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XIII. 525.

Gothic architecture, II. 434; army, II. Ivan II., of Moscow, XIII. 519; XXI. | JABALLAH, king of Ghassan, Arabia, 612; birds, XVIII. 17; coins, XVII. 91.

XVII. 481. 636, 657; drama, VII. 416; forests, IX. III., the Great, of Moscow, XIII. JABALPUR, district, Central India, XIII. 403; foundling hospitals, ix. 483; 519; XXI. 91.

528; town, XIII. 529. ancient glass-making, x. 648; irriga IV., the Terrible, first czar of JABARITES, Moslem sect, XVI. 592. tion works, XIII. 369; Jews in, XIII. Russia, XIII. 519; XXI. 92; his mas- JABIRU, bird, XIII. 529. 685; language, XIII. 491; XIV. 340; sacre of the Novgorodians, JABLONSKI, Johann Theodor, his XVIII. 784; libraries, xiv. 512, 513, 608.

Allgemeines Lexicon, viII. 195. 528, 548; literature, XIII. 498; mines, V., of Russia, XIII. 519; XXI. 97. JABNEEL, or Jabneh (Jamnia), town, XVI. 468; mural paintings, early VI., of Russia, XIII. 519; XXI. Palestine, XIII. 563. Christian, xvII. 43; national debt, 98.

JABORANDI, plant and drug, XIII. 529. XVII. 246; navy, XVII. 299; news IVANCICA, Mount, Croatia, VI. 591. JACA, town, Spain, XIII. 530. papers, XVII. 431; observatories, xvII. IVANOVO, or Ivanovo-Voznesensk, town, JACAMAR, bird, XIII. 531. 713; oyster culture, XVIII. 108; perio Russia, xiii. 520; XXI. 849; popula- JACANA, bird, xiii. 531. dical literature, XVIII. 542; post-office, tion, XXIV. 271.

JACARANDA, variety of wood, xx. 851. XIX. 583; prison system, xix. 761; Ivica, or Iviza, one of the Balearic JACARE, South-American alligator, vi. railways, xx. 251; weights and mea Islands, Mediterranean Sea, III. 278. 594. sures, XXIV. 490; wine industry, xxiv. IVORY, XIII. 520; carving of, v. 167; JACCETANI, ancient tribe, Spain, XIII. 609.

Japanese, XIII. 591; supply of, viii. 531. ITALY, Rogers's poem, XX. 622.

124; XV. 349.

JACINTH, or Hyacinth, gem, X. 141. - History of, Guicciardini's work, XI.

Vegetable, XIII. 524; XVII. 664.

or Hyacinth, plant, XII. 419. 256.

James, Scottish mathematician, JACKAL, carnivorous mammal, XIII. 532; ITAMARACA, town, Brazil, xviii. 551.

XV. 438; its relation to the dog, vii. ITANGUA, town, Paraguay, XVIII. 244. Coast, West Africa, XIII. 525; I. 324; emblem of the god Anubis, 11. ITASCA, lake, Minnesota, U.S.A., XVI. 269.

146. 475. IVREA, town, Italy, XIII. 525.

JACKDAW, bird, xiii. 532. ITASY, lake, Madagascar, xv. 169. Ivry-LA-BATAILLE, town, France, XIII. JACKMAN, Charles, Arctic explorer, XIX. ITATIAIOSSU, Pico do, mountain, Brazil, 525; battle of (1590), IX. 564.

316. IV. 222.

IVRY-SUR-SEINE, town, France, xii. JACK OF NEWBURY (John Winchcombe), ITCH, skin disease, xvIII. 270; XXII. 123. 525; XXI. 624.

XVII. 375. ITCH-MITE, arachnid, 11. 275; XVI. Ivy, plant, XIII. 526.

JACK-SNIPE, bird, xxII. 200. 529; XVIII. 270; XXII. 123.

IXEUTICA, Oppian's poem, XVII. 797. JACKSON, town, Michigan, U.S.A., XIII. ITELM, people, Kamchatka, Asia, XIII. Ixion, in Greek legend, XIII. 527.

533. 832. IXMAL, town, Yucatan, xxiv. 758.

town, Mississippi, U.S.A., XIII. ITHACA, island, Greece, XIII. 517, 205. IXODIDÆ, Ixodides, family of 533. town, New York, U.S.A., XIII. 517; Arachnida, XVI. 528; II. 276.

, town, Tennessee, U.S.A., Cornell University at, XXIII. 857. IXOLYTE, mineral, XVI. 428.

533; XXIII. 178. ITHACIUS, bishop of Ossonuba, XIX. IXTACCIHUATL, mountain, Mexico, XVI. Andrew, president of the United 746. 215.

States, XIII. 533 ; XXIII. 760, 762, ITHNA-ASHARIYA, Mohammedan sect, IYEMITSU, Shrine of, at Nikko, Japan, 764. XXII. 664. XVII. 503.

