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by increasing expansion, causing that cultivators of experimental physics, widening in their course which might that the emission of heat is greater account for the appearance of umbræ from the equatorial belt than from and penumbræ. Mr. Dawes states, the other parts of the sun's surface; in confirmation of a similar hypo- and it has been found that, on an thesis, that the inner edges of the average, those years are the warmest umbræ and penumbræ appear to be in which a great number of sun-spots massed and tilted up, as if by the are observed. Nor need it be regardaction of elastic gas in escaping from ed as inconsistent with the nature of the interior.

things that even among planets the A fourth hypothesis, accepted by higher forms of development should many eminent physicists, seeks at be maintained by the destruction of once to account for the spots and to the lower, for the life and growth of explain the genesis of solar heat-the every system involves the decay and latter a hitherto unsolved or rather change of individual forms. unattempted problem.

Others, again, consider sun-spots Of the existence of countless me to be analogous to our whirlwinds teoric stones revolving round the and cyclonic storms, and allege that, sun, even at a distance of more than in looking at them, we look down ninety millions of miles, we have into their rarefied central vortices, ample evidence in their periodic ap- which, widening upwards towards pearance in the middle of August and the surface of the solar atmosphere, of November, when the path of the present the appearance of cavities. earth traverses their belt. Now, it is Sir William Herschel, in 1801, acsupposed that such meteorolites, near counted for the distinctness with the sun, within and constituting the which the umbræ and penumbræ are “ zodiacal light,” are continually separated by supposing that in these getting entangled in their perihelion we see the rupture of successive strata passage in the solar atmosphere; and differing in their densities. Whatthat thus being “licked up” by the ever may be the character of such central attraction out of their elliptical interior envelopes, Arago has satispaths, they form sun-spots during factorily proved that the outer phoone or two revolutions, to be finally tosphere is composed of inflamed swallowed up by the all-devouring gas; for he found that the rays from orb. It is further alleged, consist the sun's edge, which leave it at a ently with known physical laws, that small angle, are not polarized, as the light and heat of the sun are would be the case if they proceeded maintained by and dependent upon from either solid or liquid surfaces; this continual incidence of immense whereas the light from inflamed gas masses of meteoric matter.

is always in a natural condition at Neither our space nor present pur- all angles of emission. pose allows us to discuss the merits of With regard to the direction and this bold and comprehensive theory, rate of motion of solar spots, it has further than, in passing, to satisfy the been found that they move from west reader of its feasibility. We find that to east in conformity with the directhe spots are confined to the sun's tion of the planets, and that the sun's equatorial zone, around which alone equatorial plane thus indicated is inmeteoric matter revolves in variously clined at an angle of seven degrees inclined planes; their motions, too, nine minutes to that of the ecliptic. are various, and their prevalence pe- Owing to certain proper motions riodic, and both these facts are ac- among themselves, the time of revocounted for by this theory. It has lution of different spots is subject to likewise been shown by Father Secchi, slight variations ; yet we may fairly of Rome, one of the most eminent infer that the sun revolves on its own

axis in 25 1/3 days. Galileo, in 1612, the same spot in successive transits, found that a certain spot returned in to the different velocity of rotation 28 days; Fabricius, in his Dialogus, proper to higher latitudes, and to gives 2772 days; and Scheiner, in the effects of the proper motion of 1630, estimated the period at 27 days. a spot in altering its latitude. Thus, These are rough observations, so we he says, the fact that a spot in 1857 may allow two days for the earth's was observed to revolve four times in progress in the same direction as the periods of 25.46, 25.67, 25.83, and spots during their revolution, and 26.23 days, is to be explained by the regard these three observations as force of its proper motion driving it giving respectively 26, 2572, and 25 into higher latitudes. days as the sidereal period of the Some of the most interesting facts sun's revolution. The following are regarding sun-spots relate to the periperiods of revolution assigned by odicity of their prevalence. The reeminent astronomers, that have been gion of spots is at times speckled all carefully deduced from numerous over for two or three days continuobservations: Lalande gives 25.42 ously; in other years, no spots are days; Delambre, 25.01; Cassini, to be seen for many days. 25.59; Boehm, 25-32; Laugier, Again, the degree of maxima and 25.34.

