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FOWLERITE, mineral, xvi. 417.

FRA GIOCONDO, Veronese architect, Templars in, XXIII. 164; government FOWLING-PIECE, gun, XI. 279; XXI. XXIV. 154, 172.

of Louis Philippe, XI. 269; in 832.

FRAGMENS PHILOSOPHIQUES, Cousin's time of Mazarin, xv. 652; under FOWNES, George, English chemist, ix. work, VI. 522.

Napoleon I., XVII. 192; under Napo493.

FRÄHN, Christian Martin, German nu leon III., XVII. 228; relations to Fox, carnivorous mammal, ix. 493; XV.

mismatist and Orientalist, ix. 504. Normandy, XVII. 539; to the papacy, 438; Arctic, colour of, xvi. 343; skins FRA LUCA (Marco della Robbia), Floren VI. 241; Reformation in, XX. 334; of, IX. 838. tine sculptor, XX. 591.

Renaissance period, XX. 390; wars Charles James, English statesman, FRAMBESIA, disease, XXIV. 732.

with Russia, XXI, 100, 102; connexion IX. 494; VIII. 358; Burke's dissension FRAMES, for bridges, IV. 315.

with Tong-King, XXIII. 440; relations with, iv. 548; his relations with Pitt, FRAMING, in joinery, IV. 490, 493.

with the United States, XXIII. 733, XIX. 137.

FRAMLINGHAM, town, England, IX. 742, 744, 755, 782. George, founder of the Quakers, 505; castle, xxII. 622.

FRANCE, Institute of, xiii. 160. IX. 500; XVII. 135; XX. 147, 152; FRANÇAIS, of Nantes, Count, French Isle of, or Mauritius, xv. 639. friend of Penn, XVIII. 496. politician and writer, 1X. 505.

The twelve peers of, xvIII. 468. - Henry Richard Vassall, Lord FRANCAVILLA, town, Italy, ix. 505. FRANCESCA, Piero de', Italian painter, Holland, XII. 99.

FRANCE, IX. 505 (including geography XIX. 82; XXI. 435. Kate, American spiritualist, XXII. and statistics, 505; history, 527, see DA RIMINI, daughter of Malatesta, 405.

below; language, 629; literature, 657; XX. 556. - Luke, Arctic explorer, xix. 318. index, 687); academies in, I. 70, 71, FRANCESCHI, or Francesca, Piero de',

Richard, bishop of Winchester, IX. 77; architecture, 11. 429, 441; army, 11. Italian painter, XIX. 82; XXI. 435. 502.

600; arsenals, 11. 634; artillery, 11. 658, FRANCESCHINI, Baldassare, Italian Robert Were, his dip circle, XVI. 660, 665; Bank of, 111. 337; institution painter, 1x. 687. 161.

of banks in, IV. 367; birds, XVIII. 17; FRANCESCO I., grand-duke of Tuscany, Sir Stephen, English Royalist, 1x. citizenship in, 1. 576; coalfields, vi.

XV. 791. 494.

55; Code Napoléon, vi. 105; coins, DA BARBERINO, mediæval Italian BAT, or Flying Fox, bat, IX. 352. XVII. 655; colonies, vi. 159; drama, poet, XIII. 501. FoXDALE MINES, silver and lead, Isle VII.423; drama in time of Corneille, vi. DI PUGLIA, Fra, his challenge to of Man, XV. 451.

420; fisheries, ix. 268; forests, IX. 402; Savonarola, XXI. 337. Foxe, John, English martyrologist, IX. foundling hospitals, ix. 482; govern- FRANCEVILLE, station, West Africa, 502. ment, XI. 14; history, IX. 527, see

XVII. 733 FOXGLOVE, plant, VII. 237.

below; irrigation works, XIII. 369; | FRANCHE COMTÉ, province, France, IX. FOXHOUNDS, VII. 329; XII. 314.