Thomas Jonathan (Stonewall ITHOBAL (Ethbaal), king of Tyre, XVIII. IYEYASU, shogun, Japan, Xill. 583 ; Jackson), American Confederate gene807. tomb of, at Nikko, XVII. 503.

ral, xiii. 534; XXIII. 777. II., of Tyre, xvIII. 808. IYNX, genus of birds, xxiv. 698.

William, English musician, XIII. ITHOMÆA, festival, Greece, xvi. 52. IYRCÆ, ancient nomadic race, Russia, 535. ITHON, river, Wales, XX. 217.

XXI. 575.

JACKSONVILLE, town, Florida, U.S.A., Itil, ancient town of the Khazars, xiv. IZABAL, lake, Guatemala, XI. 239.

XIII. 536. 59.

IZALCO, volcano, Central America, XXI. -, town, Illinois, U.S.A., XIII. 536. ITINERARIUM, Roman road-book, XIII. 268.

JACOB, Hebrew patriarch, XIII. 536. 517; Antonine's, XVIII. 437.

IZAMAL, Pyramid of, Yucatan, XXIV. of Edessa, Syriac writer, XXII. SEPTENTRIONALE, Gordon's, X. 759.

825, 839. 782. IZGAUR, town, Russia, XVI. 437.

of Nisibis, Syriac writer, xxII. ITIUS PORTus, Cæsar's point of em IZHEVSK, town, Russia, XXIV. 303.

827. barkation for Britain, XIII. 517. IZHUATLAN (Orizaba), town, Mexico,

of Serugh, Syriac writer, XXII. ITSMIADSIN(Etchmiadzin), town, Russia, XVII. 845.

831. VIII. 566.

IZIASLAFF, prince of Kieff, Russia, XXI. -, Henry, English Independent, XII. It's NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND, 89.

725. Reade's novel, XX. 303. IZYUM, town, Russia, xiv. 57

BAR SALIBI, bishop of Marash, ITURBIDE, Augustin de, emperor of

Syriac writer, XXII. 851. Mexico, XIII. 518; XVI. 219.

BAR SHAKKO, bishop of Mar ITURUP, one of the Kurile Islands,

Matthew, Syriac writer, XXII. 852. Asia, XIV. 160.

XIII. 528.

JACOBA, countess of Holland, XII. 72. ITZEHOE, town, Holstein, Germany, xi1. JAAFAR (Giafar), vizier of Haroun al- JACOBABAD, town, India, XIII. 536; 518. Raschid, ill. 377

XXIII. 860. ITZLI, Mexican obsidian, XVII. 717. JAAK-Tash, river, Syr-Daria, Asia, JACOBI, Friedrich Heinrich, German IVAN I., grand-duke of Moscow, XIII. XXII. 818.

philosopher, XIII. 536; X. 541; his 519; XXI. 91. JABAL, of Scripture, XIV. 238.

relation to rationalism, XX. 290.

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JACOBI, Karl Gustav Jacob, German | JAGIC, Ignaz V., Bohemian philologist, | JAM, conserve of fruit, XIII. 564. mathematician, xiii. 538, 67; on de XXI. 691; XXII. 153.

JAMAICA, island, West Indies, xiii. 548; terminants, l. 516. JAGIELLO, prince of Lithuania, XIX.

XXIV. 510. Stephen Ludwig, discoverer of 288.

PEPPER, XIX. 97. artificial fish-breeding, XIX. 127. JAGST, division, Würtemberg, xxiv. Town, Long Island, New York, JACOBIANS, class of determinants, XIII. 700.

U.S.A., XIV. 866. 31.

JAGUAR, carnivorous mammal, XIII. JAMAL BARIZ, mountains, Persia, XVIII. JACOBINA, department, Brazil, XXIV. 542; 1. 682; XV. 435.

619. 227.

JAGUARON, town, Paraguay, XVIII. JAMB, in architecture, II. 466. JACOBIN CLUB, of French Revolution, 244.

JAMBI, kingdom, Sumatra, XXII. 639. IX. 596, 600, 607; XX. 602.

JAH (Jehovah, q.v.), of Scripture, xiii. JAMES, St, the Lord's brother, XIII. 552. JACOBITE CHURCH, or Jacobites, XIII. 619.

son of Alphæus, XIII. 552. 538; III. 56; VI. 354; XI. 155; XXII. JAHAN, Shah, Mogul emperor, XII. 795; son of Zebedee, XIII. 552. 842, 845, 848. XX. III.

General Epistle of, xiii. 553. JACOBITES, in Scottish history, XIII. JAHANABAD, town, India, XIII. 542.

I., king of Aragon, XVIII. 450 ; 561; XXI. 526.

JAHANGIR, Mogul emperor, XII. 795. XXII. 317, 322.
JACOBS, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm, JAHANGIRPUR, or Jangipur, town, India, II., of Aragon, XXII. 323.
German scholar, XIII. 539.
XIII. 564.

I., king of England (VI. of ScotJACOBSITE, mineral, xvi. 386.

JAHN, Johann, German Orientalist and land), XIII. 577; VIII. 341, 343; XXI. JACOBSON, Louis L., on birds, xvIII. Biblical critic, XIII. 542.

