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V. 343.

XII. 594.

CELESTINES, order of monks, V. 291. CEMETERY, CEMETERIES, V. 328; Eng- CENTUMVIRAL COURT, in Roman law,
CELETRUM (Kastoria), ancient town, lish law in relation to, iv. 537 ; at XX. 678.
Macedonia, XIV. 14.

Paris, XVIII. 284; in ancient Rome, v. CENTUMVIRI, Roman judges, v. 343. CELIBACY, V. 292; in early Church of 208.

CENTURIA, in the Roman army, XX. England, viil. 371. CENCI, Beatrice, parricide, V. 332.

735. CELL, in biology, XII. 5; 111. 682; evolu Francesco, father of Beatrice Cenci, CENTURION, Roman military officer, tion from the, VIII. 746; in human

V. 332. anatomy, l. 843; vegetable, XII. 10, Giovanni, captain of the people, CENTURIPE (Centorbi), town, Sicily, v. 12; IV. 83; XIX. 44; XX. 425, 427; Rome, xx. 802.

341. of spermatozoa, XX. 411; of Fungi, The, Shelley's drama, XXI. 793.

CEOLFRID, abbot of Jarrow, England, IX. 827; in Protozoa, XIX. 832; of CENDAL, silk stuff, xxIII. 210.

III. 481. sponges, XXII. 420. See also Cell CENEDA, district, Italy, V. 333.

CEOLWULF, king of Northumbria, EngTheory below.

CENIS, Mont, Cottian Alps, pass across, land, xvII. 570. in architecture, II. 462.

1. 624; tunnel through, xxIII. 624. CEORL, Saxon freeman, VIII. 274; XVIII. in honeycomb, III. 490.

CENNICK, John, English hymn-writer, 302. Monastic, 1. 10, 22.

CEOs, island, Greece, v. 343. CELLE, town, Prussia, xxiv. 775. CENOMANI, Gallic tribe, Italy, XIII. CEPEDA, Teresa de (St Theresa), Spanish CELLINI, Benvenuto, Italian sculptor 446.

saint, XXIII. 281. and metal-worker, V. 294; XIX. 183; CENSOR, Roman magistrate, V. 334; XX. CEPHAELIS IPECACUANHA, species of XXI. 569. 738.

plants, XIII. 210. CELL THEORY, in biology, XXI. 460; CENSORSHIP, of books, IV. 39; of the CEPHALAS, Constantinus, compiler of xxiv. 816; in relation to protoplasm, press, XIX. 710.

Greek Anthology, II. 103. XIX. 828; to embryology, xxiv. 810; | CENSUS, enumeration of people, v. 334; CEPHALLENIA (Cephalonia), island, to morphology, xvi. 840; to physio of United States, XXIII. 818.

Greece, v. 343; XIII. 205; coins of, logy, XIX. II.

register, in Roman law, XX. 676. XVII. 643. CELLULOID, substitute for ivory, XIII. CENTAURS, in Greek mythology, V. CEPHALOBRANCHS, group of Annelida, 524. 340; XIV. 300; XXIII. 295.

II. 66. CELSIUS, Anders, Swedish astronomer, CENTETIDÆ, family of insectivorous CEPHALOCHORDA, branch of Vertebrata, - V. 294; his thermometric scale, XXIII. mammals, XV. 404.

XXIV. 184, 812. 289.

CENTIGRADE THERMOMETRIC SCALE, CEPHALODISCUS, genus of Polyzoa, XIX. Olaf, Swedish theologian, XIV. XXIII. 289.

434, 435. 672.

CENTILOGIUM THEOLOGICUM, Occam's CEPHALONIA, island, Greece, v. 343; CELSUS, anti-Christian writer, V. 295; work, XVII. 718.

XIII. 205. XIII. 658; Origen's answer to, XVII. CENTIMETRE GRAMME SECOND CEPHALOPODA, class of Mollusca, Vi. 841.

(C.G.S.) SYSTEM, of measurement, 735; XVI. 664; skeletal structure of, A. Cornelius, Roman writer on XV. 668.

XXII. 106; parasites of, xviii. 259; medicine, xv. 803; on anatomy, 1. CENTIPEDES, insects, V. 340; XVII. 115. in Lankester's classification, XXIV. 802; on surgery, XXII. 674.

CENTLIVRE, Susanna, British dramatist, 813 CELTIBERI, early Spanish tribes, XII.

V. 341.

CEPHALOTES, genus of bats, xv. 410. 604; XXII. 305.

CENT NOUVELLES NOUVELLES, early CEPHALOTHRIX, genus of nemertine CELTIBERIA, ancient division of Spain, French tales, ix. 649.

worms, XVII. 326. V. 297

CENTO, composition made up of extracts, CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS, insectiCELTIC ACADEMY, at Paris, 1. 77.

vorous plant, XIII. 139. CELTIC CHURCH, in Scotland, XXI. town, Italy, v. 341.

