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PETRI, Laurentius, archbishop of | PETUNIA, plant, XII. 264.

PHALANGIDEA, PHALANGIDES, order Sweden, XXII. 754. PETUNTZE, mineral, xvi. 419.

and family of Arachnida, 11. 277, 279. Olaus, Swedish writer, XXII. 754. PETZITE, mineral, XVI. 392.

PHALANGISTA, genus of marsupial PETRIE, George, Irish antiquary, xvii. PEUCETIANS, ancient Italian tribe, XIII. mammals, XVIII. 728. 712.

446.

PHALANX, of Greek army, II, 561; PETRINIA, dist Austria, XVI. 295. PEUTINGER, Conrad, German scholar, Macedonian, xv. 140; Roman, XX. PETRINISM, versus Paulism, Baur's views

XVIII. 724.

735. on, III. 449, 644.

PEVENSEY, town, England, xxII. 724. PHALARIDEÆ, group of grasses, XI. 58. PETRIU, town, Siam, xxi. 853. Pew, in architecture, II. 469.

PHALARIS, Greek tyrant, in Sicily, XVIII. PETROBRUSIANS, religious sect, xxiv. PEWTER, tin alloy, xvIII. 725; XIV.

729; XXII. 16. 323; XI. 674. 378.

Epistles of, ill. 53; XVIII. 730; PETROCORII, ancient Gallic tribe, xvIII. PEYER’S PATCHES, in the intestine, Bentley’s dissertation on, III. 579. 635.

XVII. 669.

PHALAROPODIDÆ, family of birds, XXI. PETRECA, genus of birds, XXIV. 537. PEYRELADE, France, Ancient remains 260. PETROLEUM, mineral oil, xvIII. 712, at, XXI. 51.

PHALERUM, Bay of, Athens, III. 4. 237; II. 715; XVI. 428; as fuel, ix. PEZZA, Michele (Fra Diavolo), Italian PHANARIOTS, Greek officials at Con809 ; for gas-making, X. 100; for brigand, ix. 504.

stantinople, XI. 124. steam boilers, XXII. 500; industry, in PFAFF, Christian Heinrich, German PHANEROGAMIA, subkingdom of plants, U.S.A., XXIII. 813; wells at Baku, chemist and physicist, XVIII. 725.

XXIV. 130. Russia, III. 258; in Burmah, IV. 552. Johann Friedrich, German mathe- | PHANEROGAMS, group of plants, III. PETROMYZON, genus of fishes, XIV. 249. matician, XVIII. 725.

695; IV. 92; XX. 426; XXIV. 130. PETRONILLA, alleged daughter of St Johann Wilhelm Andreas, German PHANSIGARS (Thugs), Indian assassins, Peter, xvIII. 694. mathematician, xvIII. 725.

XXIII. 327. PETRONIUS, Maximus IV., Roman PFAFFENDORF, Germany, Battle of PHANTASIA, Gassendi's theory of, x. emperor, xv. 646. (1760), III. 129.

106. ARBITER, Latin satirist, XVIII. PFAHLBÜRGER, class of German citizens, PHANTASMAGORIA, of magic lantern, 720; XX. 636, 726; XXI. 319. X. 493.

XV. 213. PETROPAVLOVSK, town, Siberia, xvIII. PFALZ, or Palatinate, district, Germany, PHANTOMS, in white magic, XV. 207. 723.

XVIII. 166; III. 453.

PHAON, reputed lover of Sappho, XXI. or Petropavlovski, town, Kam-PFALZBURG, town, German Lorraine, 303. chatka, Asia, XVIII. 723; 111. 144; XIII. XVIII. 725.

PHARÆ, ancient town, Greece, XIII. 826. 832.

PFEFFERKORN, John, suppressor of PHARAOH, kings of Egypt, XVIII. 730; PETROPOLIS, town, Brazil, XVIII. 723.

Jewish books, XX. 490.

VII. 732. PETROSSA, Roumania, Plate found at, PFEFFERS, spa, Switzerland, xvi. 433. PHARAOH'S CASTLE, ruins, Morocco, XIX. 182.

PFEIFFER, Franz, German philologist, XVI. 834. PETROVITCH, George, Servian leader, XVIII. 725; on the Nibelungenlied, PHARAOH'S RAT, ichneumon, XII. 629. VI. 755; XXI. 689.

XVII. 476.

PHARISEES, Jewish sect, XIII. 423; XVI. PETROVSK, town, Russian Daghestan, Ida Laura, Austrian traveller, 55. XVIII. 723 XVIII. 726.

PHARMACOLITE, mineral, XVI. 404. town, Saratoff, Russia, XVIII. 723; Pfister, Albrecht, early German printer, PHARMACOLOGY, branch of medicine, XXIII. 684, 687.

XV. 796. , town, Yaroslavl, Russia, XXIV. PFORZHEIM, town, Baden, Germany, PHARMACOPCIA,

730; the 731. XVIII. 726.