507; his patronage of Bacon, III.

Otto, German philologist and art 204; his relations with Buckingham, JACOPO DE BARBARI, Venetian artist, critic, XIII. 543; XX. 569.

IV. 417; Coke's opposition to, VI. 120; VII. 555, 556.

JAIHUN (Oxus), river, Central Asia, his rule in Ireland, xiii. 265; parliaJACOPONE (Jacopo dei Benedetti), Italian XVIII. Ior.

ment under, xviii. 307; suppression poet, XIII. 500.

JAILS, Xix. 747; Mrs Fry's reforms of, of Presbyterianism in Scotland by, JACOTOT, Joseph, French educationist, IX. 804; Howard's, XII. 320.

XIX. 682; his relations with Raleigh, XIII. 539; VII. 677.

JAINS, Indian sect, XIII. 543; I. 59; XX. 263; his writings, XXI. 542. JACQUARD, Joseph Marie, inventor of their religious system, 360; II., of England, XIII. 559 ; VIII. silk-weaving loom, XIII. temples of, I. 423; II. 395.

350; the Popish Plot under, xvII. 697; carpet machine, V. 130; his loom, JAINTIA Hills, district, Assam, India, his relations with Ireland, XIII. 268; XXIV. 465. XIII. 544; XIV. 58.

with Scotland, XXI. 517; with Penn, JACQUELIN, countess of Holland, XII. JAIPAL, raja of Lahore, India, xv. 286. XVIII. 496; with William of Orange, 72.

JAIPUR (Jeypore), state, India, XIII. 688; XXIV. 579; a refugee in France, ix. JACQUERIE, revolt of peasantry, in XX. 260; town, XIII. 688; XVII. 845. 579. France, IX. 547. Jais, town, India, XX. 222.

I., king of Scotland, xiii. 555; JACQUIER, François, on magnetism, xv. JAISALMIR, Rajput state, India, XIII. VIII. 413; XXI. 491; as poet, XXI. 236. 545; XX. 260.

540. JACTITATION MARRIAGE, JAISAMAND, artificial lake, India, XXIII. II., of Scotland, XIII. 556; XXI. 303. 716.

493. JACULUS, genus of rodent mammals, JAJPUR, or Jajpore, town, India, XIII. III., of Scotland, xiii. 556; XXI. XIII. 626. 545.

494. JADE, precious stone, XII. 539; XVI. JAKOB, Ludwig Heinrich von, German IV., of Scotland, XIII. 557 ; XXI. 417; of Burmah, iv. 552; of Turke political economist, XIII. 545.

496. stan, XXIII. 638.

Therese A. L. von (Talvj), author V., of Scotland, XIII. 557 ; XXI. JADEITE, mineral, xIII. 540; XVI. 420. ess, wife of Dr E. Robinson, XX. 607. 497. JADWIGA, queen of Poland, xix. 288. JAKOBS Elv, river, Norway, XVII. VI. and VII., of Scotland. See JAEN, province and town, Spain, XIII. 576.

James I. and II., of England. 541.

JAKOBSHAVN, district, Greenland, XI. king of Sicily, XXII. 28. JAFAR KHAN, governor of Bengal, vi. 171.

Chevalier of St George, the Pre10; XII. 801.

JALALABAD, town, Afghanistan, I. 230. tender, XIII. 560; recognized as James JAFFA (Joppa), town, Palestine, XIII. JALALUDDIN, shah of Khwarizm, XIII. III. by Louis XIV., IX. 581. 746. 622.

, George Payne Rainsford, English JAFFIER ALI KHAN, or Jafar Khan, RUMI, Persian poet, XXI. 59.

novelist, XIII. 561. governor of Bengal, vi. 10; XII. 801. JALANDHAR, district, India, XIII. 545; John Angell, English Independent JAFFNA, or Jaffnapatam, town, Ceylon, XX. 109; town, XIII. 546.

minister and author, XIII. 561. XIII. 541.

DOAB, India, xx. 107.

Thomas, Arctic explorer, XIX. JAFFRAY, Alexander, Scottish Quaker, JALAP, drug, XIII. 546.

318. XX. 152.

JALAPA, town, Mexico, XIII. 547; XVI. City, Virginia, U.S.A., XXIV. 260. JAGADHRI, town, India, XIII. 542.

214.

JAMESON, Anna, English writer, XIII. JAGANNATH (Juggernaut), Hindu god JALAPIN, resin, XIII. 547.

562. and temple, India, XVII. 845; XX. 115. JALAUN, district, India, XIII. 547; town, or Jamesone, George, Scottish JAGATAI, Turkish dialect, xxIII. 661. XIII. 548.

painter, XIII. 563. JAGDISPUR, town, India, XXI. 735. JALNA, town, India, XIII. 548.

Robert, Scottish naturalist, xiii. JAGERSFONTEIN, diamond mines, South JALOMITZA, river, Roumania, XXI. 14. 563. Africa, xvII. 813.