CEPHALUS, of Greek mythology, XXIII. 475, 481.

NOVELLE ANTICHE, Italian stories, 413. CELTIC LANGUAGES, XVIII. 785; dic XIII. 501.

father of the orator Lysias, xv. tionaries of, vii. 188; Gaelic, X. 6. CENTORBI, town, Sicily, V. 341.

117. CELTIC LITERATURE, V. 297; XX. 642; | CENTRAL AMERICA, V. 341; birds of, CEPHAS (Simon Peter), the apostle, Gaelic, X. 7.

III. 748; climate, 1. 681; ancient civili XVIII. 693. Celtic MONKS, XVI. 706.

zation in, XVI. 213; ancient monu CEPHISODOTUS, Athenian sculptor, 11. CELTIs, genus of trees, xi. 360; XVII. ments in, II. 450; XXIV. 758.

365. 360.

CENTRAL INDIA POLITICAL AGENCY, CEPHISsus, river, Greece, 11. 60; XI. CELTS, Race, language, and literature of

82. the, V. 297; X. 6; XXI. 473, 480; their CENTRAL PARK, New York city, XVII. CEPHUS PYGMÆUS, wheat pest, XXIV. tribal system, v. 799; their attacks on 466.

536. Rome, XX. 740, 743; of Britain, viii. CENTRAL PROVINCES, India, V. 342. CERAM, island, Indian Archipelago, v. 263; in central England, xxi. 739; CENTRE OF GRAVITY, in mechanics, 344. their first appearance in Ireland, XIII. XI. 69; XV. 729.

CERAMICUS, part of ancient Athens, 111. 244.

CENTRE OF Mass, in mechanics, xv. CEMENTATION PROCESS, in steel-mak 699.

CERAMIC WARE, or Pottery, xix. 600; ing, XIII. 339.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE, in mechanics, in Italy, XIII. 454; Japanese, XIII. CEMENTS, V. 328; natural and artificial, XV. 682.

590. IV. 458, 459; hydraulic, xiv. 647; CENTRIPETAL FORCE, in mechanics, CERARGYRITE, mineral, xvi. 384. Keene's, xi. 351; Parian, Xi. 351;

XV, 682.

CERASUS, genus of plants, xiv. 348. Roman, xx. 808. CENTROLITE, mineral, xvi. 411.

town, Asia Minor, XIX. 459. CEMENT STONES, nodules of clay iron- CENTROPHORUS, genus of sharks, XXI. CERATODUS, genus of fishes, XIV. stone, XIII. 287. 778.

468.

V. 341.

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CERATONIA, genus of trees, XIV. 767. CERUSITE, or Cerussite, lead ore, xiv. CETYWAYO, king of the Zulus, XVII. CERATONOTA, suborderof Mollusca, XVI.

375; XVI. 398.

242; XXIV. 829. 656.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, Miguel de CEUTA, town, Morocco, V. 358; XVI. CERATOSA, order of sponges, XXII. 423. author of Don Quixote, V. 347; XXII.

830. CERBALL, king of Ossory, Ireland, XIII. 356; birthplace of, 1. 458; his influence CEVA, town, Italy, V. 358. 252.

on Spanish drama, VII. 420; as pastoral CÉVENNES, mountains, France, v. 358; CERBERUS, in Greek mythology, v. poet, XVIII. 346; as satirist, XXI. 319; IX. 506; Camisards of the, IV. 743. 345.

his praise of Amadis of Gaul, 1. 650. CEYLON, V. 359; II. 685; birds of, 111. CERCAMON, Provençal poet, xix. 874. CERVANTITE, mineral, xvi. 388.

763; XVIII. 16; cinnamon production, CERCIS, genus of trees, XIII. 761. CERVELA, musical instrument, XVII. V. 785; forests, IX. 405; Pali language, CERCOPITHECUS, genus of apes, 11. 151. 705.

XVIII. 183; Paumben ship-canal, iv. See also XV. 444.

CERVETRI, town, Italy, IV. 632; Etruscan 792; pearl fisheries, XVIII. 446; railCERCOSPORA Vitis, vine-fungus, XXIV. tombs at, II. 414; V. 216.

ways, xx. 252; ruby mines, XXI. 48; 240. CERVIA, town, Italy, V. 356.

Veddahs (primitive people), xxiv. CERDAGNE, district, Roussillon, France, CERVIDÆ, family of ungulate mammals, 120; weights and measures, xxiv. XXI. 28. VII. 23; XV. 432.

