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GENESIS, Little, Jewish apocalyptic | GENTIOPICRIN, bitter principle of gen XVI. 440; of ocean formations, xvIII. book, II. 176. tian, x. 160.

127; of petroleum, xvIII. 714; BuckOF MAN, II. 110.

GENTIUM, Jus, in Roman law, xx. 695. land's researches in, iv. 420; De la GENESIUS, Byzantine historian, iv. 613. GENTIUS, Illyrian king, XII. 710.

Beche's contributions to, VII. 39; GENESTET, Pieter Augustus de, Dutch GENTLEMAN, use of the title, XVII. 524; Deluc's, VII. 53; Lyell's, XV. 101; writer, XII. 98.

xix. 664; in chivalry, XIV. 117, 119. Macculloch's, xv. 134; Mantell's, xv. GENET, or Genette, carnivorous mammal, GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, XIII. 721; 503; Hugh Miller's, XVI. 319; MurchiX. 146; XV. 436.

XVIII. 537 ; originated by Edward son's, XVII. 50; Phillips's, XVIII. 758; GENEVA, canton, Switzerland, x. 146 ; Cave, V. 271; under Nichols, XVII. 486. Saussure's, XXI. 324; William Smith's, XXII. 778, 794.

GENTLE SHEPHERD, Allan Ramsay's XXII. 178; Werner's, xxiv. 502; geotown, Switzerland, X. 147; XXII. poem, VII. 437; XVIII. 347; XX. 266. logical societies, XXII. 225. 778; observatory, XVII. 713; univer- GENTRY, social class, XVII. 524, 529. GEOMETRIC SERIES, XXI. 678. sity, XXIII. 851; Calvin's settlement | GENTZ, Friedrich von, German writer | GEOMETRY, X. 376; pure, X. 376; analyat, iv. 717 ; his church organization and statesman, X. 161; on the balance tical, x. 408; application of the calat, XIX. 678; Voltaire's residence at, of power in Europe, III. 268.

culus to, XIII. 5; of curves, VI. 716; XXIV. 290.

GENUATES, Ligurian tribe, xiv. 640. dimensions in, VII. 240; drawings and -, town, New York, U.S.A., X. 152. GENUCIAN LAW, Roman, XX. 681. models for, xv. 628; application of

Lake of, Switzerland, x. 151; XIV. GENUS, in classification, XXII. 372; functions in, ix. 818; its place in 217; XXII. 776. XXIV. 78.

mathematics, xv. 629; as applied to BIBLE, VIII. 387.

GEOCICHLA, genus of birds, XXIII. 322. measurement, XV. 659; theory of CONVENTION, of 1864 and 1868, X. GEOCRONITE, mineral, XVI. 395.

parallels in, XVIII. 254; as known to 152; I. 666; XIII. 195; of 1872, II. GEODEPHAGA, group of beetles, VI. Ptolemy, XX. 88; use of, in surveying, 313. 129.

XXII. 696; of Apollonius of Perga, II. GENEVIÈVE, St, patroness of Paris, x. GEODESIC LINES, in geometry, XXII.

188; Euclid's, viii. 655; Pythagorean, 152; church of, xvIII. 276. 671.

XX. 139; Boetius on, I11. 857; Gerbert's DE BRABANT, romance, XX. 659. GEODESY, X. 163; VII. 597; XV. 522, 659; contributions to, XXII. 76; Leonardo GENF (Geneva, q.v.), town, Switzerland, XXII. 696, 701; Legendre's papers and of Pisa's, xix. 125; Pappus of AlexX. 147 theorem, XIV. 414.

andria's, xvIII. 230; Plücker's, xix. GENGA, Annibale della (Pope Leo. XII.), GEODETIC SURVEYS, XV. 522.

228; Poncelot's, XIX. 452; Henry J. XIV. 452.

GEOFFREY, count of Anjou, the first S. Smith's, XXII. 173; Steiner's, XXII. Bernardin, on surgical anatomy, I. Plantagenet, XIX. 175.

531; Thales's, xxIII. 218; Theodo815.

MALATERRA, early chronicler, XVII. sius's, XXIII. 260. Girolamo, Italian painter and 547

Descriptive, xix. 800. architect, X. 152.

OF MONMOUTH, English chronicler, Elements of, by Legendre, xiv. GENIUS, in Greek mythology, xv. 478. X. 172; VIII. 407; XX. 643; his chro 414.

OF CHRISTIANITY, by Chateau nicle of Arthur, 11. 651; his writings, GEOMYIDÆ, family of rodent mammals, briand, v. 437 V. 315.

XV. 419. GENLIS, Comtesse de, French authoress, GEOFFROY, Julien Louis, French journa- GEONOMA, genus of palms, XVIII. 189, X. 153. list, XVII. 426.

190. GENNADIUS, Byzantine patriarch and SAINT-HILAIRE, Étienne, French GEORAMA GLOBES, X. 683. scholar, X. 153.

naturalist, X. 173; XVI. 839.