JALPAIGURI, district and town, India, JAMESONITE, mineral, XVI. 394. JAGHERS, Hendrickie, Rembrandt's XIII. 548.

JAMESTOWN, town, New York, U.S.A., mistress, xx. 376. JALPAITE, mineral, XVI. 392.

XIII. 563.

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XX. 440.

JAMESTOWN, town, St Helena, Atlantic | JANSONIUS, Jacobus, Dutch theologian, | JARROW-ON-TYNE, town, England,
Ocean, XXI. 171.
XIII. 566.

XIII. 593; monastery of, III. 481. JAMES Town, Virginia, Founding of JANSSEN, or Jansen, Cornelius, Dutch JARSON, John de (Gerson), chancellor of (1607), XXII. 175; XXIII. 729; first painter, XIII. 567.

university of Paris, X. 549. English settlement, xxiv. 260. JANSSENS, or Jansens, Victor Honorius, JASCHI (Jassy), town, Roumania, XIII. JAMESTOWN WEED, plant, XVII. 231. Flemish painter, XIII. 568.

596; XXI. 16. JAMI, Nuruddin Abdurrahman ibn VAN NUYSSEN, Abraham, Flemish | JASHAR, Donaldson's work, vii. 358. Ahmed, Persian poet, XIII. 563; XVIII. painter, XIII. 568.

Book of, xi. 598; XIII. 408. 659

JANTHINA, genus of Mollusca, XVI. JASHPUR, state, India, XIII. 594 ; v. JAMIESON, John, Scottish lexicographer, 651.

768. XIII. 563. JANUARIUS, St, XIII. 568.

JASMIN, Jacques, French poet, XIII. 594. JAMNIA, town, Palestine, XIII. 563.

Cathedral of, at Naples, XVII. 189. JASMINE, plant, XIII. 594. JAMNITZER, Wenzel, German metal CANDIDATUS, Syriac writer, XXII. JASMUND, district, Rügen, Prussia, xxi. worker, xix. 184. 841.

56. JAMRUD, fort, Punjab, India, XIII. 564. JANUARY, month, xiii. 568.

JASNO GURA, Poland, Monastery of, vi. JAMS AND JELLIES, XIII. 564. JANUS, Roman god, XIII. 568.

754. JAMU, town, India, XIII. 564; district, JUNIUS (John Toland), English JASON, of Greek mythology, XIII. 596;

deist, XXIII. 434.

11. 496; XV. 776; romances concerning, JAMUNA (Jumna), river, India, XIII. JAPAN, country, Asia, XIII. 569; II. 687; XX. 640. 773; XX. 261.

invasion of China by, v. 649; of Corea JASPER, precious stone, XIII. 596; XVI. JAN, G., his classification of snakes, by (1597), VI. 394; Siebold's explora 389.

tions of, XXII. 36; coins of, xvil. 661; | JASSY, town, Roumania, XIII. 596; XXI. JANE EYRE, Charlotte Bronte's novel, forests, ix. 405; language, XXIV. 3; 16. IV. 365.

libraries, xiv. 534, 549; mines, XVI. JASZ-BERENY, town, Hungary, XIII. JANESVILLE, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 469; Christian missions to, XVI. 517; 597

XIII. 564; population, XXIV. 617. Jesuit missions to, XIII. 652; Xavier's | JÁTIVA, town, Spain, XIII. 597. JANGIPUR, town, India, XIII. 564. mission to, xxiv. 717; national debt, JATS, race of people, India, XIII. 597; I. JANIBEG KHAN, Mongol chief, XVI. XVII. 247; pilgrimages in, xix. 92; 235; XII. 746, 789; identification of, 747

pottery and porcelain, xix. 635; rail with the Gipsies, X. 617, JANICKI, Clement, Polish Latin poet, ways, xx. 252; religion, XX. 363; JAUBERT, Pierre Amédée Émilien Probe, XIX. 300.

Roman Catholic Church in, xix. 810; French Orientalist, XIII. 597. JANICULAN HILL, Rome, xx. 807. silk culture, XXII. 56; weights and JAUER, town, Prussia, XIII. 598. JANIK, province, Asiatic Turkey, XXIII. measures, XXIV. 490.

JAUHARY, Arabic lexicographer, XIII. 653.

Kaempfer's History of, xiii. 816. 598. JANIN, Jules Gabriel, French critic, Sea of, XVIII. 116.

JAULNA (Jalna), town, India, XIII. 548. XIII. 564; IX. 678, 679, JAPANESE ART, XIII. 588.

JAUNDICE, disease, XIII. 598; as resultJANINA, town, Albania, Turkey, XIII. | JAPANESE DRAMA, VII. 402.

ing from vaccination, XXIV. 26. 565; XXIII. 653.

JAPANESE LACQUER WORK, XIV. 194; JAUNPUR, district, India, XIII. 599; JANISSARIES, Ottoman troops, II. 617; varnish, xxiv. 92.

town, XIII. 600. XI. 120, 123; XXIII. 641, 642, 644, JAPANESE LANGUAGE, XIII. 585; XXIV. JAUNSAR, division, India, VII. 33. 645; revolt of, xxIII. 648, 650; sup

3; dictionaries of, vil. 192.