490. CERDO, Syrian Gnostic V. 345; XV. CERVINI, Marcellus (Pope Marcellus II.), Ceyx, genus of birds, xiv. 82. 534.

XV. 533.

C.G.S. (Centimetre - Gramme - Second), CERDONIANS, Gnostic sect, V. 345. CERVULUS, genus of deer, XVII. 32. system of measurement, xv. 668. CEREALIN, in chemistry, III. 254. CERYLE, genus of birds, xiv. 82. CHABASITE, mineral, XVI. 421. CEREBELLUM, XIX. 38; anatomy of, 1. CESALPINO, Andrea, Italian naturalist, CHABLIS, town, France, V. 370. 871.

IV. 633; XXIV. 95. See Cæsalpinus. wine, XXIV. 606. CEREBRATION, Unconscious, XXII. 406. CESAREWICH, Russian title, xix. 738. CHABORAS (Khabar), river, MesopoCEREBRATULUS, genus of nemertine CESARI, Antonio, Italian writer, XIII. tamia, XVI. 47. worms, XVII. 326.

514.

CHABOT, Gui, Baron de Jarnac, XIII. CEREBRUM, XIX. 38 ; anatomy of, i. Giuseppe, Italian painter, V. 356. 593. 872.

CESAROTTI Melchiore, Italian poet, v. CHABRIAS, Athenian general, v. 370; CEREDO, Torre de, mountain, Spain, 356.

XVIII. 579.
XXII. 294.
CESENA, town, Italy, V. 357.

CHAD, or Tchad (q.v.), Lake, Soudan,
CEREs, in Roman mythology (the Greek CESI, Federigo, Italian natural philo Africa, I. 255; XXII. 277.
Demeter), V. 345; XIV. 508; mysteries sopher, 1. 70.

BASIN, Negroes of the, XVII. 319. in honour of, vill. 126.

CESPEDES, Andres Garcia de, Spanish CHADERTON, Laurence, English Puritan -, asteroid, 11. 806. geographer, XVII. 253.

divine, V. 371. CERESIN, mineral wax, XVIII. 113.

Pablo de, Spanish painter and CHÆREAS AND CALLIRRHOE, Greek CERESIO, Lago (Lake of Lugano), Switz poet, V. 357

romance, XX. 636. erland and Italy, xv. 60. Cess, origin of the term, v. 334.

CHÆRONEIA, or Chæronea, ancient CÉRET, town, France, xx. 128. CESSPOOLS, IV. 468.

town, Greece, v. 371; battle of (338 CEREUS, group of Cactaceæ, iv. 625. CESTODA, group of worms, XXIII. 49; B.C.), I. 281, 480; XV. 139. CERIGNOLA, town, Italy, V. 345.

their relation to Trematoda, XXIII, CHÆTODERMA, order of Mollusca, XVI. CERIGO, island, Greece, V. 346; XIII. 540; parasitic forms, XVIII. 259; XXIV. 641. 205.

205.

CHÆTOGNATHA, group of marine worms, CERIGOTTO, island, Greece, v. 346. CESTOIDEA, in Lankester's classification, XXI. 148; II. 52. CERINE, mineral, xvi. 409, 410.

XXIV. 813.

CHÆTOMYS, genus of rodent mammals, CERINTHUS, early heretic, v. 346; X. CESTOIDS, parasitic forms, XVIII. 259;

XIX. 519. 702.

XXIV. 205.

CHÆTOPODA, group of worms, xxiv. in Tibullus's poems, XXIII. 349.

CESTONA, Spain, mineral water of, xvi. 677 ; XVI. 652; spermatozoa of, xx. CERISOLLES, Italy, Battle of (1544), 1x. 434.

411 ; parasites of, xvIII. 259 ; in 557.

CESTRACION, genus of sharks, XXI. Lankester's classification, XXIV. 813. CERITE, mineral, XVI. 410; XIV. 291. 775.

CHÆTURA, genus of birds, XXII. 760. CERIUM, chemical element, v. 542; XIV. CESTRUS, river, Asia Minor, II. 708; CHAFF-CUTTER, agricultural imple291; spectrum of, XXII. 376. XIX. 130.

ment, 1. 326. CEROXYLON, genus of palms, xvIII. CESTUI QUE TRUST, in law, XXIII. 597. CHAFFINCH, bird, v. 371. 191.

CETACEA, order of Mammalia, v. 357; CHAGHANSERAI, in Kafiristan, AfghanCERRETO, town, Italy, v. 347.

XV. 391; XXIV. 523; skeleton of, xxII. istan, XIII. 820. CERRO DE PASCO, town, Peru, V. 347; 108; mammary glands of, xvi. 302; CHAGOS, islands, Indian Ocean, xv. XVIII. 675.

olfactory organs of, xxII. 167; sense 642. CERRO HERMOSO, mountain, Ecuador, of touch in, xxIII. 479; distribution CHAGRES, town, Panama, V. 371. VII. 645.

of, vil. 280, 346.