British, xv. 798 ; Aldrovandi's, I. convict settlement, Transbaikalia, PFUNDHEFE, German yeast, XXIV. 475. Russia, XVIII. 723. 734.

PHARMACOSIDERITE, mineral, XVI. PETROZAVODSK, town, Russia, XVIII. PHACOCHCRUS, genus of ungulate 405. 723; XVII. 764.

mammals, XXII. 774.

PHARNABAZUS, satrap of Phrygia, XVIII. PETRUCCI, friend of Molinos, XVI. PHACOLITE, mineral, xvi. 421.

576. 631.

PHACUSA, ancient town, Egypt, x. 789. PHAROMACRUS, genus of birds, XX, 179; Pandolfo, tyrant of Siena, xxII. PHÆDO, dialogue of Plato, xix. 199. XXIII. 584. 42.

PHÆDRUS, Latin fabulist, XVIII. 726. PHAROS, island and lighthouse, AlexPETRUS DE RAVENNA, on mnemonics, dialogue of Plato, XIX. 201.

andria, Egypt, 1. 494. PHÆODARIA, order of Protozoa, XIX. PHARPAR, river, Syria, I. 4; XXII. 821. PETRUS HISPANUS, scholastic philo 850.

PHARSALIA, Lucan's poem, XV. 36. sopher, XXI. 430.

PHÆOPHYCEÆ, subclass of plants, XXIV. PHARYNX, Anatomy of the, I. 837; VII. PETRUS SICULUS, historian of the Paul 126.

222; disease of, XXIII. 321. icians, XVIII. 433. PHÆOSPOREÆ, order of plants, XXIV. PHASCACEÆ, group

of

mosses, XVII. 73. PETT, Phineas, English shipbuilder, 126.

PHASCOGALE, or Phascologale, genus of XVII. 282.

PHAETHON, of Greek mythology, xvIII. marsupial mammals, xv. 380. PETTIGREW, J. Bell, on modes of flight, 727.

PHASCOLARCTINÆ, subfamily of mar; genus of birds, XXIII. 588.

supial mammals, xv. 382. PETTY, Lord Henry, English politician, PHAGMODU, Tibetan ruler, XXIII. 346. PHASCOLOMYS, genus of marsupial XIX. 148.

PHALANGE, in Fourier's communal mammals, xxiv. 637; XV. 383. -Sir William, English economist, system, IX. 489.

PHASCOLOTHERIUM, fossil mammal, XVIII. 724; Xix. 358; on statistics, PHALANGERS, group of marsupial mam XV. 376. XXII. 462.

mals, xvIII. 727; III. III; XV. 359, PHASCUM, genus of mosses, XVII. 72. PETUNA, town, Manchuria, xv. 466. 382.

PHASEOLUS, genus of plants, XII. 283.

XXI. 305.

XVIII.

XVI. 532.

IX. 311.

XI. 145.

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PHASIANUS, genus of birds, xvIII. 732. PHILES, Manuel, Byzantine dramatist, PHILIP IV., of Spain, XVIII. 746; XXII. PHASIS, Greek colony, Black Sea, XIX.

331. 599.

PHILETÆRUS, chief of Pergamum, xv. V., of Spain, XVIII. 746; XXII. PHASMIDÆ, group of insects, XIII. 152. 143; XVIII. 527.

335. PHAULCON, Constantine, Greek minister PHILETAS, Alexandrian poet and critic, duke of Swabia, XVIII. 746. in Siam, XXI. 854. XVIII. 742; VII. 568.

of Amphipolis, Greek romancist, PHAVORINUS (Guarino), Italian scholar, PHILHETÆRUS, genus of birds, xxiv. XX. 636. XI. 238. 463.

Herod, tetrarch of Ituræa, XI. 755; PHAZANIA (Fezzan), ancient country, PhilHYDRIDA, group of beetles, VI. 130. XIII. 426. Africa, ix. 128.

PHILIBEG, or Kilt, in Scottish Highland VAN ARTEVELDE, Taylor's drama, PHEASANT, bird, xvIII. 732. dress, VI. 478.

XXIII. 93. PHEASANT'S EYE, plant, I. 163. PHILIBERT, prince of Savoy, XXI. 341. PHILIPHAUGH, Scotland, Battle of PHEASANT-SHOOTING, XXI. 834. PHILIDOR, François André Danican, (1645), XVI. 796; XVII. 371; XXI. PHÈDRE, Racine's drama, XX. 207. French chess-player, v. 601.

513. PHENACITE, mineral, XVI. 411.

PHILINUS of Cos, Alexandrian physician, PHILIPON, Charles, French caricaturist, PHENIC ACID, v. 85.

XV. 801.

V. 105.
PHENICIENNE, dye, v. 86.
Philip, St, apostle, xvIII. 742.

PHILIPPA, wife of Edward III. of EngPHENOL, carbolic acid, v. 85; XXIII. the Evangelist, XVIII. 742.

land, vii. 683 57.

the Arab, Roman emperor, XVIII. PHILIPPEION, at Olympia, Greece, XVII. PHENOLS, series of organic alcohols, v. 755.

