Fathers in 1790. The lieved from debt, and by having erection of St. Augustine's Church was means at their disposal to extend followed by the enlargement of St. their aid to many more poor chilMary's in 1810, and by the addition dren. The asylum still exists at the of twenty-seven feet to the length of corner of Seventh and Spruce Streets, St. Joseph's in 1824. In 1828 St. and is under the maternal care of that