CHAIBASA, town, India, XXII. 94. CERTALDO, town, Italy, V. 347. CETINA, Gutierre de, Spanish soldier CHAIN, Kinetics of a, xv. 741; statics CERTHIA, genus of birds, XXIII. 534. and poet, V. 357

of, xv. 738. CERTHILAUDA, genus of birds, xiv. CETSHWAYO, or Cetywayo, king of the BALANCE, III. 261. 315. Zulus, XVII. 242; XXIV. 829.

CABLE, IV. 621; II. 4; XXI. 597. CERTHIOLA, genus of birds, XXII. 628. CETTE, town, France, v. 358.

ISLAND, South Pacific, XXIII.
CERTIORARI, in law, xxiv. 696. CETTI, F., Italian naturalist, on birds, 602.
CERTOSA, Carthusian mona

1. 20;
XVIII. 9.

CHAIRS, furniture, ix. 849.
V. 163; of Pavia, xvIII. 438; XXI. 569;CETTINJE, or Cettinye, town, Monte-

Railway, XX. 241. XXIII. 194.

negro, V. 358; XVI. 780.

CHAJA, or Chaka, bird, xxi. 552.

XXV.

12

XXI. 159.

CHAJ DOAB, district, Punjab, India, CHALLIS, James, on attraction, III. 64. CHAMBERS OF RHETORIC, Dutch, XII.
XX. 107.
CHALLONER, Richard, English Roman

91. CHAKA, bird, xxi. 552.

Catholic bishop, V. 372.

CHAMBERS'S CYCLOPÆDIA (1728), vill. CHAKHANSUR, district, Sistan, Persia, CHALMERS, Alexander, English writer, 196. XXII. 100.

V. 373.

CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA (1860– CHAKHARS, Mongol tribe, XVI. 743.

George, Scottish historiographer 68), VIII. 204. CHAKIR BEG, Seljuk ruler, XXI. 634. and antiquary, V. 373.

CHAMBERS'S JOURNAL, V. 380. CHAKRATA, military station, India, VII. James, inventor of adhesive post-CHAMBÉRY, town, France, v. 381; XXI. 33. age stamp, XIX. 585.

332. CHALA, town, Peru, XVIII. 674.

- Thomas, Scottish divine, v. 374; CHAMBESI, tributary of the Congo, CHALAMARI, town, India, v. 625.

his influence in the Scottish Church, Africa, XXIV. 763. CHALAN, lake, India, xx. 261.

XXI. 538.

CHAMBORD, chateau, Loire-et-Cher, CHALAROTHORACA, order of Protozoa, CHALONER, Sir Thomas, English states France, v. 381. XIX. 845. man and poet, V. 378.

- Henry, count of, French Legitimist, CHALCANTHITE, mineral, XVI. 401. CHALONITIS, Parthian kingdom, XVIII. IX. 620. CHALCEDON, ancient town, Asia Minor, 592.

CHAMELEON, kind of lizard, v. 381; V. 371; council of (451), II. 548; XIII. CHALONNAIS, district, France, XXI. XIV. 734, 737 ; skull of, xx. 451 ; 796; decrees of, XI. 155. 301.

Aristotle on, XX. 432. CHALCEDONY, or Calcedony, mineral, I. CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE, town, France, CHAMFER, in architecture, II. 462.

277; XVI. 389; XVII. 776; XXI. 310. V. 378; battle of (451), III. 62; XX. CHAMFORT, Nicolas, French wit and CHALCIDENE, Coins of, xvII. 649.

781.

writer, v: 382; XI. 670. CHALCIDIAN ALPHABET, I. 610. CHÂLON-SUR-SAÔNE, town, France, v. CHAMISSO, Adalbert von,

German CHALCIDICE, district, Macedonia, xv. 378; XXI. 302.

writer, V. 383; X. 542. 137.

CHALOSSE, La, district, Landes, France, CHAMOIS, kind of antelope, v. 384: CHALCIS, town, Eubea, Greece, VIII.

XIV. 272.

I. 633; II. 102; XV. 432. 649.

CHALOTAIS, Louis René de Caradeuc de CHAMOISITE, mineral, XVI. 415. CHALCOCITE, copper ore, Vi. 347.

la, French politician, XIV. 191.

CHAMOMILE, or Camomile, plant, XII. CHALCOCONDYLES, Laonicus, Byzantine CHALUKYAS, dynasty, Mysore, India, 289; flowers, V. 384. historian, iv. 614.

XVII. 123.

CHAMOND, St, archbishop of Lyons, CHALCOLITE, mineral, XVI. 407. CHALUMEAU, or Shawm, musical instruCHALCOMENITE, mineral, xvi. 396. ment, XVII. 707.