769. 563; XVIII. 238.

duke of Anjou, XIII. 484.

PHILIPPI, ancient town, Macedonia, PHENOMENOLOGY OF SPIRIT, Hegel's the Bold, duke of Burgundy, iv. XVIII. 746. treatise, XI. 618.

536; IX. 548.

PHILIPPIANS, Epistle to the, XVIII. 746. PHENYLAMINE (Aniline), in chemistry, the Good, duke of Burgundy, iv. PHILIPPICS, of Cicero, v. 772; of DemoII. 47; V. 575.

536; his rule in Holland, XII. 73. sthenes, vii. 69. PHEON, in heraldry, XI. 703.

I., king of France, XVIII. 743; IX. PHILIPPICUS, emperor of Constantinople, PHERA, town, island of Thera, Greece, 537; hostilities with William II. of XVIII. 748. XXIII, 280.

England, xxiv. 577.

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, West Pacific, PHERÆ, ancient town, Greece, XIII. II., Augustus, of France, XVIII. 743; XVIII. 748; II. 687; XII. 815; birds 826.

IX. 540; his contentions with Richard of, ill. 763; dictionaries of language, PHERECRATES, Greek Attic comedian, I. of England, xx. 540; his improve

VII. 191. XVIII. 733. ments of Paris, XVIII. 288.

PHILIPPOPOLIS, town, Eastern RouPHERECYDES of Athens, Greek his III., the Rash, of France, XVIII. melia, Turkey, XVIII. 753; XXIII. 318; torian, XVIII. 733. 743; IX. 544.

department, XXI. 21. of Syros, Greek philosopher, xvIII. IV., the Fair, of France, XVIII. 743; PHILIPPSBURG, town, Baden, XVIII. 733.

IX. 544; suppression of the Templars 754. PHIALÆ, ancient bowls, xix. 179. by, XXIII. 164.

town, St. Martin, West Indies, PHIDIAS, Greek sculptor and architect, V., the Tall, of France, XVIII. 743.

XXI. 186. XVIII. 733, 530; 11. 355.

VI., of France, XVIII. 743; IX. 545. PHILIPPUS, M. Julius (Philip the Arab), PHIGALIA, ancient town, Greece, xvIII. II., king of Macedonia, XVIII. 742; Roman emperor, XVIII. 755. 734. XI. 103; XV. 138; his relations with

SIDETES, Byzantine Church hisPHILADELPHIA (Ala-Shehr), ancient Persia, xvill. 581; his contests with torian, XXII. 238. town, Asia Minor, I. 4431

Rome, XX. 751; Demosthenes's opposi- Philips, Ambrose, English poet, XVIII. (Rabbah), ancient town, Syria, I. tion to, VII. 69; Isocrates's faith in, 754, 347. 743. XIII. 389.

John, English writer, XVIII. 754. town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., XVIII. III.-V., kings of Macedonia, PHILISTIA, district, Palestine, XVIII. 736; libraries of, xiv. 534, 551; news XVIII. 742.

755. papers, XVII. 434; convention (1787), False (Andriscus), usurper of throne | PHILISTINES, of Scripture, XVIII. 755, XV. 182; XXIII. 748. of Macedon, 11. 22.

174; XIII. 402; language of, XXI. PHILADELPHUS, Ptolemy, king of Egypt, duke of Orleans (1674-1723), 645. VII. 745.

regent of France, xvII. 852; IX. 584. PHILLIP, John, Scottish painter, xvIII. PHILÆ, island, Egypt, VII. 783.

(Égalité), duke of Orleans (1747

757 PHILAGATHUS (Pope John XVI.), XIII. 1793), xvII. 853; IX. 595, 598, 600, Phillips, John, English geologist, 711. 604, 606.

XVIII. 758; on amber mines, I. 659. PHILANTHROPY, in ethics, VIII. 590; of I., of Savoy, XXI. 341.

Samuel, English writer, XVIII. Quakers, XX. 151.

I., king of Castile and Aragon 759. PHILARGI, Pietro (Pope Alexander V.), (reckoned I. of Spain), xvIII. 743; Thomas, English painter, XVIII. I. 487. XXII. 327

759. PHILASTER, tragedy by Beaumont and II., king of Spain, XVIII. 743; XIII. Wendell, American orator, 1. 723. Fletcher, III. 470.

717; XV. 594; XXII. 329; his rule in William, English geologist, XVIII. PHILEBUS, dialogue of Plato, xix. 208. Holland, XII. 74; in Italy, XIII. 482; 759. PHILEMON, Greek poet, XVIII. 741; as king of Portugal, xix. 547; his PHILLIPSITE, mineral, xvi. 422. XXII. 20.

marriage with Queen Mary of England, Philo, Jewish-Hellenist poet, XVIII. Epistle to, XVIII. 741.