JAVA, island, Indian Archipelago, XIII. pression of, XXIII. 650.

JAPANESE LITERATURE, XIII, 586. 600; II. 687; XII. 818; birds of, ili. JAN MAYEN ISLAND, Norwegian Sea, JAPANESE WAX, XXIV. 459.

764; Buddhist ruins in, iv. 214; tea XVII. 592; seal fisheries of, XXI. 582. JAPANNING, industrial art, XIII. 592. culture,

98; weights and JANNÆUS, Alexander, Jewish high JAPARA, town, Java, XIII. 606.

measures, XXIV. 490. priest, XIII. 423.

JAPHETH, of Scripture, XIII. 593; XVII. Little (Bali), island, Eastern ArchiJANNART, Jacques, friend of La Fon

523.

pelago, III. 281. taine, XIV. 204. JARAHI, river, Persia, XVIII. 620.

ALMOND OIL, XVII. 744. JANOFF, town, Russian Poland, XXII. JARALES, bush-growing regions, Spain, JAVANESE LANGUAGE, XIII. 606; XVIII. 37. XXII. 297

779. JANSEN, Cornelius, Dutch theologian, JARAMA, affluent of Tagus, Spain, xxIII. JAVA SPARROW, XXIV. 463. XIII. 565.

JAW, Anatomy of the, 1. 825. Janssen, Cornelius, Dutch JAR-CONNAUGHT, district, Galway, JAWARI, Indian millet, vii. 564. painter, XIII. 567.

Ireland, x. 55.

JAWAROW, town, Austria, XIII. 610. , Kristoffer, Norwegian poet and JARDIN DES PLANTES, Paris, xvir. JAXARTES (Syr-Daria), river, Asia, novelist, XVII. 591. 281.

XXII. 818; 1X. 85; XI. 822; XXIII. 511, Zacharias, his relation to invention JARDINE, Sir William, his illustrations 12; in Ptolemy's geography, XX. 95. of the telescope, XXIII. 136.

of birds, XVIII. 13, 16, 18.

JAY, bird, xIII. 610. JANSENISM, religious movement in JARL, in early Scandinavian society, John, American statesman, XIII. France, XIII. 566; XIX. 507; relations XVII. 529; XXII. 744.

611. of the Pascal family to, XVIII. 334. JARNAC, town, France, XIII. 593.

William, English Dissenting JANSENISTS, of Port Royal, IX. 573, JAROMIERZ, town, Bohemia, XIII. 593 preacher and writer, XIII. 612. 578; XIV. 867; XIX. 533; as educa- JAROSITE, mineral, XVI. 402.

JAYADEVA, Hindu dramatist, XXI. 285. tionists, vii. 675; their influence on JARRAH WOOD, Australian tree, XIII. JAYME (James I.), king of Aragon, French literature, ix. 661. 593; XXIV. 508.

XVIII. 450; XXII. 317, 322. JANSENIUS (Jansen), Cornelius, Dutch JARRING, Effects of, on magnetization, JAYNTIYA Hills (Jaintia Hills), district, theologian, XIII. 565. XV. 268.

India, xiv. 58.

XXIII.

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JAY'S TREATY (1794), XXIII. 755.

XXIII. 83; Baxter's encounter with, 1 JERBA, island, North Africa, x. 442; JEAN D'ANGÉLY, Saint, town, France, III. 456.

XXIII. 620.
XIII. 612.
JEHOL, town, China, XIII. 619.

JERBOA, rodent mammal, XIII. 625; XV.
JEANNE D'ARC (Joan of Arc), Maid of JEHOVAH, divine name, XIII. 619, 397, 419; of Arabia, II. 243.
Orleans, IX. 550; XIII. 695.

409; I. 53; XIX. 815; in the Psalms, JERDAN, William, journalist, XIII. 626. JEAN PAUL (J. P. F. Richter, 4.v.), XX. 30; worship of, 111. 634.

JEREMIAH, Old Testament prophet, German humorist, XX. 546.

Servant of, in Isaiah, XIII. 382. XIII. 626, 415; XIX. 819. JEBAL, or Jibal (Irak Adjemi), province, JEHOVISTIC NARRATIVE, in the Penta Lamentations of, XIV. 240. Persia, XIII. 213.

teuch, I. 53; 111. 637; XVIII. 506. JEREMY, Epistle of, in Apocrypha, iii. JEBEIL, ancient town, Syria, XIII. 613. JEHU, king of Israel, XIII. 407.

405. JEBEL, Bahr al, headwaters of the Nile, JEJEEBHOY, Sir Jamsetjee, Indian JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA, town, Spain, Africa, XVII. 505, 507. Parsee, XIII. 619; XVIII. 326.