CHAMOUNI, or Chamonix, village and CHALCOPHANITE, mineral, xvi. 388. CHALUS, town, France, XXIV. 223.

valley, Savoy, v. 385. CHALCOPSITTACUS, genus of birds, xv. CHALYBÄUS, Heinrich Moritz, German CHAMPAGNE, province, France, V. 385. 7. philosopher, V. 379.

wine, XXIV. 603, 605; adulteration CHALCOPYRITE, mineral, vi. 347; XVI. CHALYBEATE WATERS, X. 270; XIII. of, 1. 173. 393. 360; XVI. 434.

Philippe de, Flemish painter, v. CHALCOSIDERITE, mineral, XVI. 406. CHALYBITE, mineral, X. 228; XVI. 397. 386. CHALCUAPA,

town, San Salvador, CHAMÆLEON, genus of lizards, V. 381; CHAMPAGNE - POUILLEUSE, district, Central America, XXI. 268.

XIV. 734, 737; skull of, xx. 451. France, XV. 561. CHALDEA, or Chaldæa, ancient country, CHAMÆROPS, genus of palms, xviii. CHAMPAGNOLE, town, Switzerland, XIII. Asia, III. 184; architectural remains of, 189.

782. II. 398.

CHAMALHARI, mountain, Himalayas, CHAMPARAN, district, India, v. 386. CHALDEANS, Astronomy of the, II. 744; XXII. 51.

CHAMPAUBERT, France, Battle of (1814), zodiac of, xxiv. 791; their invasion of CHAMARS, race of people, India, III. 671; XVII. 221. Judah, xiii. 416; their contests with

XV. 303.

CHAMPEAUX, William of, scholastic the Phænicians, XVIII. 808. CHAMBA, state, India, V. 379.

philosopher, V. 386; III. 602. in the Roman Catholic Church, CHAMBAL, river, India, XVII. 572; XX. | CHAMPFER, in architecture, II. 462. xx. 631.

260.

CHAMPFLEURY (Jules Fleury), French Patriarch of the (Nestorian patri- CHAMBERLAIN, V. 379.

writer, ix. 679. arch), XVII. 358.

Lord, of the royal household, CHAMPIER, Symphorien, French phyCHALDEE LANGUAGE, XXI. 647; II. England, XXI. 37.

sician, xv. 808. 307; XI. 596; dictionaries of, vii. 189. Lord Great, XXII. 459.

CHAMPIGNON, fungus, XVII. 76. CHALDIRAN, Asia Minor, Battle of CHAMBERLAINE, Frances (Mrs Sheri- CHAMPION, in judicial combat, XVII. (1514), XXIII. 643. dan), English novelist, XXI. 796.

820. CHALDON, Surrey, England, mural CHAMBERLAIN LAKE, Maine, U.S.A., Richard, English potter, XIX. 642. decorations of church, XVII. 46.

XV. 298.

CHAMPIONS, squatters, XIV. 264. CHALEUR, Bay of, New Brunswick, CHAMBER Music, XVII. 88.

CHAMPLAIN, Lake, New York and XVII. 373.

CHAMBERS, Ephraim, English encyclo Vermont, U.S.A., V. 387; XVII. 451; CHALICE, sacramental cup, xix. 185. pædist, v. 380; his Cyclopædia, viii. XXIV. 166. CHALICOTHERIIDÆ, fossil ungulate 196.

Samuel de, French explorer and mammals, XV. 429.

George, English painter, V. 380. governor of Canada, v. 387; X. 187; CHALK, V. 372; X. 358; as fertilizer, I. Robert, English writer and XVI. 795; XVII. 454; founder of 351. publisher, v. 380.

Quebec, XX. 167. CHALLENGER EXPEDITION (1872), III. Sir William, English architect, II. DEPOSITS, in geology, X. 370. 24; XVIII. 115; XXIII. 311.

444.

CHAMP-LEVÉ, enamelling process, VIII. CHALLES, Savoy, France, mineral water CHAMBERSBURG, town, Pennsylvania, 184; XIII. 679; Japanese work, XIII. of, xvi. 435; XXI. 332. U.S.A., V. 381.

591.

PYRITI

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CHAMPMESLÉ, Mademoiselle de, French population, XXIII. 727; newspapers, CHARADE, V. 398. actress, XX. 206.

XVII. 422; Alderney, 1. 473; Guernsey, CHARADRIUS, genus of birds, XIV. 76; CHAMPOLLION, Jean François, French XI. 247; Jersey, XIII. 634.

XIX. 227. Egyptologist, v. 387.

CHANNING, William Ellery, American CHARA PUNJI, station, India, xiv. 58. CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, Jean Jacques, theological writer, V. 393; 1. 728; his CHARAS, hemp-resin, xi. 648. French scholar, V. 387.

influence on Unitarianism, XXIII. 726. CHARAXUS, brother of Sappho, xxi. CHANCAS, people of Peru, XVIII. 676. CHANSON DE ROLAND, early French 303. CHANCE, Mathematical theory of, xix. poem, ix. 637; xx. 626.