VIII. 339; his secretaries, Perez and 764. PHILEPICUS, or Philippicus, emperor of Escovedo, XVIII. 525.

or Philo Judæus, Jewish philoConstantinople, xvIII. 748.

III., of Spain, xvIII. 746; XXII. sopher, xvIII. 759; 1. 500; XV. 144; PHILEPITTA, genus of birds, xix. 149. 330.

his relation to the Gospel histories,

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XIII. 658; on inspiration, XIII. 154; Eleatic, xxiv. 719; Zeno's Eleatic, | PHOCAS, Nicephorus II., emperor of in relation to mysticism, XVII. 130; XXIV. 778; Hamiltonian, XI. 417; Constantinople, XVII. 482. his influence on Neoplatonism, XVII. Hegelian, XI. 618; Hindu, xxi. 289; | PHOCIDÆ, family of carnivorous mam334.

XXIV. 117; Kantian, XIII. 847; Leib mals, XV. 443. Philo of Byzantium, writer on nitz's contributions to, Xiv. 420; PHOCION, Athenian statesman, xviii. chanics, XVIII. 764.

Locke's contributions to, XIV. 755; 799. BYBLIUS, grammarian and his Mohammedan, XVI. 596; Neoplaton- Phocis, district, Greece, XVIII. 801; coins torian, XVIII. 764; on Phænicia, XVIII. ism, xvII. 332; Plato on, XIX. 206; of, xvII. 642. 802; his translation of Sanchoniathon, Positive, or Comte's, Vi. 234; Pytha- PHæBIAS (Reggio di Calabria), Greek VI. 447

gorean, XX. 138; Reid's, XX. 351; scep colony, Italy, XX. 341. PHILOCALIA, Origen's work, XVII. 840. tical, xxi. 378; Schelling's, XXI. 391; PHEBUS (Apollo), in Greek mythology, PHILOCTETES, Sophocles's drama, XXII. Schleiermacher's, XXI. 411; scholastic, XVIII. 801; II. 185. 273.

XXI. 418; Schopenhauer's, XXI. 456; Gaston, viscount of Béarn, XVIII. Statue of, at Syracuse, II. 351.

Socrates's relations to, XXII. 236 ; 415
PHILODINA, genus of Rotifera, XXI. 4. Spinoza's, XXII. 404; Dugald Stewart's PH@NICE, Roman divisions of Syria,
PHILOLAUS, Pythagorean philosopher, contributions to, XXII. 547 ; Stoic, XXII. 823.

XVIII. 764; XX. 138; on astronomy, XXII. 562 ; Wolffian, XXIV. 632; PH@NICIA, region, Syria, xvIII. 801 ;
II. 747
Brucker's critical history of, iv. 395;

coins of, xvII. 649; glass-making, x. PHILOLOGIÆ ET MERCURII, De Nuptiis, Lewes's history of, xiv. 491.

647; pottery, XIX. 605. romance, XX. 637.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND, PHENICIAN ALPHABET, 1. 607. PHILOLOGIA SACRA, Glassius's, X. 674. Thomas Brown's, IV. 387.

PH@NICIAN LANGUAGE, XXI. 641, 646; PHILOLOGY, science of language, XVIII. PHILOSOPHY OF THE INDUCTIVE Sci inscriptions in, XIII. 116; dictionary 765; Wolf's definition of, xxiv, 629; ENCES, Whewell's, xxiv. 539.

of, vii. 189. in relation to anthropology, 11. 117; PHILOSTORGIUS, church historian, XXII. PHENICIAN NUMERALS, XVII. 625. to ethnology, VIII. 621; to mythology, 238.

PHENICIANS, Asiatic people, XXII. 822; XVII. 138; Boeckh’s division of, iii. PHILOSTRATUS, Greek sophist, xvIII. XI. 90; their relations with the Phili851; comparative, of Aryan languages, 796; on legends of Troy, xx. 637. stines, XVIII. 757 ; founders of CarthXVIII. 781. See Language.

PHILOTAS, put to death by Alexander, age, v. 160; remains of, in Malta, xv. PHILOMELA, in Greek mythology, XVII. 1. 483.

341; astronomy of, 11. 745; early com499.

PhiloXENUS, Greek poet, XVIII. 797. merce, vi. 197; geography in time of, PHILOMETOR, Demetrius III., king of of Hierapolis, Syriac writer, XXII. X. 175; language of, XXI. 641; ships Syria, VII. 58. 831.

of, xxi. 805. Ptolemy, king of Egypt, VII. 746. of Mabbogh, Syriac writer, xxII. PHENICO-CHROITE, mineral, XVI. PHILOPATOR, king of Cappadocia, v. 825, 831.

403. 76.

PHINEUS, in Greek mythology, XI. PHENICOPTERUS, genus of birds, ix. Antiochus, prince of Persia and 491.