XIII. 629; wine of, XXIV. 607. AKHDAR, mountains, Arabia, II. JEJUNUM, Anatomy of the, VII. 226; JEREZ DE LOS CABALLEROS, town, 238, 255. XVII. 668.

Spain, XIII. 629. AKRA, mountain, Syria, XXII. 821. JELAL-ED-DIN RUMI, Persian poet, XIII. JERFALCON, bird, ix. 3. AL-AKHDAR, district, Tripoli, 619; XXI. 59.

JERICHAU, Jens Adolf, Danish sculptor, North Africa, XXIII. 575. JELLACHICH, Joseph, governor or ban

XXI. 570. AL-TUR, the Sinai group of moun of Croatia, III. 137; XII. 371.

JERICHO, town, Palestine, XIII. 629. tains, XXII. 88.

JELLINGE, Jutland, Barrow at, III. 398. JERNANG, resin, VII. 389. ASEER, mountain, Arabia, 11. 253. JELLY, Elasticity of, vil. 801.

JEROBOAM I., king of Israel, XIII. 406. EL-BARUK, mountain, Syria, xiv. as conserve of fruit, XIII. 564.

II., of Israel, XIII. 408. 393.

JELLY-Fish, Phosphorescence of, xvIII. JEROME, St, early Christian writer, XIII. EL-TIH, mountain, Arabia, xxii. 814.

630; on the canon of Scripture, V. 11; 88.

JELÖEN, island, Norway, XVII. 576. on the Catacombs, V. 207; his conES-SODA, mountains, Fezzan, JEM, mythical Persian king, XIII. 395. nexion with monachism, XVI. 702. Africa, ix. 128.

Turkish pretender, XXIII. 642.

of Prague, Reformer and martyr, JERMAK, mountain,

mountain, Palestine, JEMEZ, hot springs, New Mexico, U.S.A., XIII. 631; XX. 322. XVIII, 171.

XVII. 400.

JERROLD, Douglas William, English - JUDI, mountain, Kurdistan, xiv. JEMGALA, tribe, Lithuania, xiv. 702. humorist, XIII. 632. 156.

JEMMAPES, town, Belgium, XIII. 620; JERSEY, Channel Islands, England, XIII. KABKAB, mountain, Arabia, xv. XVI. 761; battle of (1792), 1X. 605. 634; newspapers of, XVII. 423. 670.

JEMTLAND, district, Sweden, XXII. 741. CATTLE, I. 389. KUNEISEH, mountain, Syria, xiv. JENA, town, Germany, xiii. 620; XXI. City, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., 393.

349; battle of (1800), XVII. 210; uni XIII. 635; XVII. 397; population, MARRAH, mountain, Soudan, versity of, XXIII. 845

XXIII. 822. Africa, XXII. 278.

JENATSCH, Georg, Swiss leader, xxiv. JERUBBAAL (Gideon), of Scripture, X. NEBI BARUH, mountain, Syria, 45.

589. XIV. 394.

JENGHIZ KHAN, Mongol emperor, XIII. JERUN, island, Persian Gulf, xvii. 856. TEIR, island, Red Sea, xx. 316. 620; II. 699; XVI. 740; his conquest | JERUSALEM, town, Palestine, XIII. 636;

ZUGUR, island, Red Sea, XX. 316. of China, v. 627, 647; of Tibet, xiv. under David, XIII. 404; siege and JEBŲ ODE, town, West Africa, xxiv. 503.

destruction of, by Titus, XIII. 428; 754.

JENKINSON, Anthony, English envoy to XXIII. 420; capture of, by the cruJEDBURGH, town, Scotland, xIII. 613; Persia, xvIII. 636; resident in Russia, saders, VI. 626; Knights of St John in,

XXI. 174; Knights Templars driven JEDDAH, or Jiddah, town, Arabia, XIII. Charles, first earl of Liverpool, out of, xxIII. 161; establishment of 691; XX. 316. XIV. 717.

bishopric of, iv. 523; Holy Sepulchre JEDRZEJEWICZ, Dr, his observatory, at Robert Banks, second earl of Liver at, XXI. 670; mosques, XVI. 865, Plonsk, Poland, XVII. 714. pool, XIV. 718.

Christian pilgrimages to, vi. 622; XIX. JEENS, English line-engraver, VIII. 443. JENKINS'S EAR, War of, between Eng 93; temple of, XXIII. 166; Nehemiah's JEFFERSON, mountain, Oregon, U.S.A., land and Spain, XXII. 339.

walls, xiii. 640. XVII. 822; XXIII. 800. JENNAH, village, Arabia, XVII. 773.

province, Asiatic Turkey, xxIII. Thomas, president of the United JENNER, Edward, English physician, 653 States, XIII, 613; XXIII. 756; drafts XIII. 622; XV. 815; his experiments ARTICHOKE, vegetable, XII. 283; Declaration of Independence, xxIII. in vaccination, XXIV. 23.

culture of, 1. 369. 743; his political school, xxIII. 755; JENNINGS, Sarah, duchess of Marl DELIVERED, Tasso's poem, XXIII. as author, 1. 721. borough, xv. 553.