minima variations is subject to a Spots are seldom seen at the sun's marked increase at periods of fiftyequator, and never in the circum- six years—a fluctuation undoubtedly polar regions; they usually occupy due, as Mr. Carrington suggests, to belts in each hemisphere between the the action of the planets in certain parallels of ten degrees and twenty positions, especially of Jupiter, on degrees of heliographical latitude. that belt of matter called the zodiacal Mr. Carrington, who recently pub- light ; and it is indeed to be regretlished elaborate results of eleven ted that the proposal of Major Jacob, years' observations, has shown that to establish an observatory at Purandthe spots near the equator revolve in hur, in India, for simultaneous oba shorter time than those of higher servations of sun-spots and the zodilatitudes, and that this retardation of acal light, has never been carried angular motion is subject to a law out. It was observed, and, we think, more or less definite. His formula demonstrated, by General Sabine, gives 24.98 days as the sidereal pe- that the fluctuations, in correspondriod of rotation at the sun's equator, ing periods, of the amount of variaand 26.57 days at latitude thirty de- tion of the earth's magnetism are at grees, beyond which very few spots least due to the same causes which have been noticed in either hemi- produce the double variation we have sphere. Sir John Herschel considers mentioned in sun-spottedness. it reasonable to suppose that the Those induced currents of elecbody of the sun rotates with a veloc- tricity in the upper and rarer strata ity equal to that of its photosphere of the atmosphere that are known at the equator, that is, in 25 days, as auroræ, have long been known to and that the different rates of move- accompany certain earth-currents afment thus indicated in different re- fecting our telegraphy, and certain gions of the solar atmosphere, to- states of the weather affecting our gether with known differences in most intimate every-day interests; temperature, are results from that and it is a most remarkable fact that general state of disturbance indicated the numbers of auroræ and of sunby the proper motions of the spots spots increase and diminish together. and other phenomena. The same But, before accepting as a fixed philosopher attributes the differences result in this splendid field of inin the periods of the spots, and of quiry that the sun's influence is maintained and regulated by the waste while that thus, and through many and wear of that planetary system other unthought-of media, is our which it appears to sustain, we must present condition governed by inawait further research to trace more fluences which involve our destiny, clearly the coördinate changes of the and life and death perpetually harearth and sun, and be satisfied the monized.

EDITORIAL NOTES.

The fires at Brooklyn and at Holyoke, the great American Catholic patriots of the with their fatal effects, and the numerous Revolution will be complete. The erection calamities only just averted by some lucky of this fountain was proposed by the Philaaccident or the presence of mind of some delphia Catholic Total Abstinence Union, person less nervous than the rest, has caused which has borne most of the expense of its the Committee of the New York Board of erection. When completed it will have cost Fire Underwriters to adopt the following $53,000, and will certainly be one of the resolutions:

handsomest, if not the handsomest, in the " Resolved, That in the judgment of this

country. Considerable differences have excommittee the danger from fire in churches

isted among Catholics in regard to the prois becoming alarming by reason of the com

priety and expediency of this monument, mon use of scenery, elaborate decorations,

and some have considered that a protectory and illuminations in church entertainments.

or some institution of practical charity would " Resolved, That we caution the officers of

have been more suitable. But the fountain churches against the danger of vitiating their

has now gone so far that its completion is a insurance by the introduction of hazards not

matter of necessity, and as it is intended to contemplated by underwriters in the insu

honor the Catholic patriots and the temper

ance men of other States, and of Maryland rance of churches. " Resolved, That we recommend making

in particular, it does certainly seem fair that the following indorsement on policies insur

the whole burden should not be left for ing churches: It is understood and agreed,

Philadelphia to shoulder. A few generous

donations from wealthy Catholics would be and is a warranty on the part of the assured, that no gathering shall be permitted in above

a great aid. insured building requiring the use of scenery or colored fires, and it is also understood

The Treasurer of the Catholic Indian and agreed that no decoration shall be

Mission Fund, Very Rev. J. B. A. Brouilplaced nearer than one foot of an uncov.

let, has sent in his report, which embraces ered light.'"

four years, from July, 1873, to December ist,

1876. It states that the Ladies' Catholic We rejoice to see that some of the bishops Indian Missionary Association, founded have condemned the use of cheap and in October 28th, 1875, has been of essential flammable veils, draperies, and tinsel paper aid. During one year this Association and in too great abundance, and that there is an its branches have raised $8,605.49. The extensive alteration of church doors so that report says: “A reference to the annual they can open outwards. Such precautions appropriations made by Congress for the are called for by every consideration of pru support of schools at Catholic agencies, dence and humanity, and should be adopted shows that for the year 1873 and for prewithout the slightest delay. Any moment

ceding years, eight thousand dollars was the community may be startled from its

the highest aggregate sum thus given to propriety by some fearful calamity similar