286. Syria, XIII. 422.

PHINTIAS (Alicata), ancient town, Sicily, PHENISSÆ, Euripides's drama, VIII. Ptolemy, king of Egypt, VII. 746.

677. Seleucus IV., king of Persia and PHIPPS, Captain, Arctic explorer, X. 190; Phrynichus's drama, XVIII. 854. Syria, xvIII. 589.

XIX. 319.

Phenix, legendary bird, xviii. 810. PHILOPEMEN, Greek warrior, XVIII. Constantine Henry, marquis of , genus of palms, XVIII. 190. 790. Normanby, XVII. 538.

CONSPIRACY, Ireland, XIII. 271. PHILOPROGENITIVENESS, in phreno- PHITSALOK, ancient Siamese capital, PARK, Dublin, vii. 500. logy, xvIII. 844.

XXI. 854.

PHENIXVILLE, town, Pennsylvania, PHILOPSEUDES, Lucian's dialogue, xv. PHIVA (Thebes), town, Greece, XXIII. U.S.A., XVIII. 811. 44.

229.

PHONAUTOGRAPH, acoustic instrument, PhiloSOPHER'S STONE, Search for the, PHLEBITIS, disease, XXII. 684.

1. 110; for deaf-mutes, vil. 9. 1. 463

PHLEGMON, disease, XVIII. 398. PHONETICS, science of speech sounds, PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, American, PHLEGON of Tralles, Greek chronicler, XVIII. 811, 770, 782; XXII. 381. XVIII. 740.

XVIII. 798.

PHONETISM, in language, I. 602. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, of PHLIPON, Manon Jeanne (Madame PHONOGRAPH, Telephonic, XXIII. 130, Royal Society of London, XXI. 38. Roland), xx. 624.

134. PHILOSOPHUMENA, Hippolytus's work, PHLOEM, or Bast, in vegetable histology, PHONOGRAPHY, shorthand writing, XXI. XI. 854. XII. 18.

834. PHILOSOPHY, XVIII. 791; evolution in, PHLOGISTON, Doctrine of, in chemistry, PHONOLITE, rock, X. 234. VIII. 751; in relation to logic, Xiv. V. 460.

PHONOLOGY, in grammar, XI. 37. 780; to metaphysics, XVI. 79; modern, PHLOGOPITE, mineral, xvi. 413. PHONOTYPY, XVIII. 812. theism of, xxIII. 244, 249; influence Phlox, garden plant, xvIII. 798; XII. PHONYGAMA, genus of birds, XV. 505. of Christianity on, v. 698 ; pagan, 258.

PHORA, ancient town, Patmos, Greek influence of, on Christianity, V. 694; PHoca, genus of carnivorous mammals, Archipelago, XVIII. 408. of religion, XXIII. 272; in relation to XV. 443; XXI. 580.

PHORMINX, Greek lyre, xv. 114. the Renaissance, XX. 382, 386; to PhoCÆA, town, Asia Minor, xvIII. PHORMIO, Terence's play, XXIII. 187. Greek sophistry, XXII. 268; relation 798.

PHORMIUM, vegetable fibre, XVIII. of zoology to, XXIV. 819; Arabian, II. PHOCÆNA, genus of cetacean mammals, 812. 265; of Confucius, VI. 264; Cousin's, XV. 398; xix. 521.

PHORONIS, genus of Polyzoa, XIX. 433, vi. 524; Cudworth's, VI. 689; Des- PHOCAS, emperor of the East, XVIII. 434. cartes on, vii. 119; eclectic, VII. 643;

799, 614.

PHORUS, genus of Mollusca, xvI. 650.

1. 574.

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X. 37

PHOSGENE, in chemistry, v. 87; XVII. PHRAATES V., Parthian king, XVIII. PHYLLOTAXIS, arrangement of leaves, 63. 600.

in plants, IV. 115. PHOSGENES, luminous impressions, viii. PHRABAT, mountain, Siam, xxi. 851. PHYLLOXERA, vine parasite, XXIV. 238, 822.

PHRANTZES, Georgius, Byzantine his 604; XIX. 537 PHOSPHATES, chemical salts, xvIII. 818; torian, iv. 614.

PHYLOGENY, ancestral development, II. V. 517, 518; deposits of, at Charleston, PHRAORTES, Median king, xvIII. 562. 49; III. 690. U.S.A., V. 428; of lime, as manures,

Median rebel, xvill. 569.

PHYSALOSPORA, grape fungus, xxiv. 1. 348; XV. 509.

PHRASEOGRAMS, in shorthand, XXI. 240. PHOSPHATIC GLASSES, for telescopes, 839.

PHYSETER, genus of cetacean mammals, XXIII. 143.

PHRATRIA, division of tribe, at Athens, XV. 396; XXIV. 525. PHOSPHIDE OF CALCIUM, XVIII. 817. VIII. 620.