GEORDIE LAMP, for mines, VI. 72. GENNARGENTU, mountain, Sardinia, SAINT-HILAIRE, Isidore, French GEORGE, St, patron saint of England, XXI. 307 zoologist, X. 174.

X. 429. GENNARO, San (St Januarius), XIII. 568. GEOGALE, genus of insectivorous mam (of Podiebrad), king of Bohemia, GENNESARET, Lake of, Palestine, X. 29. mals, XV. 404.

XIX. 253 GENOA, town, Italy, X. 154; Doria's GEOGNOSY, X. 220.

I., king of Great Britain and Iredeliverance of, VII. 366 ; its struggles GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, of ani land, x. 420; VIII. 354. with Pisa, XIX. 119; contests with mals, 111. 684; VII. 267; of plants, vii. II., X. 421; VIII. 355. Venice, XIII. 479; XXIV. 144; coins 286.

III., X. 423; VIII. 356; his dislike of, XVII. 657 ; doge of, VII. 332; GEOGRAPHY, X. 175; ancient, xv. 516; of Fox, 1x. 497; his favour for Lord libraries, XIV.548; Voragine'schronicle of Mela, xv. 832; of Ptolemy, xx. North, xvII. 554; parliament under, of, XXIV. 297

91; of Strabo, XXII. 581; relation of XVIII. 308; his support of Pitt, XIX. GENOVA, Luchetto da, Italian painter, geodesy to, X. 163; relation of numis

140. X. 158.

matics to, XVII. 629; D'Anville's con IV., X. 427; VIII. 365. GENOVEFA, St (St Geneviève), patroness tributions to, vi. 821; Marco Polo's, V., king of Hanover, XI. 448. of Paris, X. 152.

XIX.408; Pytheas's, XX. 143; Rennell's, prince of Denmark, husband of GENOVESI, Antonio, Italian philosopher XX. 399; Ritter's, XX. 570; Varenius's, Queen Anne, 11. 62.

and economist, X. 158; XIX. 362. XXIV. 69; Edrisi's work on, VII. 670; of Amboise, archbishop of Rouen, GENSERIC, or Gaiseric, king of the geographical societies, XXII. 228.

Vandals, X. 159; XX. 781; XXIV. 58; GEOID, deformed surface, in surveying, bishop of the Arab tribes, Syriac his defeat of Leo III., XIV. 452; XXII. 708.

writer, xxII. 841. opposed by Majorianus, XV. 311. GEOK-TEPE, town, Transcaspian Region, of Beelthan, Syriac writer, xxII. GENTIAN, plant, X. 159.

Russia, XXIII. 512.

842. GENTILESCHI, Artemisia and Orazio de, GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION, of animals, of Cappadocia, Arian archbishop Italian painters, X. 160. VII. 281.

of Alexandria, X. 429. GENTILI, Alberico, Italian jurist, X. 160. GEOLOGY, X. 212 (index, 375); relation of Kaphra, Syriac writer, XXII. GENTILLY, town, France, X. 161.

of archæology to, II. 333; of mining,

843.

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IX. 554.

20.

505, 508.

XI. 200.

GEORGE of Martyropolis, Syriac writer, GERARD, founder of Knights Hospital-GERMAN EMPERORS, in Italy, XIII. XXII. 841. lers, X. 439; XXI. 174.

469. of Mosul and Arbel, Syriac writer, of Cremona, Italian writer, x. 439. GERMAN FLUTE, XXIII. 519. XXII. 849.

John, English herbalist and sur GERMANIA, Tacitus's work, XXIII. of Pisidia, Byzantine writer, X. geon, X. 441; on the potato, XIX. 594. 429; XI. 145.

OF ROUSSILLON, Provençal poem, GERMANICOPOLIS, town, Paphlagonia, of Trebizond, Aristotelian writer, XIX. 875:

Asia Minor, XVIII. 228. X. 430.

GÉRARD, Étienne Maurice, Count, French GERMANICUS, Cæsar, Roman general, x. J. F. L., on the Pentateuch, xvIII. general, X. 440.

445; I. 419; triumphal arch of, at

François, Baron, French painter, X. Saintes, XXI. 167. GEORGE, Kara, (Czerny George), liber 440.

GERMAN LANGUAGE, X. 514; dictionator of Servia, vi. 755; XXI. 689.

Jean Ignace Isidore, French cari aries of, vii. 187; Grimm's works on, Lake, New York, U.S.A., XVII. 451. caturist, X. 440.

DANDIN, Molière's play, XVI. 629. DE NERVAL, French writer, X. 441. GERMAN LITERATURE, X. 522. GEORGENAMA, Persian book, XVIII. DE RIDERFORT, grand-master of GERMAN MEASLES, disease, xv. 658. 657.