CHARBON, disease of the lemon tree, 768. CHANSONS, early French poems, ix. 638.

XIV. 437. CHANCEL, in architecture, II. 462.

in music, xvII. 84.

woolsorter's disease, xxiv. 663. CHANCELLOR, V. 387.

DE GESTE, narrative poems, ix. CHARBONNIÈRE, spa, France, XX. 529. Lord High, of England, XXII. 458; 637; XIX. 875; XX. 642.

CHARCOAL, V. 398; its use for the blowlist of lord chancellors, viii. 368. CHANT, Plain, in music, xix. 168.

pipe, III. 837 ; in filtration, ix. 167; Richard, English explorer, X. 183; CHANTABURI, town, Siam, xxi. 852. as an ingredient of gunpowder, XI. XIX. 316; XXI. 92.

CHANTAL, Baron de, father of Madame 319, 323; in iron-smelting, xill. 292, OF THE EXCHEQUER, England, de Sévigné, xxi. 703.

317. VIII. 797; XVI. 474.

Madame de, Sainte de Monthélon, FINERY, for cast-iron, XIII. 319. CHANCELLORS, Lives of the, Campbell's IX. 696.

CHARD, town, England, v. 399; XXII. work, iv. 759.

CHANTELOUP, Count of (J. A. Chaptal), 258. CHANCELLORSVILLE, U.S.A., Battle of French chemist and statesman, V. 397; , vegetable, XII. 280. (1863), XXIII. 778.

1. 647

CHAR-DAGH, mountain, Turkey, III. CHANCERY, Court of, England, v. 389; CHANTIBAN, town, Siam, v. 395.

282. bill in, III. 674; guardianship of CHANTILLY, town, France, v. 395. CHARDIN, Sir John, traveller, v. 400. infants by, XIII. 2; records of, xx. CHANTREY, Sir Francis, English sculp- CHARENTE, department, France, V. 400. 311. tor, V. 395; XXI. 561.

wine, xxiv. 606. CHANCES, Mathematical theory of, xix. CHANTRY, in architecture, II. 462. CHARENTE-INFÉRIEURE, department, 768; Demoivre's treatise on, vii. 60. CHAO, island, Peru, xvIII. 671.

France, V. 400. CHANCE'S GLASSES, optical, xvii. 801. Santiago de, town, Peru, xvIII. CHARENTON-LE-PONT, town, France, v. CHANCHAN, Peru, cyclopean wall at, II.

674.

400. 452.

CHAONES, ancient Greek tribe, VIII. CHARES of Lindus, Greek sculptor, Vi. CHANCROID, disease, XXII. 686.

483.

166; XX. 526. CHANCTONBURY RING, hill, Sussex, CHAPALA, Lake, Mexico, XVI. 216. CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES, I. 657 ; XIII. England, XXII. 723.

CHAPAPOTE, Mexican asphalt, 11. 715. 193. CHANDA, district and town, India, v. CHAP-Books, XVIII. 204.

CHARGER, war-horse, XII. 191. 390.

CHAPEL, in architecture, 11. 462. CHARIKAR, town, Afghanistan, I. 230. CHANDARNAGAR, or Chundernagore, CHAPELAIN, Jean, French poet, v. 396; CHARIOT, V. 401 ; racing, in ancient French settlement, India, V. 391. IX. 657; XX. 204.

games, X. 64. CHAND BARDAI, Hindi writer, v. 758; CHAPEL-Hill, town, North Carolina, Charis, in Greek mythology, XI. 26. XI. 841, 843.

U.S.A., V. 396.

CHARISMATA, in the early church, XIX. CHANDIEU, Antoine, leader of French CHAPELLE DE FER, helmet, XI. 637. 675. Presbyterians, xix. 693.

CHAPLAINS, in British army, 11. 584. CHARITES, The, in Greek mythology, XI. CHANDLER, Richard, British anti- CHAPLET, Devotional, xx. 848.

26. quary, V. 391.

CHAPLIN'S APPARATUS, for distilling CHARITIES, English, V. 401.
Samuel, English Presbyterian sea-water, VII. 264.

CHARITON, of Aphrodisias, Greek divine, v. 391.

CHAPMAN, George, English poet and romancist, V. 402; XX. 636. CHANDRA-BARDAI, or Chand, Hindi dramatist, V. 396; VII. 432.

CHARIVARI, Le, French comic journal, writer, V. 758; XI. 841, 843. CHAPOO, or Chapu, town, China, V. 398.