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS, XXIV. 479, 480. PHOSPHINE, in chemistry, 516; PHRENOLOGY, XVIII. 842; Combe's PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, X. 210. XVIII. 817.

essays on, VI. 179; Gall's researches in, PHYSICAL-MEDICAL SCHOOL, xv. 810. PHOSPHO GUANO, XI. 234; XV. 512.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, XIX. I. PHOSPHOR-BRONZE, XVIII. 817; wire PHRENO-TYPING, mnemonic system, PHYSICIANS, Royal College of, London, of, xxiv. 615. XVI. 533.

xiv. 652. PHOSPHORESCENCE, XVIII. 813; XIV. PHRIAPATIUS, Parthian king, XVIII. Physic NUT, XVII. 664, 665. 603; of annelids, II. 71; in crystals, 590.

Physics, xix. 1; of Aristotle, II. 520; XVI. 375; in Protozoa, xix. 861; of PHRYGIA, country, Asia Minor, XVIII. Epicurean theory of, viii. 474; Kant's the sea, vi. 664. 849; coins of, xvII. 648.

works on, xiii. 847; Stoic doctrine PHOSPHORIC ACID, as manure, XV. PHRYGIAN MYSTERIES, XVII. 126. of, XXII. 563; physical societies, XXII. 508.

PHRYNE, Greek courtesan, XVIII. 853; 225. PHOSPHORISTS, school of Swedish litera II. 169.

PHYSIOCRATS, French school of econoture, XXII. 757

PHRYNICHUS, Athenian general, xvIII. mists, XIX. 359; XX. 176. PHOSPHORITE, mineral, xviii. 818. 854.

PHYSIOGNOMY, XIX.

3; Lavater

on, PHOSPHOROCHALCITE, mineral, XVI. Athenian tragic poet, XVIII. 854.

XIV. 351. 406.

, poet of Old Attic Comedy, XVIII. PHYSIOGRAPHY, in geology, X. 370. PHOSPHOROSCOPE, optical instrument, 854.

PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION, Romanes's XIV. 603.

ARABIUS, Bithynian grammarian, theory, XXIV. 82. PHOSPHORUS, chemical element, xvIII. XVIII. 854.

PHYSIOLOGUS, mediæval collection of 815; V. 315; as fuel, ix. 809; in PHRYNIDES, family of Arachnida, 11. allegories, xix. 6. iron smelting, XIII. 296; in match 289.

PHYSIOLOGY, XIX. 8 (index, 63); III. manufacture, xv. 625; as plant food, PHRYNOSOMA, genus of lizards, xiv. 684; XVII. 667; scope of the science, XIX. 49; as a poison, xix. 278; its

XXIV. 800; in relation to medicine, presence in steel, XIII. 283.

PHTHA, Egyptian divinity, Vil. 717. XV. 794; to morphology, XVI. 845; to PHOTIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, PHTHALIC ACID, XVIII. 855.

phrenology, XVIII. 847; to psychology, XVIII. 819; as lexicographer, XI. 146; PHTHIOTIS, district, Thessaly, XXIII. XX. 37; to zoological study, XXIV. on Greek romance, xx. 634; opposed 299.

814; vegetable, xix. 43; Empedocles's by Pope Nicholas I., XVII. 483. PHTHIRIASIS, disease, XV.

24; XXII. theory of, viii. 179; contributions to PHOTODILUS, section of owls, xvIII. 89.

123

the science by Brodie, Iv. 358; by PHOTO-ENGRAVING, XVIII. 834. Phthisis, disease, xvIII. 855, 405. Andrew Combe, VI. 179; by Johannes PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING, XVIII. 830. PHU-THUA-THIEN, Phu-tua-tien Müller, XVII. 17; by Schwann, xxi. PHOTOGRAPHY, XVIII. 821; Daguerre's (Hué), town, Anam, vi. 96; XII. 333. 460; by Spallanzani, xxII. 367 ; by

invention of, vi. 761; Niepce's inven- PHYCOERYTHIN, colouring matter in Wagner, XXIV. 313. tions in, XVII. 495; applied to astro plants, XIX. 52.

PHYSOSTIGMINE, vegetable alkaloid, iv. nomy, 11. 789, 802; XVIII. 248; XXIII. PHYCOMYCETES, order of Fungi, ix. 650. 142, 148, 153; use of, in mapping, XXII. 830; XXIV. 127.

PHYSOSTOMI, order of fishes, XII. 692. 714, 716.

PHYCOXANTHIN, colouring matter in PHYTELEPHAS, genus of plants, XIII. PHOTO-GRAVURE, process of niap-print plants, XIX. 52.

524; XVIII. 190. ing, XXII. 717.

PHYLACTERY, Jewish prayer-thong, XIX. PHYTOMASTIGODA, group of Protozoa, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY, XIV. 699; XVIII. I; 1. 781; III. 193.