76. - City, town, Missouri, U.S.A., XIII. JENSEN, Christen, Norse writer, xvii. JERVAULX ABBEY, Yorkshire, England, 616; XVI. 526. 589.

XXIV. 749. JEFFERSONITE, mineral, xvi. 416.

Peter Andreas, Norwegian poet JERVIS, John, Earl St Vincent, English JEFFERSONVILLE, town, Indiana, and dramatist, XVII. 591.

admiral, xxi. 201. U.S.A., XIII. 616; XV. 23.

JENSON, Nicolas, early German printer, JESI, town, Italy, XIII. 644. JEFFREY, Francis, Scottish lawyer and XXIII. 689.

JESSAMINE, or Jasmine, plant, XIII. 594 critic, XIII. 616; on beauty, I. 223. JENYNS, Soame, English writer, X111.625. | JESSE, of Scripture, vi. 837. Sarah, John Milton's mother, xvi. | JEPHTHAH, judge of Israel, XIII. 625.

Edward, English naturalist, XIII. 324. JERABUB, headquarters of Mohammedan

644. JEFFREYS, Lord, English judge, XIII. sect, Sahara, XXI. 151; XXIII. 575.

John Heneage, English writer, 618; his bloody assize at Taunton, JERASH (Gerasa), town, Palestine, X. 441. XIII. 645.

XXI. 34.

XXI. 93.

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XX. 4.

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JESSELMERE (Jaisalmir), state, India, Rome, XIX. 488; xx. 727; their archi- | JIZAK, town, Syr-Daria, Asia, xxII. 821. XIII. 545; XX. 260.

tecture, II. 392; coins, XVII. 650. JMUD, tribe, Lithuania, XIV. 702. JESSE TREE, wood-carving, xxiv. 646. JEWS, Modern, X111. 679; acclimatization Jo, image of Buddha, Tibet, XIV. 499. JESSOR, or Jessore, district, India, XIII. of, 1. 88; casuistry among, V. 203; their JOACHIM, abbot of Floris, mystic, XIII. 645.

cosmogonies, Vi. 447; fasting among, 694; XVI. 317; XVII. 132. JESTERS, IX. 366.

IX. 45; feasts of, ix. 115; Mahzor of, I. and Il., electors of Brandenburg, JESUITESSES, order of

nuns,

XV. 292; Mohammed's hostility to, XVI. 712.

550, 557; their relations with Moham George, Tyrolese scholar, xx. 508 JESUITS, or Company of Jesus, XIII. 645; medanism, XVI. 547, 550, 552, 555, FREDERICK, elector of Branden

institution of the order, xvIII. 430; 558; religion of, ini. 634; XX. 361; burg, xx. 5. casuistry of the, v. 204; VIII. 595; of Abyssinia, 1. 63; IX. 1; in Afghani- JOACHIMSTHAL, town, Bohemia, XIII. XIII. 651; as educationists, vii. 674; stan, I. 238; in Africa, I. 262; first 695; bismuth ores of, ill. 792. in relation to Jansenism, XIII. 566; settlement in China, XIII. 823; Khaza- JOAL, town, Senegal, Africa, XXI. 660. contests with La Chalotais, xiv. 192; rian, xiv. 60; in Russia, XXI. 79; JOAN, legendary female pope, XIII. 695. their influence on the popedom, XIX. in Russian Poland, xix. 309; in Spain, of Arc, maid of Orleans, XIII. 695; 504; interference in Tong-King, XXIII. XXII. 308, 326; expulsion from Spain, VIII. 321; IX. 550; her connexion with 440; colleges of, in France, XXIII. IX. 82.

Orleans, XVII. 849; at the siege of 846; missions of, XVI. 513; XIX. 811; Jew's HARP, or Jew's Trump, musical Paris (1429), xvIII. 290; tried for missions to China, XX. 536; under instrument, XIII. 688.

witchcraft, xxiv. 623. Pope Pius VI., XIX. 154; in Asia, II. JEYPORE, state, India, xill. 688; XX. of Naples and Provence, XIX. 878. 701; in Ireland, xiii. 263; in Spain, 260; town, XIII. 688.

JOANES, or Juanes, Vicente, Spanish XXII. 341, 345; suppression of, by JEYSULMERE, state, India, XX. 260. painter, XIII. 757. Pope Clement XIV., V. 823; XIX. | JEZEBEL, of Scripture, I. 420.

JOANNA II., queen of Naples, XX. 805. 507; suppression of, in France, ix. JEZIRA, or Jeziret Akur, Mesopotamia, wife of Philip I. of Spain, xvIII. 593. XVI. 48.

743; XXII. 327. JESUITS' BARK, or Cinchona Bark (q.v.), JEZREEL, town, Palestine, X111. 689; HENRIQUEZ, wife of John II, of v. 781. plain, XVIII. 171.

Aragon, XXII. 324. JESUITS' TEA, or Maté, xv. 627; IV. 227. JHAJJAR, town, India, XX. 623.