Knights Templars, XXIII. 161. GERMAN OCEAN, XVII. 563. GEORGE SAND (Madame Dudevant), D'EUPHRATE, romance, xx. 653. GERMAN REFORMED CHURCH, AmeFrench novelist, vii. 507.

GÉRARDMER, town, France, XXIV. 299. rica, XIX. 701. GEORGETOWN, town, Prince Edward GERARDUS MAGNUS (Gerhard Groot), GERMAN SILVER, X. 446; XVII. 488. Island, Canada, XIX. 740.

founder of Brethren of the Common GERMANS, The, in Gaul, ix. 528. town, British Guiana, X. 430. Life, XI. 207; XVI. 711; XVII. 134. GERMANY, X. 447 (index, 546); Cæsar's

town, Penang, Malay Peninsula, GERASA (Gerash), ancient town, Pales invasion of, iv. 636; its extent under XIX. 741. tine, X. 441.

Charlemagne, v. 403; under the Ferdi- town, District of Columbia, U.S.A., GERBA, island, North Africa, X. 442. nands, IX. 77; war with France (1870), X. 430; observatory, XVII. 715. GERBE, in pyrotechny, XX. 136.

IX. 627; war of liberation (1809), XVII. -, town, South Carolina, U.S.A., GERBER, Ernst Ludwig, German musi 214; Metternich's policy towards, XVI. XXII. 288. cian, X. 442.

200; relations with the popedom, 16th GEORGE WILLIAM, elector of Branden- GERBERON, Gabriel, Jansenist monk, x. century, XX. 324; the Renaissance in, burg, xx. 6. 442.

XX. 388; Stein's policy, XXII. 531 ; GEORGIA, country of Transcaucasia, GERBERT (Pope Silvester II.), XXII. 74; under William I., emperor, XXIV. 582;

Russia, X. 431; XXIII. 514; war with archbishop of Rheims, ix. 536; as academies of science in, l. 71; Gothic Persia (1783), XVIII. 646.

scholastic philosopher, XXI. 421; on architecture, II. 431 ; army, II. 593; State, U.S.A., X. 434; popula numerals, XVII. 627.

arsenals, 11. 634; revival of art in, vi. tion, xxIII. 802; colony of, XXIII. Martin, German writer on music, 422; artillery service, 11. 658, 660, 665; 729. X. 442.

banking, III. 341; credit banks, vi. Gulf of, North America, XVIII. GERENIS TCHAI, river, Asia Minor, 11. 214, 339; birds, xvIII. 17; coalfields, 116. 708.

VI. 56; coins, XVII. 658; diet, VII. 199; GEORGIAN ISLANDS, Tahiti Archipelago, GEREZ, mountains, Portugal, xix. 536. drama, vii. 440; Fehmgerichte, ix.

GERHARD I.-III., dukes of Guelderland, 63; forests, ix. 400; history, X. 473; GEORGIAN LANGUAGE, or Karthli, x.

Jews in, xiii. 680; language, X. 514; 433; dictionaries of, vii. 190.

Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard, Ger XVIII. 785; libraries, xiv. 513, 526, GEORGIANS, race of people, Transcau man archæologist, X. 442.

546; literature, x. 522; mineral procasia, V. 257; X. 433.

Hubert, German sculptor, XXI. ducts, XVI. 468; national debt, XVII. GEORGICS, of Virgil, XXIV. 252.

566.

246; navy, XVII. 299; newspapers, GEORGIEVSK, town, Russia, XXIII. 186. Johann, Lutheran theologian, X. XVII. 428; observatories, XVII. 712; GEORGINA, district, Queensland, XX. 443.

opium cultivation, xvII. 792; oyster 172.

GERHARDT, Charles Frédéric, French culture, XVIII. 108; periodical literaGEORGIUS of Pisidia, Greek writer, X. chemist, X. 443; on atomic notation, ture, XVIII. 540; police system, xix. 429; XI. 145. V. 466.

343; post office, XIX. 583; Presbyterian GEORGSWALDE, town, Bohemia, X. 438. Paul, German hymn-writer, X. Church, xix. 697; prison system, XIX. GEORTCHA, or Koritsa, town, Turkey, 443, 530; XII. 587.

760; railways, xx. 251; Reichstag, XIV. 141.

GÉRICAULT, Jean Louis, French painter, VII. 199; technical schools, XXIII. 108; GEOTROPISM, in vegetable physiology,

X. 444.

ancient tenure of land, XIV. 261, GERIZIM, Mount, Palestine, X. 444; XXI. 263; university statistics, xxIII. 849; GEPHYREA, order of Annelida, 11. 70. 244.

weights and measures, XXIV. 490; wine GEPIDÆ, ancient Germanic tribe, xiv. GERLSDORFER SPITZE, Carpathian industry, xxiv. 610. 813. Mountains, v. 126.