Jansenist controversies in, XIII. 566; 687. Fox ISLANDS, Aleutian Islands, North Jews in, XIII. 682; language, ix. 629; FRANCHINA, Descartes's automaton, xv. Pacific, I. 480. land laws, xiv. 262; form of land

208. Fox-SHARK, fish, XXI. 777.

tenure, 1. 415; libraries, xiv. 513, FRANCHISE, in law, ix. 688; parliamenFox-TALBOT, William H., photographic 524, 545; literature, ix. 637; mines, tary, British, xx. 344.

discoverer, XXIII. 27; XVIII. 824. XVI. 467; national debt, XVII. 246; FRANCIA (Francesco Raibolini), Italian Foy, Maximilien Sébastien, French navy, XVII. 298; newspapers, xvii. painter, ix. 688; XXI. 437. general and politician, ix. 503.

423; nobility, xvII. 530; XVIII. 468; José Gaspar Rodriguez, dictator of FOYLE, river, Ireland, vii. 361.

observatories, XVII. 712; opium culti Paraguay, ix. 688. FRA AMBROGIO (Paolo della Robbia), vation, XVII. 792; oysterculture, xvIII. FRANCIABIGIO (Francesco di Cristofano), Florentine sculptor, XX. 591.

107; periodicals, XVIII. 539; police Italian painter, ix. 689. FRA ANGELICO (Fiesole, or Guido di system, XIX. 342; post office, XIX. 580; FRANCIS, St, of Assisi, founder of Fran

Vicchio), Italian painter, IX. 148, 772; Presbyterian Church, XIX. 693; prison ciscan order, ix. 692; XIII. 500; XVI. XXI. 434, 435, 442.

system, xix. 759; railways, XX. 250; 710; stigmatization of, xx11. 549. FRAAS, Karl Nikolas, German botanist, settlements in India, 11. 702; XII. 799, St, of Paola, founder of order of

800, 804; settlement at New Orleans, Minims, IX. 695; XVI. 711. FRA BARTOLOMMEO (Baccio della U.S.A., XVII. 403; technical schools, St, of Sales, devotional writer, IX.

Porta), Italian painter, III. 194; XXI. XXIII. 108; university of, xxIII. 851; 695, 654.
442.
wine industry, xxiv. 604.

I., emperor, 1x. 691; X. 503.
FRACASTORIO, Hieronymo, Italian phy History of, ix. 527; conquest of

II. (Francis I. of Austria), emperor, sician and poet, ix. 504.

Algeria by, I. 566; colonization of IX. 691; his character, III. 136. FRACTIONS, in algebra, 1. 529, 558; in North America, iv. 766; protectorship I., emperor of Austria, 1x. 691; 111.

arithmetic, II. 529; decimal, use of, by of Annam, XXIII. 440; war with 136. Napier, xvii. 185; by Stevinus, XXII. Austria, Ill. 130; the Carbonari in, v. I., king of France, 1x. 689, 555; his

546; vulgar, tables of, xxIII. 8, 13. 89; Colbert's financial reforms, Vi. relations with Henry VIII. of England, FRACTURE, in surgery, XXII. 681.

121; war in the East (1799), XXIII. XI. 663; his rule in Italy, XIII. 482; of materials, by tension or com 648; Hundred Years' war with Eng his attitude towards the Reformation, pression, xxii. 601.

land, viii. 318; Fouché's police ail xx. 328, 334. in minerals, its varieties, XVI. ministration, IX. 476; Huguenots, XII. II., of France, IX. 691, 559. 379.

337; invasion of Italy by (1492), XIII. duke of Guise, XI. 266. FRA DIAMANTE, Italian painter, vii. 481; of Prussia (1806), XX. 11; inva Alban, English Benedictine monk, 162.

sion of, by the Arabs, XVI. 576; II. XVII. 444. FRA DIAVOLO, Italian brigand, 1x. 504. 258; by William I. of Prussia (1870), Francis, on fly fishing, 11. 37. FRAGARIA, genus of plants, XII. 276; XXIV. 582; Inquisition established Sir Philip, English politician and XXII. 592.

in l. 487; suppression of Knights writer, ix, 696; his alleged identity

IX. 504.

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with Junius, XIII. 776; his relations | FRANKFORT-ON - THE-ODER, town, / FRAUENFELD, town, Switzerland, ix. with Burke, iv. 547.

