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The list of contributors, and the initials appended to the longer articles, are suů'icient to show that the ninth edition of the Encyclopwdía Britannica is no mere compilation, but the work of specialists writing from firsthand knowledge, to an extent that had not been attempted in previous works of the kind. But an Encyclopaedia, however brilliant its list of contributors, must always owe much to the constant and stated labours of a resident staff, whose members give their whole time to the work, and to these gentlemen a special acknowledgment is due. The Rev. George M‘Arthur read every sheet of the book down to 1883, after which date he had the assistance of Mr J. T. Bealby, but continued to take the chief and most responsible share in that minute revision which every line of such a work demands. The late Mr W. Browning Smith from 1873 to 1878, Prof. Adamson from 1874 to 1876, Mr H. A. Webster from 1874 to 1887, Mr F. H. Butler in 1876 and 1877, and Mr T. F. Henderson from 1877 to 1884 gave their daily service to the work of the Encyclopœdz'a, writing regularly on their own subjects, and helping the editors in various other ways. From the year 1878 Mr J. Sutherland Black acted as assistant editor, and from 1883 to the close of the work he was chief of the resident staff. To his knowledge, zeal, and judgment the work owes more than can be here expressed. It ought to be added that the task of the editors has at all times been much facilitated by the excellent administration of the publishers, who, quite apart from the ability and liberality with which they have conducted the business part of the undertaking, have throughout taken the greatest interest in the literary work of the Encyclopaedia, and have given to the editors the manifold assistance which can be derived from a practical knowledge of añ'airs.
W. ROBERTSON SMITH.
Сншзт’в COLLEGE, Carmiano»,
ABE, town, Greece, I. 4; XVIII. 801.
ABAI (Blue Nile), river, Abyssinie., I. 62; xv11. 507.
ABAKANSK, town, Siberia, 1. 4.
ABANA, river, Syria, 1. 4; v1. 790; XXII. 821.
ABANCAY, town, Peru, 1. 4.
ABANDONING, in law, I. 5.
ABANDONMENT, in marine assurance, 1. 4; X111. 186.
_, in law of railways, I. 5.
ABANO, town, Italy, I. 5; mineral Water of, xvi. 434.
_, Pietro d', Italian philosopher, I. 5 ; on physiognomy, XIX. 4.
ABARIS, the Hyperborean, I. 5; VII. 478.
ABAslA, district, Russia, 1. 5o.
ABATED WORK, in architecture, 11. 459.
ABATEMENT, in law and commerce, 1. 5.
ABATI, Niccolo, Italian painter, I. 5.
ABATrIs, in fortification, 1x. 422.
ABATTOIR, I. 5.
ABAUZIT, Firmin, French writer, I. 7.
ABB, town, Arabia, х. 8.
АввАсомхтвз, lay abbots, 1. 24.
ABBADIE, James, Protestant divine, I. 8.
ABBA JARED, mountain, Abyssinía, 1. 2 5o.
ABBAS I., the Great, shah of Persia, I. 8; хил. 637.
-— ll., of Persia, XVIII. 638.
_ III., of Persia, XVIII. 64o.
_, Persian poet, xv111. 655.
_, Theophilus, instructor of J ustinian, XXIII. 276.
_ MIRzA, prince of Persia, I. 8; XVIII. 648.
ABBAsms, or Abbassides, caliphs of Baghdad, 1. 8; xvi. 578; u. 259; ‘Ш. 749; their coins, XVII. 660.
>« _- ___» „___-__
ABBAsINATIoN, kind of torture, v14 802.
ABBÉ, French title, I. 9.
ABBE, Prof. E., his researches on the microscope, XVI. 264, 269, 274.
ABBEoxUTA (Abeokuta), town, West Africa, 1. 9; xx1v. 754.
ABBESS, l. 9; хш. 706.
ABBEVILLE, town, France, 1. ю; ххп. 261.
ABBEY, 1. ю.
ABBIATE GRAsso, town, Italy, 1. 22.
ABBON of Fleury, French writer, I. 22.
ABBoT, I. 22; XVI. 700; in House of Lords, куш. 459, 463.
_, Charles, Lord Colchester, VI. 124.
_, George, archbishop of Canterbury, 1. 25.
_, George, the Puritan, I. 2 5.
__, Robert., Puritan divine, I. 2 5.
_ oF UNREAsoN, v. 704.
ABBOTSFORD, 1. 26.
_ CLUB, 1. 26.
ABBRBviATIoNs, with list, 1. 26 ; in inscriptions, XIII. 126.
ABBREVIATORS, writers in papa1 chancery, I. 29. .
Аввт, Thomas, German philosopher, X. 535
ABDALLAH, Omayyad caliph in Spain, ххп. 312.
_ B.~YAzIM, founder of the Almoravides, I. 595.
_ B.ZOBAIR, 567.
ABDALLATIF, physician and traveller, I. 3o; on anatomy, l. 805.
ABD AL-MELIK, Omayyad ealiph, хш. 569
ABD AL-MUMIN, Moorish prince in Spain, I. 593; ххп. 316.
XXV. —— I
ABD AL-RAHMAN I., emir of Cordova,
ABD-EL-WAHI-IAB, founder of the Wah-
ABDERA, town, Thrace, I. 30; coins of,
ABD-UL-LATIF (Abdallatif), physician,
__, Persian sovereign, XVIII. 632.
ABD-UL-MEJID, Turkish sultan, I. 31;
` XXIII. 65o.
А’ВЕСКЕТТ, альт Abbott, English
on gun-cotton, XI. 277; on gunpowder,
XI. 322; XVI. 445, 460.
, Karl Friedrich, German musician,
, Niels Henrik, Norwegian mathe-
ABERCIUS, Phrygían saint, XVIII. 853.
ABERCONWAY (Conway), town, Wales,
_, James, speaker of the House of
_, John, Irish divine, I. 47.
, John, English surgeon, I. 47.
ABERRATION, of light, I. 47; XIV. 584,
—-, Peerages in, XVIII. 467.
ABGAR, kings of Edessa, I. 48; VII. 653.
ABGEORDNETENIIAUS, Prussian cham-
Авив-15110 BAR BAHRIZ, metropolitan
ABIID-Isno BAR BERIKIIA, metropolitan
dhism, 1V. 432.
A11-1-ISTADA, lake, Afghanistan, I. 23o.
ABJURATION, Oath of, I. 581; XVII. 701.
ABXHASIA, district, Asiatic Russia, I.
во, province, Finland, IX. 217.
of Nephtar, Syriac writer, XXII.
_ of Nisibis, Syriac writer, XXII. 836.