Tacitus's, XXIII. 20. GERA, town, Germany, X. 438; XX. 494. GERM, in biology, defined, VIII. 746; its GERM-CELL, in embryology, VIII. 163. GERACE, town, Italy, X. 439.

capability of development, III. 42; GERMERSHEIM, town, Rhenish Bavaria, GERALDINES, noble family of Ireland, XXIV. 815. See Germ Theory, below. X. 548.

magazine of the Pre-Raphaelites, GERMINATION, of spores, in plants, xx. GERALDTON, town, Western Australia, XX. 858.

429. XXIV. 507 GERMAN CATHOLICS, X. 444.

GERM THEORY OF DISEASE, XXI. 400, GERANDO, Marie Joseph de, French GERMAN DICTIONARY, Adelung's, I. 407; its importance in surgery, XXII. philosopher, Vii. 31. 152.

678. GERANIUM, plant, X. 439; XII. 251. GERMAN DIET (Reichstag), VII. 199.

GERO, margrave of Brandenburg, X. 483. GERARD (Pope Nicholas II.), xvii. 483. | GERMAN DRAMA, VII. 440.

GERONA, province, Spain, XXII. 298.

XXIII. 22.

XI. 243.

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XIX. 59.

IX. 271.

XXI. 20.

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GERONA, town, Spain, x. 548; cathedral | GESTA ROMANORUM, collection of Latin GHENEH, or Kine, town, Egypt, vii. at, II. 433. tales, X. 555.

776. San, mountain, Spain, XVI. 797. GESTATION, Animal, xx. 410; period GHENT, town, Belgium, X. 562; pacifiGERONTIUS, Roman general, xv. 645. of, in mammals, xiv. 858; of sheep, cation of (1576), XII. 76; library, xiv. GEROUSIA, Spartan senate, xv. 95.

I. 394.

531; pictures in, XXI. 446; university, GERRHA, ancient town, Arabia Felix, GETA, Publius Septimus Antoninus, son III. 519; XXIII. 850. X. 548. of the emperor Severus, X. 555.

Jodocus, or Justus, of, Flemish GERRITZ, Dirk, Antarctic explorer, xix. GETÆ, or Goths, ancient people, vi. 758; painter, x. 565. 329.

X. 847.

GHERARDESCA, Ugolino della, Italian GERRUS, district, Persia, xvIII. 627. GETTYSBURG, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., count, X. 565; XIX. 120. GERRY, Elbridge, vice-president, United Battle of (1863), 111. 444; XXIII. 778; GHERIAH, or Viziadrug, town and forStates, XXIII. 748. mineral water of, xvi. 436.

tress, India, X. 566; XXIV. 267. GERSDORFFITE, mineral, xvi. 391. GEULINCX, Arnold, Flemish philosopher, GHEYNS, Matthias van den, bell-founder, GERSEN,John, abbot of Vercelli, xiv. 33. X. 556; VII. 126.

III. 538. GERSON, John Charlier de, French GEVELSBERG, town, Germany, xxiv. GHIAGGIUOLO, plant, XVIII. 52. ecclesiastic and scholar, x. 549; XIV. 517.

GHIBELLINES, Italian party, XI. 244; 32; on reform of church discipline, GEX, town, France, X. 556.

XIII. 472, 475; in time of Dante, vi. XX. 320; as mystic, XVII. 132; as GEYLER, Johann, of Kaisersberg, Ger 810; in Florence, ix. 333; in Rome, nominalist philosopher, XXI. 431; as man preacher, X. 129.

XX. 796; in Siena, XX. 40. sermon-writer, ix. 648.

GEYSERS, volcanic fountains, X. 556,251; GHIBERTI, Lorenzo, Italian sculptor, X. GERSONIDES, Levi, Jewish philosopher in Celebes, V. 289; in Yellowstone 566; XXI. 568; his painted-glass and commentator, X. 550. National Park, U.S.A., XXIV. 737.

designs, x. 669. GERSOPPA, Falls of, Shimoga, India, GEZER, ruined town, Palestine, X. 558. GHIKA, Gregory, voivode of Moldavia, XXI. 803.

Gezo, chief of Dahomey, Vi. 766. GERSTÄCKER, Friedrich, German writer GFRÖRER, August Friedrich, German -Scarlatu, hospodar of Walachia, and traveller, x. 550. historian, X. 558.

XXI. 18. GERTRUDE OF WYOMING, Campbell's GHADAMES, oasis, Sahara, Africa, xvII. GHILAN, or Gilan, province, Persia, X. poem, IV. 756. 695; XXIII. 574; town, X. 4.

566; xvIII. 627. GERUNDA (Gerona), ancient town, Spain, GHAGGAR, river, India, 1. 656; XXII. Ghilgir, district, India, X. 596. X. 548.

98.

GHILYAKS, race of people, Eastern GERUNDIO DE CAMPAZAS, Isla's history GHAKKAPS, Indian race, XII. 791.

Siberia, xv. 548. of, XIII. 387.