Prussia, IX. 708 ; university, xxIII. 727; XXII. 778; XXIII. 331. FRANCIS-ARMAND, abbot of La Trappe, 843, 848.

FRAUENLOB (Heinrich von Meissen), XXIII. 524.

FRANKINCENSE, gum-resin, IX. 709; German poet, ix. 727. FRANCIS BORGIA, St, general of the XII. 718.

FRAUENSTÄDT, C. M. J., friend and Jesuits, IX. 694.

FRANKLAND, or Land of the Franks, its expositor of Schopenhauer, XXI. 454. FRANCISCA, Frankish battle-axe, II. relations to the popedom, XIX. 494. FRAUNHOFER, Joseph von, German 555.

FRANKLIN, State of (now part of Ten optician, ix. 727; XVII. 26; his filar FRANCISCANS, monastic order, 1X. 698; nessee), U.S.A., XXIII. 178.

micrometer, XVI. 245; on radiation, XVI. 710; their revolt against Pope Benjamin, American statesman and XX. 215; his telescopes, XXIII. 139, John XXII., XVII. 717. philosopher, ix. 711; ambassador to

141. FRANCISQUE (Jean François Millet), France, XXIII. 743; his connexion with FRAUSTADT, town, Prussia, ix. 728. French painter, ix. 700.

American journalism, XVII. 433; with FRAY BENTOS, town, Uruguay, xxiv. FRANCK, Gabriel, Flemish painter, ix. Philadelphia, XVIII. 740; his electrical

15. 701.

researches, VIII. 6; his postal improve- FRAY GERUNDIO, Isla's book, XIII. 387. Johann, German hymn-writer, XII. ments, XIX. 566; as political economist, FRAYSSINOUS, Denis Antoine Luc, 587.

XIX. 384; as writer, I. 720; Wedder Comte de, French ecclesiastic and Sebastian, German writer, ix. 701; burn's charge against him, xxiv. 475. politician, 1x. 728. XVII. 134.

Sir John, Arctic explorer, 1x. 719; FRAZER, Fraser, river, British FRANCKE, August Hermann, German X. 195; XIX. 319; his observations Columbia, Vi. 169; XVIII. 116.

philanthropist and theologian, IX. 701; on the aurora, 111. 95; search for, by FREDEGOND, early French queen, ix. VII. 675; X. 532; XIX. 83; his influence Kane, XIII. 837

530. on the university of Halle, xxII. FRANKLINITE, mineral, xvi. 386; XIII.

FRANKLINITE, mineral, xvI. 386; XIII. FREDERICI, German pianoforte maker, 847. 287; XXIV. 784.

XIX. 71. FRANCKEN, family of Flemish painters, FRANKMARRIAGE, in English law, XXI. Cesare de, Venetian traveller, XVII. IX. 702. 694

857. FRANCO of Cologne, musical writer, FRANKS, Germanic people, ix. 722; xx. FREDERICIA, town, Denmark, ix. 728. XVII. 81.

776, 785; empire of the, V. 402; their FREDERICK, the name, IX. 729. FRANCO-GALLIA, Hotman's treatise, XII. laws, V.73; XXI. 212; in Gaul, 1x. 528; I., Barbarossa, emperor and German 309.

in Germany, X. 476; in Italy, XIII. king, ix. 729; X. 489; XX. 793; his FRANCO-GERMAN WAR (1870), X. 512; 468; in Roman empire, xx. 776, 780; homage to Pope Alexander III., 1. 486; XX. 13.

their invasion of Spain, XXII. 307; in Italy, XIII. 472; his patronage of FRANÇOIS DE NEUFCHÂTEAU, Nicolas their weapons, II. 555.