XIX. 857 833.

PHYLACTOLÆMA, order of Polyzoa, XIX. PHYTOPHAGA, section of beetles, VI. PHOTOMETRY, Celestial, XVIII. 840;

134. XIV. 583; XXIV. 423.

PHYLLIDIOBRANCHIA, suborder of Mol- PIACENZA, town, Italy, xix. 64; uniPHOTOPHONE, telephone, XXIII. 130. lusca, XVI. 645, 655.

versity of, xxIII. 836. PHOTO-RELIEFS, XVIII. 834.

PHYLLIRHOE, genus of Mollusca, XVI. PIACULAR SACRIFICES, XXI. 136. PHOTOSPHERE, of the sun, xxII. 645. 634, 656.

PIAGNONI, Florentine faction, XXI. 337. PHOXICHILUS, genus of Arachnida, 11. PHYLLOCACTUS, group of Cactaceæ, iv. PIA MATER, Anatomy of the, 1. 865. 277. 626.

PIANOFORTE, musical instrument, XIX. PHOXINUS, genus of fishes, XVI. 477. PHYLLOPTERYX, genus of fishes, Xi. 64; invention and introduction of, PHRAASPA, Armenia, Siege of (36 B.C.), 852; XXI. 579.

XVII. 94. XVIII. 598.

PHYLLORHINA, genus of bats, XV. 412. PIANOSA, island, Italy, XIII. 440. PHRAATES I., Parthian king, XVIII. PHYLLOSCOPUS, genus of birds, xxiv. PIARISTS, Roman Catholic brotherhood, 590. 688.

XIX. 78. II., Parthian king, XVIII. 594. PHYLLOSTICTA, vine fungus, XXIV. 240. PIATRA, town, Roumania, xix. 78. III., Parthian king, xvIII. 595. PHYLLOSTOMLDÆ, family of chiropter- PIAZZA ARMERINA, town, Sicily, xix. IV., Parthian king, xvIII. 598. ous mammals, XV. 414.

79.

736.

or

436.

XVI. 212.

V. 359.

Piazzi, Giuseppe, Italian astronomer, 663; VIII. 265; XXI. 473, 476; of PIETROSS, mountain, Transylvania,
II. 758.
Irish legend, XIII. 244.

XXIII. 521.
Pica, genus of birds, xv. 284.

Picts' HOUSES, 11. 339; in Orkney and PIETROZZA, mountain, Austria, 111. 116. PICACHO DE LA SIERRA, mountain, Shetland, 11. 384; XVII. 848.

PIEZOMETER, for measuring compression Venezuela, XXIV. 139.

PICTURE-FRAME MAKING, V. 170. of liquids, xv. 745; XVIII. 549; XXIII. PICARD, Jean, French astronomer, li. PICTURE GALLERIES, of Europe, XXI. 292. 755; his measurement of arc of the

444.

PIG, XXII. 773; diseases of the, xxiv. meridian, VII. 597.

PICTURE-WRITING, VII. 447; Mexican, 205, 206; as an unclean animal, xxIII. PICARDS (Beghards, q.v.), religious sect,

18. in Bohemia, I. 140.

PICULETS, group of birds, XXIV. 652. PIGALLE, Jean Baptiste, French sculptor, PICARDY, province, France, xix. 79. Picus, genus of birds, xxiv. 651; III. XIX. 84. PICARIÆ, group of birds, XVIII. 47. 716; in Roman mythology, xv. 570. PIGAULT-LEBRUN, Charles Antoine PICCADILLY, London, xiv. 847.

PIDHAVRO, town, Greece, VIII. 476. Guillaume, French novelist, XIX. 84. Picci, Gio Antonio, Sienese historian, PIDURU TALAGALA, mountain, Ceylon, Pigeon, bird, xix. 84, 647; VII. 379; XXII. 43.

peculiarities in breeds of, iv. 246, 247; PICCINI, Niccola, Italian musical com Pie, or Magpie, bird, xv. 284; XIII. carrier, vii. 379. poser, XIX. 79; XVII. 95. 610.

ENGLISH, jargon spoken by ChinaPiccolo, flute, ix. 350.

PIEDMONT, region, North Italy, xix. men, V. 38. PICCOLOMINI, Æneas Sylvius (Pope Pius 81; dialect of, XIII. 493; under ISLAND, West Indies, XXI. 186. II.), XIX. 152; XXII. 41, 43.

Cavour, V. 275.

PIGEON-POST, XIX. 581. PICCOLPASSO, Cipriano, on majolica House of, Italian dynasty, xiii. PIGEON-SHOOTING, XXI. 833. ware, XIX. 625.

483.

PiG-IRON, XIII. 306; qualities of, xiii. PiCEA, genus of trees, IX. 224.

Kingdom of, Italy, XIII. 486. 284. PICENTES, ancient Italian people, XXI. PIEDMONTITE, mineral, XVI. 409. PIGMENTS, XIX. 85; in animal tissues, 128; XXIII. 723.