GHALIB, Moorish general, xv. 500. GHILZAIS, Afghan clan, 1. 234. GERUSALEMME LIBERATA, Tasso's Sheykh, Ottoman poet, xxIII. 656, GHIORGHIA (Koritsa), town, Turkey, poem, XIII. 510; XXIII. 76. 657.

XIV. 141. GÉRUZEZ, Eugène, French critic, ix. GHAMBASSO, F. D. L., his glass paint-GHIRLANDAJO, Domenico del, Italian 680. ings, X. 670.

painter, x. 567; XVI. 229. GERVAIS, Paul, French palæontologist GHARDAYA, town, North Africa, x. 76. Ridolfo, Italian painter, X. 568. and naturalist, X. 551; on birds, XVIII. GHARIPUR, island, India, viii. 126. GHISLIERI, Michele (Pope Pius V.), xix. GHARM, or Harm, town, Central Asia,

153. GERVAISE of Canterbury, chronicler, X.

XIV. 4.

GHIZEH, or Gizeh (q.v.), Egypt, vil. 770; 551.

GHASI DAs, Hindu religious reformer, pyramid of, 11. 385. GERVASE, or Gervaise, of Tilbury, Eng III. 671.

GHIZHIGA BAY, Eastern Siberia, xv. lish Latin writer, X. 552.

GHASSAN, or the Ghassanids, Kingdom 547. GERVINUS, Georg Gottfried, German of, Arabia, II. 255; XVI. 545.

GHIZNI, or Ghazni, town, Afghanistan, historian, X. 552. GHATAL, town, India, XVI. 284.

X. 559.
GESENIUS, Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm, Ghats, or Ghauts, mountains, India, GHOBAR NUMERALS, XVII. 626.
German Orientalist, X. 553.

X. 559; XII. 733; XV. 184.

GHOGHA (Gogo), town, India, X. 738. GESI, Giovanni Battista, Italian musical GHAWAZEE, Egyptian dancing-girls, VII. GHOMDAN, town, Arabia, XXI. 253. composer, XVII. 93.

727.

GHOORKHAS, or Goorkhas, Nepalese GESITH, Anglo-Saxon officer of state, GHAZAL, Bahr al, affluent of the Nile, race, XII. 805; XVII. 341. XVIII. 302.

Africa, XVII. 506, 508.

GHOOSLA GHAT, landing place at BenGESNER, Johann Matthias, German GHAZEL, or Ghazal, variety of Persian ares, India, II. 397.

scholar, x. 554; his co-operation with and Ottoman poetry, XI. 367; XVIII. Ghor, or Ghur, territory, Afghanistan, Ernesti, vill. 526. 656, 659; XXIII. 656.

X. 569. Konrad, Swiss naturalist, X. 554: GHAZIABAD, town, Meerut, India, X. GHORI, or Ghuri, Indian dynasty, X. XXIV. 804; on birds, xvIII. 3; on 559.

569; XV. 346. morphology, XVI. 837.

GHAZIPUR, district and town, India, X. GHOST MICROMETER, XVI. 256. GESSLER, Austrian bailiff of Uri, XXIII. 559.

GHOSTS, II. 205; XV. 199; in demono155.

GHAZNAVIDS, or Ghaznevids, dynasty of logy, VII. 61. GESSNER, Konrad (Gesner, q.v.), Swiss Ghazni, XXII. 101.

GHRENNAH, district, North Africa, Vi. naturalist, X. 554.

GHAZNI, town, Afghanistan, x. 559. 751. Salomon, Swiss painter and poet, Mahmud of, x. 559; XV. 286. GHULAB SINGH, ruler of Kashmir, xiv. X. 555; XVIII. 348; XXII. 797. GHEDIZ TCHAI, river, Asia Minor, II.

13. GESSO WORK, in wall decorations, XVII. 708.

GHUR, territory, Afghanistan, x. 569. 47.

GHEE, Indian butter, X. 562; XVII. 744, GHUTUL (Ghatal), town, India, XVI. 284. GESTA REGUM, William of Malmes 747.

GHUZNEE, or Ghazni, town, Afghanistan, bury's work, xv. 336. GHEEL, town, Belgium, x. 562.

X. 559.

31.

14, 21.

X. 599.

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Ghuzz, Turkish tribe, xxi. 634; XXIII. | GIDEON, of Scripture, x. 588; XIII. 401. GILCHRIST, John, Hindi and Urdu 660.

GIDI, plateau, Sahara, Africa, XXI. 149. scholar, Xi. 849. GIACOMINO of Verona, early Italian GIEBEL, C. G., on ornithology, XVIII. Gild, or Guild (2.v.), XI. 259; VI. poet, XIII. 499.

39. GIAFAR, or Jaafar, vizier to Haroun | GIEN, town, France, X. 589.

GILDAS, early British historian, X. 593; al-Rashid, III. 377.