Bologna university, xxIII. 833. Louis, Count, French statesman and FRANKTENEMENT, land tenure, XX. II., emperor and German king, ix. poet, IX. 703. 305.

731; X. 491; XX. 795; his attitude toFRANÇOIS DE PARIS, Jansenist, XIII. FRANZ, Robert, his edition of Bach's wards the crusades, VI. 630; as king 567. works, III. 195.

of Italy, XIII. 474; his relations to the FRANCOLIN, bird, xvIII. 333.

FRANZÉN, Frans Michael, Swedish poet, popedom, xix. 500; to Sicily, XXII. FRANCONIA, territorial division, Ger IX. 724; XXII. 757.

27; his quarrels with the Templars, many, IX. 703; III. 453; XXIII. 331. FRANZENSBAD, watering-place, Bohe XXIII. 162. FRANCUS, or Franck, Sebastian, German mia, IX. 724; mineral water of, xvi. III., emperor (IV. of Germany), ix. writer, ix. 701; XVII. 134. 434, 435.

733; X. 496. FRANEKER, town, Holland, 1x. 704; FRANZENSFESTE, fort, Tyrol, Austria, prince of Augustenburg, VII. 88. university of, xxIII. 850. IV. 356.

king of Bohemia (V. as elector FRANK, Jacob, leader of Jewish sect, FRANZ-JOSEF LAND, Arctic Regions, its palatine), ix. 742; X. 500. XIII. 681. discovery, XIX. 324.

I., elector of Brandenburg, XX. 4. John Peter, German physician, FRANZSTADT, part of Budapest, Hun II., of Brandenburg, XX. 4. xv. 815. gary, XVIII. 691.

III., German king, IX. 733; X. Joseph, German physician, xv. FRASCATI, town, Italy, IX. 724.

494. 814.

FRASER, or Frazer, river, British Col IV. German king (emperor or Franck, Sebastian, German umbia, Vi. 169; XVIII. 116.

Frederick III.), ix. 733; X. 496. writer, ix. 701; XVII. 134.

Alexander, his composing and dis I., king of Prussia, ix. 734; XX. 8. FRANKALMOIGN, feudal tenure of land, tributing type-machines, XXIII. 701, II., the Great, of Prussia, ix. 735; England, xx. 305, 307. 702.

X. 503; XX. 9; his army, II. 593; his FRANKENBERG, town, Saxony, ix. 704. James Baillie, Scottish traveller battles, III. 444; his influence on FRANKENHAUSEN, town, Germany, ix. and writer, IX. 725.

France, 1X. 585; influence on German 704; XXI. 461.

Louis, on birds, xvIII. 12.

literature, X. 532; his contest with FRANKENSTEIN, town, Prussia, ix. 704. Simon, Lord Lovat, Scottish Russia, XXI. 99; Rauch's statue of, xx. FRANKENTHAL, town, Bavaria, 1x. 704. Jacobite, xv. 27.

294; Voltaire at court of, XXIV. 288. FRANKFORT, town, Kentucky, U.S.A., FRASERBURGH, town, Scotland, IX. I., elector and duke of Saxony, ix. IX. 704. 725.

740; XXI. 353. FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, town, Ger- FRATERCULA, genus of birds, xx. 101. II., of Saxony, ix. 741.

many, IX. 704 ; XX. 16; cathedral FRATRICELLI, or Fraticelli, mediæval III., of Saxony, ix. 741; XXI. 353; sculptures, xxi. 565; libraries, xiv. sects, IX. 725; III. 507; XVI. 711; XX. Spalatin's relations with, XXII. 366. 546; newspapers, XVII. 428; assembly 322.

king of Sicily, XXII. 28. (1848), X. 506; treaty of (1871), ix. FRAUD, in law, ix. 726.

I., king of Sweden, XXII. 751. 627. FRAUENBURG, town, Prussia, IX. 727. I., king of Würtemberg, XXIV. 702.

XXV. - 22

735; XX. 8.