V. 105. CHANDRA GUPTA, Hindu king, XII. CHAPPARAL-Cock, American bird, vi. CHARLCOTE PARK, Warwickshire, Eng787. 687.

land, XXI. 738, 753. CHANDRAKONA, town, India, XVI. 284. CHAPPE, Claude, French engineer, v. CHARLEMAGNE (Charles the Great), CHANG BHAKAR, state, India, V. 769. 397.

emperor, V. 402; IX. 531; X. 478; CHANG-Chow, town, China, V. 391, CHAPPELL, William, Milton's tutor, XVI. coronation of, vi. 429; the empire 673. 324.

he created, xx. 382; academy he CHANGHWA, town, Formosa, China, ix. CHAPTAL, Jean Antoine, French chemist founded, 1.69; his friendship for 417.

and statesman, V. 397; his methods of Alcuin, 1. 472; his influence in CHANG-KEA-Kow, town, China, xiii. extracting alum from clay, 1. 647. England, VIII. 282; his cong in 828.

CHAPTER, of a cathedral, v. 398, 228; Italy, XIII. 468; XIV. 816; XX. 786; CHANG-LAM, road, Tibet, XXIII. 342.

VII. 14.

MSS. of his time, xvIII. 160; treaty CHANGOS, Peruvian tribe, xvIII. 676. HOUSE, in architecture, 11. 462. with Nicephorus I., XVII. 481; popeCHANG PIH SHAN, mountains, Man- CHAPU, town, China, v. 398.

dom in his time, XIX. 495; his subchuria, xv. 465.

CHARACENE, kingdom, Mesopotamia, jugation of the Saxons, XXI. 351; his CHANG-SHA Foo, town, China, v. 637. XVI. 51; XVIII. 590.

expedition to Spain, xx. 626, 778; CHANG-TANG, mountain region, Tibet, CHARACTER, physiognomic expression XXII. 310; his tomb, 1. 432. XXIII. 339, 341. of, XIX. 3.

Jean Armand, French dramatist, v. CHANGWE, province, Uganda, Africa, CHARACTERISTICS, Shaftesbury's work,

404. XXIII. 717. VIII. 427; XXI. 732.

AND HIS TWELVE PEERS, romances, CHANNEL ISLANDS, England, v. 391; | CHARACTERIZATION, Dramatic, VII. 394. XX. 649.

XII. 73;

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CHARLEMONT, citadel of Givet, France, CHARLES III., of Navarre, XXII. 324. CHARLEVOIX, Pierre François Xavier X. 626.

IV., of Navarre, V. 423; XXII. 324. de, French traveller, V. 429. CHARLEROI, town, Belgium, V. 404.

(of Hohenzollern), king of Rou-CHARLIER, John, of Gerson, chancellor CHARLES I., the Great, or Charlemagne mania, XXI. 21.

of Paris university, X. 549. (q.v.), emperor, V. 402.

I.-III., dukes of Savoy, XXI. 341. CHARLOTTE, town, North Carolina, II., the Bald, emperor (I. of France), I., king of Spain (emperor Charles U.S.A., XVII. 561. V. 409; IX. 534; X. 480. V., q.v.), V. 413; XXII. 328.

AMALIE, town, St Thomas, West III., the Fat, emperor (II. of II., of Spain, V.418; 1X. 580; XXII. Indies, XXI. 200. France), v. 409; IX. 535; X. 481. 333.

CHARLOTTENBURG, town, Prussia, v. IV., emperor, V. 412; X. 494;

III., of Spain, v. 419; IX. 582;

429. his interference with Sienese, XXII. 40.

XXII. 336, 340.

CHARLOTTESVILLE, town, Virginia, V., emperor (I. of Spain), v. 413; IV., of Spain, V. 419; XXII. 342. U.S.A., V. 430. X. 497; XIII. 716; XXII. 328; his VIII., king of Sweden, XXII. 747. Canada, mineral water of, XVI. 436. attitude towards the Reformation, xv.

IX., of Sweden, V. 419; XXII. 748. CHARLOTTETOWN, town, Prince Edward 74; XX. 328; towards the council of X., of Sweden (Charles Gustavus), Island, North America, v. 430; XIX. Trent, XXIII. 546; his treatment of V. 419; XXII. 749.

740. Hernan Cortes, VI. 442; his relations XI., of Sweden, V. 420; XXII. 749. CHARLOTTEVILLE, town, Dominica, with Henry VIII. of England, xi. XII., of Sweden, v. 420; XXII. West Indies, VII. 354. 663; his rivalry with Francis I. of 750; his conflict with Russia, XXI. CHARLTON WHITE, pigment, xix. 86. France, ix. 556; as ruler of Holland, 97; Voltaire's History of his Life, CHARMIDES, dialogue of Plato, XIX. 196. his power in Italy, XIII. 482; XXIV. 292.

CHARMOISE, French breed of sheep, iv. his relations with Spain, XVIII. 743.

XIII., of Sweden, V. 422; XXII. 752. 246. VI., emperor, v. 418; X. 502.

XIV., of Sweden (Bernadotte), 111. CHARMS, Magical, xv. 202. VII., emperor, V. 418; X. 503. 601; XVII. 220; XXII. 752.