GIERACI, or Gerace, town, Italy, X. 439. V. 315; XX. 643. GIALLO ANTICO, yellow marble, xv. GIESECKITE, mineral, xvi. 418, 425. missionary to Ireland, XIII. 249. 529.

GIESELER, Johann Karl Ludwig, Ger- GILDEBERT, bishop of Tours, XI. 814. GIA LONG, Annamese king, XXIII. 440. man church historian, x. 589; his GILDING, X. 593; V. 169; for house GIAMA-NU-CHU, river, Tibet, XXIII. History, V. 765.

decoration, iv. 508; electro, viii. 116. 339, 341.

GIESHÜBEL, spa, Bohemia, XVI. 436. GILEAD, of Scripture, X. 594; XVI. 534; GIAMBELLI, Federigo, Italian military GIESING, suburb of Munich, Bavaria, XVIII. 176. engineer, X. 570.

XVII. 24.

GILES, St, X. 595. GIANETTO DA PALESTINA (Palestrina), GIESSEN, town, Germany, X. 589; GILFILLAN, George, Scottish man of

Italian composer, xvIII. 178; XVII. academy of sciences at, 1. 72; univer letters, X. 595. 84.

sity, XXIII. 845.

GILGAL, of Scripture, X. 596. GIANIBELLI, Federigo (Giambelli), GIFFORD, George, writer on witchcraft, Gilgit, district, India, X. 596. Italian military engineer, X. 570.

XXIV, 621.

GILL, Alexander, Milton's schoolmaster, GIANNI, Lapo, Italian writer, XIII. 502. William, English writer, x. 590.

XVI. 324. GIANNONE, Pietro, Italian historian, X. GIFFORDGATE, Haddington, Scotland, David, his micrometer, XVI. 246. 570; XXIV. 212.

birthplace of John Knox, XI. 363; John, English Rabbinical scholar, GIANNUZZI, Giulio (Pippi), Italian

XIV. 130.
painter, xix. 112.
Gift, in law, X. 590.

Lough, Ireland, XXII. 159.
GIANT, X, 571; XVI. 762.
Gig, boat, xxi. 31, 825.

GILLAROO, fish, XXI. 223. GIANT-CELLS, in repair of animal | GIGANTOMACHIA, on altar at Per- GILLESPIE, George, Scottish divine, X. tissue, XVIII. 366. gamum, xv. 143.

599. GIANTS AND DWARFS, Stories of, vii. GIGIA (Gijon), ancient town, Spain, X. Thomas, founder of Scottish Relief 567. 590.

Church, X. 599; XIX. 685; XXIII. 728. GIANT'S CAUSEWAY, Ireland, x. 572. Gigli, Girolamo, Sienese scholar and GILLIES, John, Scottish historian, X. GIANTS' STAIRCASE, Venice, XXIV. 153. philologist, XXII. 43.

599. GIARRE, town, Sicily, X. 572.

Giglio, island, Italy, XIII. 460. GILLIS'S LAND, island, Spitzbergen, GIAVENO, town, Italy, X. 572.

GIHON, river, Central Asia, xvIII. 101. XXII. 408. GIB, Adam, Scottish divine, X. 572; Well of, Jerusalem, XIII. 639. GILLMAN, James, friend of Coleridge, XXIII. 728. Gijon, town, Spain, X. 590.

VI. 136. GIBBON, ape, 11. 150.

GILAN, or Ghilan, province, Persia, x. GilloLO, or Jilolo, island, Indian Archi-Edward, English historian, X. 572; 566; XVIII. 627.

pelago, XIII. 692. on the progress of Christianity, v. GILBART, John William, English writer GILLRAY, James, English caricaturist, 696; his place in English literature, on banking, X. 591.

x. 600; V. 104. VIII. 431.

GILBERT, St, of Sempringham, English Gills, of fishes, XII. 636, 656; XX. 475. GIBBONS, Grinling, English wood-carver

monk, X. 593.

GILLY, William Stephen, writer on the and decorator, x. 582; V. 169; XXI. (Gilbertus Anglicus), English writer Waldensian Church, XXIV. 325. 560.

on medicine, xv. 807.

GILLYFLOWER, plant, x. 601; XIX. 107. Orlando, English musical com François Hilaire, French veteri- Gilolo, or Jilolo, island, Indian Archiposer, X. 582; XVII. 85. nary surgeon, XXIV. 198.

pelago, XIII. 692. GIBBS, James, architect, II. 444.

Sir Humphrey, English navigator, Gilpin, Bernard, English clergyman, X. James A. E., improver of sewing X. 591; governor of Newfoundland, 601. machine, XXI. 719. XVII. 385.

William, English writer, x. 602. GIBBSITE, mineral, xvI. 388.

Nicolas Joseph Laurent, French Gileaks, race of people, Saghalin, Asia, GIBEON, town, Palestine, X. 583.

poet, X. 591; 1X. 665.