PIEDMONT PLATEAU, North Carolina I. 851; in plants, xix. 52; in fungi, PICENUM, ancient district, Italy, XIII. and Virginia, U.S.A., XVII. 559; XXIV. IX. 828; from lichens, xiv. 559; of 444, 447. 256.

copper, Vi. 351; colours from mixture PICHEGRU, Charles, French general, PIEPOWDER COURTS, England, VIII. of, xiv. 600; for pottery, XIX. 643; for XIX. 79; IX. 606; III. 130; his invasion 849.

water-colour painting, xvIII. 139. of Holland, xii. 82. PIER, Harbour, XI. 455, 465.

PIGNATELLI, Antonio (Pope Innocent PichiciAGO, edentate mammal, v. 676; PIERCE, Franklin, president of the XII.), XIII. 85. XV. 387. United States, xix. 81; XXIII. 770.

PIGNEAUX DE BETAINE, bishop in PICHINCHA, mountain, Ecuador, VII. PLOWMAN'S CREDE, anonymous

Tong-King, XXIII. 440. 645; XX. 189.

poem, XIV. 285.

PIGNORIS CAPio, in Roman law, xx. Pick, mining implement, XVI. 444. PIERIA, district, Macedonia, XV. 137. 685.

Edward, on mnemonics, XVI. 533. PIERO DE' FRANCESCHI, Italian painter, Pigot, Thomas, English musician, XVII. PICKEREL, fish, XIX. 89.

XIX. 82; XXI. 435.

89. PICKERING, Prof., his method of stellar PIERPOINT, John, American poet, 1. 722.

PIGOTT'S COMET, VI. 192. photometry, xvIII. 841.

PIERRE DE PROVENCE ET LA BELLE | PIG-Rat, rodent mammal, xvII. 5. CASTLE, Yorkshire, England, xxiv. MAGUELONNE, romance, XX. 658.

PiG-STICKING, sport, XII. 396. 749.

PIERRES PERDUES, in harbours, xi. PIGTAIL TOBACCO, XXIII. 426. PICKLES, XIX. 80.

464.

PIH-TUN-TSZE, porcelain earth, XIV. 90. PICKWICK PAPERS, Dickens's novel, PIERSON, Abraham, one of the founders PIKE, fish, xix. 88; XII. 693; parasite VII, 175.

of Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A., XVII. in, XXIII. 540; angling for, 11. 44. Pico, island, Azores, III. 172. 371.

William, on steam cultivation, I. mountain, Vermont, U.S.A., XXIII. PIERS THE PLOWMAN, Vision of William 317. 792.

concerning, Langland's poem, XIV. Zebulon M., explorer of New Giovanni, of Mirandola, Italian 285, 811; XXI. 319, 740; lines from, Mexico, XVII. 401. philosopher, xix. 80.

quoted, 1. 586.

PIKE-PERCH, fish, xix. 89. PICOTEE, plant, XII. 254; XIX. 106. PIÉTÉ, Mont de, national pawnbroking PIKE'S PEAK, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., PICOTITE, mineral, xvi. 386.

establishment, Paris, XVIII. 283.

XXIII. 796. PICRÆNA, genus of plants, xx. 160. PIETER BOTTE, mountain, Mauritius, PILAR, Villa, town, Paraguay, XVIII. PICRIC ACID, V. 85; VIII. 808. xv. 639.

244. PICROLITE, mineral, xvi. 414.

PIETERMARITZBURG, town, Natal, I. PILASTER, in architecture, 11. 469; PICROPHYLL, mineral, XVI. 414. 270; XVII. 240.

Egyptian, II. 391. PICROSMINE, mineral, XVI. 414. PIETISM, German religious movement, PILATE, Pontius, Roman governor of PICTET, Raoul, his liquefaction of gases, xix. 83; 1x. 702; X. 532; XX. 289; Judæa, xix. 89; XIII. 668.

XIX. 245; his apparatus, XII. 434. XXII. 392; influence of, v. 695; in PiLÂTRE DE ROZIER, François, aeroPICTON, Sir Thomas, British general, Halle university, XXIII. 847.

naut, 1. 188, 191. XIX. 81.

PIETRA DURA, variety of mosaic, xiii. PILCHARD, fish, XIX. 90; XII. 694 ; PICTONES, tribe of ancient France, XIX. 81.

fisheries, VI. 426; ix. 253, 254. 282.

PIETRO, Giovanni di (Lo Spagna), PILCOMAYO, river, South America, Xix. PICTOR, Q. Fabius, Roman historian, Italian painter, XXII. 292.

188. VIII. 836; XIV. 728.

DE FRANCESCHI, Italian painter, Pile, in heraldry, xi. 696. PICTOU, town, Nova Scotia, XVII. 603; XIX. 82; XXI. 435.

FABRICS, cloth, XXIV. 467. island, xvii. 601.

IMPERIOLA, prefect of Rome, xx. Piles, in bridge-building, IV. 327. Picts, ancient people, Scotland, iv. 353, 789.

disease, XI. 366; XXII. 684.

XXV. 44

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