such schools. By our personal efforts the to that at Santiago, in Chili, some years ago. appropriations for 1874, 75, and 76 have

been increased from eight to fifteen thouThe statues of Charles Carroll, of Carroll sand dollars per annum, making an annual ton, and Archbishop Carroll, have arrived at aggregate gain of seven thousand dollars, Philadelphia to adorn the Centennial Foun- or a total gain of twenty-one thousand doltain in Fairmount Park. That of Commodore lars during the three years; all of which is Barry arrived and was placed in position unquestionably due mainly to the efforts of last July, and when the large statue of Moses, this Bureau. By means of these enlarged which will be in the centre, arrives, and appropriations, and a timely assistance from that of Father Mathew, the memorial of our Mission Fund, we have been enabled to open six new Indian Manual Labor Board. every heroic and free people have always ing Schools and several Day Schools, and been religious in some shape or form. All to establish two very important and promis- this is true; but they say, in effect, perish ing new Missions."

the teachings of history, experience, and

common sense, and let the nation go to ruin, The position of Catholics in British Amer

so that we only save the children from being ica is, for some reason or another, better than

taught any dogma. For, even if the Cathin this country. The system of education is

olics can train good citizens in their schools, better, Catholics are more frequently elected

which is admitted, they will believe in the to offices of trust and honor, and fill them

Pope, in the Blessed Virgin, and in the Sacmore creditably, and the influence of Catho

raments, and will go to confession, and these lics in politics and in society is greater. For

things are “ sectarian" in the eyes of modexample, the Mayor of Quebec is a Catholic,

ern legislators. They think that faith is the so also is the Mayor of Montreal. Of the

“fly in the pot of ointment," and that even three members that Montreal sends to the

the a very little of it vitiates the best education. Dominion Parliament two are Catholics.

So on no account will they aid Catholics to The Mayor of Ottawa, the capital of the make good citizens, else these citizens will Dominion, is also a Catholic, and so is its go to mass on Sundays, and to their duties member. The Secretary of State and the

once a month.

once Speaker of the House of Commons, and many of the Ministers are Catholics; and

The electoral bill, which was “ rushed" the Canadian Commission to the Philadel

through the Senate and the House so quickly phia Exhibition consisted of four gentlemen, and received the President's assent, is an two of whom were Catholics.

attempt to meet the difficulty and calamity

of a disputed presidential succession. It By common consent it is agreed that the provides for the selection of five members people of the United States are suffering of the Senate, five of the House, and four from some very grievous evils. The tone of judges of the Supreme Court, who will sepolitical morality is confessedly low, crimes lect a fifth. To this joint commission and of startling magnitude occur with unpleas- tribunal are to be referred all the questions ant frequency; defalcations and breaches of that have arisen, and its decision is final. trust are constantly committed by the most The wisdom of this measure, and its coneducated persons; our divorce courts are very venience for meeting the present difficulty, busy, and our Indian policy is a failure be- has caused it to be hailed with approval by cause we cannot find honest men to carry it the candid men of all parties, and even exout. Stock gambling abounds, capitalists treme partisans have received it with corform rings for the purpose of securing ex- diality, and have expressed themselves willorbitant profits, immense numbers of work- ing to abide by its decisions. ing people are starving, and Communism raises its head in Chicago and New York ; while both our great political parties are un

To parade on St. Patrick's Day or not, able or unwilling to apply suitable remedies

that is the question. A summary of the to change this condition of things.

arguments for and against the parade may But stop a minute—we are wrong. On

be interesting. On the one side it is said the contrary, both parties have come to an

that parades show the strength of the Irish agreement on this subject, and “when they

element in America; that they keep alive the do agree, their unanimity is wonderful."

memory of Ireland and her nationality when They both agree that there must be no re

it would otherwise be forgotten; that the ligion in the schools. They are both heartily

17th of March is the only distinctively naof opinion that the boys and girls who will

tional holiday of the Irish people, and should be mothers and fathers in the future, must

be publicly honored by them as the 4th of receive no religious instruction, except they

July is by Americans; that such expense as pick it up by accident. That is the sovereign

it entails can be easily borne; that the Irish panacea for our national ills, the remedy

like a little excitement once a year, and that that will cure the diseases of the body politic.