XXI. 147. GIBRALTAR, town and fortress, Spain, William, English scientist, X. 592; GIMIRRÆ, the Cimmerians, xv. 100.

X. 583; origin of the name, XVI. 573; on electricity, VIII. 3; on magnetism, GIMLET, boring tool, XI. 438. acquisition of, by Great Britain (1704), XV. 221.

GIMMEL RINGS, XX. 561. IX. 582; XXII. 336; French attack on DE LA PORRÉE, French philosopher, Gimsö, island, Norway, xiv. 769. (1779), IX. 594.

X. 592; XXI. 423.

Gin, spirituous liquor, x. 602. Straits of, Currents in, III. 20; XV. GILBERTINES, order of monks, xiv. GINCKELL, Godart van, earl of Ath820. 656.

lone, x. 602. GIBSON, Edmund, bishop of London, X. GILBERT ISLANDS, Pacific Ocean, xvi. GINDARUS, Syria, Battle of (38 B.C.), 586. 256; XVIII, 128; XIX. 426.

XVIII. 597 John, bookbinder to James I., IV. GILBERTITE, mineral, XVI. 413. GINDELY, Antonine, Bohemian his42.

GILBERT'S Act, English poor law, XIX. torian, XXII. 153. John, English sculptor, X. 586; 467.

GINESTRA, La, Leopardi's lyric, xiv. XXI. 561.

GILBERT'S PEAK, Uintah Range, U.S.A., 465. Richard, English dwarf, vii. 568. XXIII. 796; XXIV. 19.

GINGELLY OIL, XVII. 746; XXI. 693. GICHTEL, Johann Georg, German Gil Blas, Le Sage's romance, XIV. 472. GINGER, plant and spice, X. 603. mystic, X. 588 ; editor of Boehme's GILBOA, Palestine, Battle of, XIII. 404. GINGHAM, textile fabric, X. 604. rks, III. 854; XVII. 135.

GiLCHRIST, Harold, Norwegian chief, GINGKO NUT, 11. 664. GIDDINESS, Epileptic, disease, VIII. 480. XVII. 588.

GINGST, town, Rügen, Prussia, xxi. 57.

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XXIV. 172.

756.

GINGUENÉ, Pierre Louis, French writer, GIRARDOW, town, Russian Poland, x. 257; of the Himalayas, xi. 831; of X. 604. 620.

Norway, XVII. 578; of Spitzbergen, GINSENG, plant and drug, x. 605. GIRART DE ROUSSILLON, Provençal XXII. 408; J. D. Forbes's observations GIOBERTI, Vincenzo, Italian philoso poem, XIX. 875.

on, ix. 391. phical writer, x. 605; XIII. 487, 489, Girasol, mineral, XVI. 390.

Glacis, in fortification, ix. 429, 445. 516. GIRDERS, in bridges, IV. 297.

GLADBACH, Bergisch - Gladbach, GIOCONDA, La, Leonardo's painting, GIRDLE, article of dress, X. 622.

town, Prussia, X. 631. XIV. 460.

GIRGEH, town, Upper Egypt, x. 623; or Mönchen-Gladbach, town, GIOCONDO, Fra, Veronese architect,

VII. 775.

Prussia, x. 631. GIRGENTI, town, Sicily, X. 623; XXII. GLADDON, plant, ix. 279. GIOJA, Melchior, Italian philosophical 31.

GLADIATORS, of the Roman arena, X. writer, x. 606; XIX. 387.

Girin, or Kirin, town, Manchuria, Xiv. 631, 66. GIORDANI, Pietro, Italian writer, XIII. 96.

GLADIOLUS, garden plant, x, 632; XII. 515. GIRISHK, fort, Afghanistan, I. 230.

255. GIORDANO, Luca, Italian painter, x. GIRLING, Mary Ann, leader of English GLADSTONE, William Ewart, British 606. Shakers, XXI. 737.

statesman, VIII. 367. GIORGIO of Gubbio, Italian majolica GIRODET DE ROUSSY, Anne Louis, GLAGERITE, mineral, XVI. 424. worker, xix. 626.

French painter, X. 623.

GLAISHER, J., his balloon ascents, I. GIORGIONE, Italian painter, x. 607; his GIRON, Francisco Hernandez, Peruvian 195. relations with Titian, XXIII. 414.

rebel, xvIII. 677.

GLAMORGAN, county, Wales, x. 633; GIOTTINO, Italian painter, X. 608.

Pedro Tellez, duke of Osuna, XX. population and representation, XXIII. GIOTTO, Italian painter, X. 609; 1X. 771; 178.