BELTRANEJA, daughter of JESUS, son of Sirach, XIII. 672; Book of JHALAWAR, state, India, XIII. 689; XX. Henry IV. of Castile, XXII. 321, 325. Wisdom of, in Apocrypha, II. 181. 260; district, XIV. 15.

JOANNES, Presbyter, or Prester John, Company of, or Jesuits (q.v.), xiii. JHANG, district, India, XIII. 689; XX. XIX. 714; I. 65; XVI. 745. 645. 109; town, XIII. 690.

of Epiphaneia, Byzantine historian, JESUS CHRIST, XIII. 656; relation of JHANSI, district and division, India, IV. 613.

Christianity to, v. 689; St Paul's con XIII. 690; XVII. 572; town, XIII. 690. MASSILIENSIS, monk, v. 182. ception of, XVIII. 425; Hegel's view of, JHARIJAS, tribe of Rajputs, India, vi. JOANNINA (Janina), town, Albania, I. XI. 613; Strauss's Life of, XXII. 592. 731.

448; XIII. 565. JESUS COLLEGE, Cambridge, IV. 731. JHELUM, or Jhilam, district, India, xil. JOANNITIUS, Arabian physician, xv. JESUS COLLEGE, Oxford, XVIII. 97. 690; town, XIII. 691.

805. JET, mineral, XIII. 672; XVI. 429.

river, India, Xiv. 10; XX. 107; XXI. JOÃO, or John (q.v.), kings of Portugal, JETHART JUSTICE, of Scottish proverb, 735.

XIII. 714.
XIII. 613.
JHIND, state, India, XIII. 691.

JOASH, king of Judah, XIII. 412.
JETSAM, in English law, ix. 342. JHUNG, or Jhang, district, India, XIII. JOB, Book of, XIII. 697, 420; III. 639.
JETTIES, River, xx. 577, 580; of the 689; XX. 109; town, XIII. 690. JOBISTES, in French literature, ix. 657.
Mississippi, XVI. 521.
JiB, of lifting crane, Vi. 547.

JOBST, elector of Brandenburg, XX. 3; JETTISON, maritime term, Ill. 146. JIBOA, river, Central America, XXI. 268. XXII. 48; XXIV. 501. JEVONS, William Stanley, English econo- JIDDAH, town, Arabia, XIII. 691; XX. JOB'S TEARS, plant and seeds, XIII. 703. mist, xix. 398.

316.

JOCELINE, bishop of Wells. XXIV. 500. JEW, The Wandering, XIII. 673. JIGAT (Dwaraka), town, India, VII. 567. JOCKEYS, in horse-races, XII. 198. JEWEL, or Jewell, John, bishop of Salis- JIGGER, insect, ix. 301; XIII. 150. JOCULATORES, mediæval minstrels, VII. bury, XIII. 675.

mining machine, XVI. 464.

413; XVI. 479. JEWELLERY, X111. 675; filigree work, ix. JIHLAVA (Iglau), town, Moravia, X11.700. JODELLE, Stephen, French dramatist,

163; rings, XX. 560; terra-cotta, XXII. JIHUN, river, Asia Minor, 11. 708; V. 777. VII. 423; IX. 651; XX. 841. 193; Etruscan, viII. 642; Indian, xi. Jilolo, island, Indian Archipelago, XIII. JODHPUR, state and town, India, XIII. 762. *C92.

703; XX. 260; town, XIII. 704. JEWISH CHURCH, History of, by Stanley, JIMAMAYLAN, town, Philippine Islands, JOEL, Book of, XIII. 704. XXII. 451.

XVIII. 752.

JOGLAR, medieval minstrel, xvi. 479. JEWISH LAW, Mishnah, XVI. 502; Tal. JIMENES, or Ximenes, Francisco, Spanish JOHANNA, island, Comores, Africa, Vi. mud, xxIII. 35; Mishneh Torah of cardinal and statesman, xiii. 693. Maimonides, XV. 295.

JINAS, prophets of the Jains, India, XIII. | JOHANNESBURG, town, Transvaal, South JEWISH LITERATURE, III. 635; XI. 597; 543.

Africa, XXIII. 518. XIII. 408; apocalyptic, II. 174; poet- JIND (Jhind), state, India, XIII. 691. JOHANNISBERG WINE, XXIV. 611. ical, III. 638.

JIRECEK, Hermenegild and Joseph, JOHANNITE, mineral, XVI. 402. JEWISH PHILOSOPHY, in the Alex Bohemian writers, XXII. 153.

JOHANSSON, Lars, Swedish poet, XXII. andrian school, I. 500; XVIII. 759. JIRJEH (Girgeh), town, Upper Egypt, X. 755. JEWISH YEAR, V. 713.

623.

JOHN, the apostle, xill. 706; his conJews, Ancient, their history, XIII. 396; JITOMIR (Zhitomir), town, Russia, xxiv. nexion with the Fourth Gospel, X. 818; dispersion of, XIII. 420, 429; in ancient 784.

with the Apocalypse, XX. 500.

220.

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