it is the custom, and has been for many They seem to act on the supposition that the

years. less people remember their Creator the better citizens they will be! 'Tis true that history The conference at Constantinople has never shows us any people without some broken up, the ambassadors have gone home, religion. 'Tis true that a corrupt people like and Europe waits to see what Russia will the Romans under the Empire, or like the do. That power, or rather the Czar and Hindoos of all ages, are always found to be his advisers, seem a little uncertain, and not slaves. 'Tis true that every great and noble quite so bellicose as they were some time ago. deed has been inspired by religion, and that The ominous spectre of socialism and communism terrifies them, and mutterings of olicity, which satisfies thousands of good discontent in Poland serve to remind the people, who dislike Protestantism, pure and Czar that he, too, has a Bulgaria in that simple, and who but for ritualism would country.

be Catholics. The ritualistic papers are as

bitter against the Church as any Orange WHETHER the clergy should take an active sheet. In fact English opinion is still very part in politics is a question by no means so anti-Catholic. There was, we believe, only simple as it appears to be to some. Few, we one Catholic returned to Parliament from believe, would wish to see the clergy in the England, Scotland, and Wales, which United States enter actively the political countries send thither five hundred and fifty arena; but it by no means follows that in members; and only one Catholic was reFrance or in Ireland they should not do so. turned out of sixty for the whole city of O'Connell was greatly aided by the Catholic London, in which city there are a quarter clergy of Ireland; and the friends of order of a million of Irish Catholics, forty churches; in France have frequently found the clergy and in England and Scotland two thousand their best and most valuable allies. Three Catholic priests and churches, with the richest bishops appeared lately on a platform in of the English aristocracy at their head. Sligo to support the candidature of a patriotic Irishman from that county. Great services were rendered to our government during the IRELAND and India, two very different civil war by Archbishop Hughes and Bishop nations, are both, per force, under the same Domenec. Supposing a case should arise in sovereignty, that of the English crown. The which some anti-Catholic measure would be one a Catholic country, the other pagan and proposed, such as one involving the con- Mohammedan; the one possessed of many fiscation or supervision of church property, eminent Christian virtues, with a few faults, it would be perfectly right for the clergy more of the head than of the heart; the judiciously to oppose it. “No priests in other sunk in unutterable iniquity. Both politics" is a catchword, like “politics and were won by the combined effects of the religion have nothing to do with each other.” sword and treachery; by the sword which Religion has nothing to do with whether hewed down all opposition, by treachery Tilden or Hayes is elected, although honesty practiced towards unsuspecting allies, and by has; but religion would have a great deal dissensions artfully fomented. Strongbow, to do with it if the platforms, instead of Elizabeth, Strafford, Cromwell, and William dealing with questions of reconstruction, of Orange, suggest dark memories in regard finance, civil reform, etc., etc., treated of the to Ireland. Clive, Hastings, Wellesley, Dalrights of the Church or of similar questions. housie, recall similar memories in India.

Both countries are held by the strong arm, The Church of England is troubled with and against the will of the people; in this an aching Tooth which needs extraction. respect England treats the two countries A clergyman of this name, Vicar of Hats alike; in some respects she treats them very cham, is at present attracting a great deal differently. of attention. He persists in wearing vest When the Queen was proclaimed Empress ments, having lights on the altar, using in- of India on New Year's Day, political prisoncense, standing with his back to the people, ers were released, yet the Irish prisoners elevating the chalice, and doing all those still rot in dungeons. We do not read of things which have been prohibited by law, causeless evictions in India, yet how often and which excite intense disgust in all good do we not hear of them in Ireland. When Protestants who regard them as imitations of the Irish famine broke out it was long before the mass. Mr. Tooth has been inhibited by relief was afforded, but Indian famines meet his bishop, and condemned by Lord Pen- with immediate attention. English capital zance, the judge of the new ecclesiastical flows into India, and constructs railways, court, and runs great risk of being fined canals, public roads; it drains marshy lands, and imprisoned. He is supported and en- and irrigates barren tracts. Ireland is negcouraged by a large party in the Church of lected. Her harbors are empty; her rivers England.

turn no mills; there are few railways, few Riots have taken place at Hatcham canals; the Shannon is neglected; the fishchurch, and meetings on his behalf, and eries receive scanty aid. against him, have taken place in various India is referred to with pride; Ireland is parts of the country.

often treated with contempt. Take up any Whether ritualism helps the progress of the English paper, and you will find that the Catholic Church in England or not is much affairs of India are discussed with interest, debated there. We think that the old Trac- those of Ireland with impatience. In mat. tarian or Puseyite movement did to some ters affecting India the English parties sink extent; but we do not think modern ritual their differences to unite in measures of reism does. It supplies a sort of sham Cath- lief; in those of Ireland this is not the case.

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