CHARNEL-HOUSE, in architecture, II. or Charles Louis, archduke of XV., of Sweden, v. 422; XXII. 753. 462. Austria, V. 423.

duke of Guise, XI. 267.

CHAROLLAIS, district, France, XXI. 301. the Bold, duke of Burgundy, V.424;

duke of Orleans (Charles d' CHAROLLES, town, France, v. 430; XXI. IX. 552; his invasion of Switzerland, Orléans), early French writer, xvII. 302. XXII. 786.

851; IX. 647.

CHARON, in Greek mythology, V. 430; - I., king of England, v. 404; VIII. Jacques A. C., French aeronaut, 1. terra-cotta group, XXIII. 192. 345; parliament under, XVIII. 307; 188.

CHARONDAS, Greek lawgiver, v. 430. his policy in Ireland, xiii. 266; in Thomas, Welsh Methodist preacher, CHARONNE, heights, Paris, XVIII. 274. Scotland, xxi. 511; his relations with

XVI. 193.

CHARPENTIER, François, French archæoBuckingham, iv. 418; with Earl ALBERT (of Savoy-Carignano), logist, V. 430. Strafford, XXII. 584; XXIV. 17; defence king of Sardinia, v. 425; XIII. 486; Jean de, on glaciers, X. 628. of, by Salmasius, XXI. 220.

XXI. 342.

CHARR, fish, XII. 693; XXI. 223, 225. II., of England, v. 408; VIII. 348; AUGUSTUS, grand-duke of Saxe- | CHARRAN (Haran), of Scripture, XI. 454. his relations with Monmouth, XVI. Weimar, V. 425; XXI. 350.

CHARRIÈRE, Madame de, Swiss writer, 755; with the Popish Plot, xvII. 697; EDWARD STUART, prince, V. 426;

XXII. 799. with Presbyterianism, XIX. 690; his VIII. 355; XXI. 526.

CHARRON, Pierre, French philosopher, rule in Ireland, xiii. 267; his policy EMMANUEL I., duke of Savoy, v. V. 430; IX. 655; on scepticism, xxi. in Scotland, xxi. 514. 427; XXI. 341.

382. I., the Bald, kingof France (emperor EMMANUEL II.-IV., of Savoy, CHARRUA, Indian tribe, South America, Charles II.), v. 409; IX. 534; X. 480. XXI. 342.

XXIV. 16. II., the Fat, of France (emperor ET GEORGES, Affair of, Portugal, CHARSADDA, town, India, XVIII. 684. Charles III.), V. 409; IX. 535; X.

CHARTA BOMBYCINA, cotton paper, 481.

ISLAND, Galapagos, Pacific, X. 17. XVIII. 217. III., the Simple, of France, V. 409;

Louis MOUNTAINS, New Guinea, CHARTER, V. 431. IX. 535.

XVII. 386.

CHARTERGUS, genus of wasps, XXIV. IV., the Fair, of France, V.409; IX. MARTEL, mayor of the palace, 392. 545.

France, v. 427; IX. 531.

CHARTER HOUSE, Carthusian monasV., the Wise, of France, V. 409; IX. O’MALLEY, Lever's novel, XIV. tery, I. 20; V. 163. 547.

485.

CHARTERHOUSE SCHOOL, London, XIV. VI., of France, v. 410; IX. 548. CHARLES'S LAW, of gases, XVI. 611; XIX. 835 VII., of France, V. 410; 1X. 549. 243; XXII. 479.

CHARTERIS, Hinry, early Scottish VIII., of France, V. 411; IX. 553; CHARLESTON, town, South Carolina, printer, XXI. 541. in Italy, ix. 335; XIII. 481.

U.S.A., V. 428; XXII. 288.

CHARTER-PARTY, shipping contract, v. IX., of France, V. 412; IX. 560.

town, West Virginia, U.S.A., XXIV. 433. X., of France, V. 412; IX. 619. 519.

CHARTERS, English, Early forms of, vii. (count of Anjou and Provence), CHARLESTOWN, town, Massachusetts, 255. king of Naples, V. 422; his relations U.S.A., V. 429.

CHARTER WRITING, XVIII. 161. with Pope Martin IV., xv. 582; as town, Nevis, West Indies, xvII. CHARTIER, Alain, French writer, V. 433; senator of Rome, xx. 797; his rule in 369.

IX. 647 Sicily, XXII. 27; as lord of Tuscany, CHARLET, Nicolas Toussaint, French CHARTISM, movement for political reXIII. 475. painter, V. 429.

form, v. 433; VIII. 366; in relation II., the Bad, king of Navarre, v. CHARLETON, Walter, on birds, XVIII. 4. to socialism, XXII. 210. 423; XXII. 324.

CHARLEVILLE, town, France, V. 429. CHARTRES, town, France, V. 434; cathe-.

XIX. 553.

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