727. XXI. 434; his glass paintings, X. GIRONDE, department, France, X. 624. GLANCE, arsenical nickel, XVII. 487. 669.

GIRONDISTS, French Revolutionary Silver, XXII. 69. GIOVAN GASTONE, grand-duke of Tus party, ix. 602, 605; XX. 602, 624, 625; COAL, or Anthracite (q.v.), XVI. cany, XV. 793.

their contest with Marat, xv. 527; Ver 429. GIOVANNI DA BOLOGNA, Italian sculp gniaud's connexion with, xxiv. 165. GLANDERS, disease, X. 634; XVIII. 406; tor, xxi. 569. Girvan, town, Scotland, x. 624.

XXIV. 202. GIOVANNI DA GAETA (Pope Gelasius GISCALA, John of, Jewish party leader, GLANDS, of mammals, XV. 348; influence II.), X. 130. XIII. 427.

of nervous action on, xix. 30; secretGIOVINAZZO, town, Italy, x. 611: GISMONDINE, mineral, XVI. 423.

ing, in man, 1. 848; XVII. 671; tumGiovio, Paolo, Italian historian, XIII. Gisors, town, France, X. 624.

ours of the, xvIII. 379; of reptiles, XX. GITAGOVINDA, Brahman drama, XXI. 459; of plants, Iv. 91. GIPSIES, X. 611; in India, III. 460; of 285.

GLANIS, fish, XXII..67. Transylvania, XXIII. 522; dictionaries Gitschin, town, Bohemia, X. 624. GLANVIL, or Glanvill, Ranulph de, of their language, vii. 189.

GIUNTA, family of Italian printers, xv. early English jurist, X. 635. Gipsy Hill, Norwood, London, xvII. 514.

GLANVILL, Joseph, English philoso596.

PISANO, Italian painter, x. 624; phical writer, X. 635; on scepticism, GIRAFFE, ungulate mammal, x. 618; his method of fresco-painting, IX. XXI. 382. XV. 432.

770.

GLANVILLA, Bartholomew de, his De GIRALDA, bell-tower, Seville, Spain, GIURGEVO, town, Roumania, X. 624. Proprietatibus Rerum, VIII. 193. XXI. 709.

GIUSTENDIL, or Kostendil, town, Bul-GLAREOLA, genus of birds, XIX. 659. GIRALDES, Affonso, Portuguese poet, garia, XIV. 143.

GLARUS, or Glaris, canton, Switzerland, XIX. 556.

Giusti, Giuseppe, Italian satirist, X. X. 636; XXII. 778, 783; town, X. 636; GIRALDI, Giglio Gregorio, Italian scho 625; XIII. 516.

XXII. 778. lar, x. 620.

GIUSTINIANI, prominent Italian family, GLAS, John, founder of Glassite sect, X. Giovanni Battista, Italian novelist, X. 625; XXIV. 635.

637. X. 620.

Agostino, X. 626; on Henry VIII.'s GLASER, Christopher, Swiss chemist, X. GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS, historian and character, XI. 663.

637 ecclesiastic, III. 392.

GIUSTO DA GUANTO (Justus of Ghent), GLÄSERBERG, mountain, Germany, XXI. GIRANDOLE, in pyrotechny, xx. 136. Flemish painter, X. 565.

349. GIRARD, Albert, Dutch mathematician, Givet, town, France, X. 626.

GLASERITE, mineral, x. 637; XVI. 400. XXIII. 562; on imaginary quantities in Givors, town, France, X. 626; XX. GLASGOW, town, Scotland, x. 638 ; algebra, I. 514; on porisms, XIX. 520. 529.

population, xxi. 528; origin of the Philippe Henri de, French mechani- GIZEH, town, Egypt, vii. 770; mummies name, XIV. 41 ; cathedral crypt, vi. cian, X. 620; inventor of flax-spinning of, XVII. 21; pyramids at, v. 582; VII. 668 ; libraries, XIV. 523, 543; newsapparatus, XIV. 664. 770; XX. 123.

papers, XVII. 423; observatory, XVII. Stephen, American philanthropist, GJENDE, lake, Norway, XVII. 576. 710; railways, xx. 240; university, X. 621.

GLACIAL ACTION, Agassiz's researches XXIII. 843, 854; waterworks, 11. 224. COLLEGE, Philadelphia, U.S.A., X. on, I. 276.

GLASS, history and manufacture, x. 647; 621; XVIII. 740.

GLACIAL PERIOD, in geology, 11. 335; absorption of light by, xiv. 601, 607; GIRARDIN, Madame Émile de, French

X. 365.

colours of ancient, XXIV. 427; cutting authoress, X. 621.

GLACIARIUM, artificial ice for skating, of, with diamond, vii. 167; manuSaint-Marc, French politician and XXII. 105.

facture of, in Bohemia, III. 120 ; critic, X. 621.

GLACIER, GLACIERS, mountain ice, x. mirrors, ix. 849; XVI. 500; painting GIRARDON, François, French sculptor, 626; geological action of, X. 281; on, x. 667; used by Romans, 11. 421. X. 622,

of the Alps, 1. 632; of the Caucasus, v. I GLASSES, Eye, XXII. 372.

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