DE

FREDERICK I.-II., electors palatine, ix. | FREEMAN'S JOURNAL, Dublin news- | FRENCH, Nicholas, Irish pamphleteer, 741. paper, XVII. 423.

IX. 768.
III.-IV., elector's palatine, IX. FREEMAN'S WELL, Alnwick, England, ACADEMY, I. 74, 75; dictionary of,
742.
I. 596.

VIII. 194.
V., elector palatine and king of FREEMANTLE, town, Western Australia, BEAN, vegetable, XII. 283.
Bohemia, ix. 742; X. 500.
XXIV. 508.

DRAMA, VII. 423. , town, Maryland, U.S.A., XV. 603. FREEMASONRY, IX. 747; condemned by GUIANA, South America, XI. 253. AUGUSTUS I. (Augustus II. of Pope Clement XII., v. 823.

HORN, musical instrument, XII. Poland), elector of Saxony, 111. 84. FREEPORT, town, Illinois, U.S.A., IX. 167. AUGUSTUS II. (Augustus III. of

LANGUAGE, IX. 629 ; XIV. 340; 752. Poland), elector of Saxony, ill. 85; | FREE-SOIL PARTY, United States, XXIII. dictionaries of, vii. 184. XIX. 297; XXI. 355. 768.

LITERATURE, IX. 637; Renaissance AUGUSTUS III., elector (I. as king) FREE SPIRIT, Brethren of the, mediæval period, xx. 391; early romances, xx. of Saxony, ix. 741; XXI. 355. sect, III. 507; XVII. 132.

659; Rabelais's influence on, XX. 197; AUGUSTUS I., king of Saxony, ix. FREETHINKING, Anthony Collins on, Rousseau's, XXI. 27. 741; XXI. 355. VI. 147

REVOLUTION (1789), ix. 596; XX. AUGUSTUS II., king of Saxony, ix. FREETOWN, town, Sierra Leone, West 602; views of, in England, xix. 143; 741; XXI. 356.

Africa, ix. 752; I. 269; XXII. 44. its influence on the popedom, XIX. 508; HENRY, of Orange-Nassau, stadt- FREE TRADE, IX. 752 ; its effect on on Spain, XXII. 342; in Switzerland, holder of Holland, XII. 79. commerce, Vi. 205; List's theory of,

XXII. 793. WILLIAM, elector of Brandenburg, xix. 389; Paterson's advocacy of, REVOLUTION, Reflections on the, IX. 733; XX. 6.

XVIII. 360; Sir Robert Peel's measures, Burke's, IV. 546. WILLIAM I., king of Prussia, ix. VIII. 366; XVIII. 456.

FRENTANI, ancient Italian people, xxi. FREE-Will, in ethics, viii. 608; in re 128, 248. WILLIAM II., of Prussia, ix. 739; lation to predestination, xix. 670 ; FRENZELITE, mineral, XVI. 394. XX. II.

Cudworth's theory, VI. 691; St Paul's FRÉQUENTE COMMUNION, De la, WILLIAM III., of Prussia, IX. 739; doctrine, XVIII. 427.

Arnauld's work, II. 620. XX. 11; his relations with Stein, XXII. FREEWILL BAPTISTS, IX. 762.

FRERE, John Hookham, English diplo530.

FREEZING-POINT, VIII. 731; XII. 611. matist and writer, ix. 768. WILLIAM IV., of Prussia, ix. 740; FREGATA, genus of birds, 1x. 786. FRÈRES SAINT-YON, religious XX. 12.

FREGELLÆ (Pontecorvo), ancient town, brotherhood, XII. 700. - City, town, Maryland, U.S.A., IX. Italy, XIX. 454.

FRÉRET, Nicolas, French scholar, 1x.768. 742.

FREGGA, Frigg, or Freya, in Teutonic FRÉRON, Élie Catherine, French critic FREDERICKSBURG, town, Virginia, mythology, ix. 777; 1. 209, 211. and controversialist, ix. 769.

U.S.A., IX. 742; battle of (1862), III. FREIBERG, town, Saxony, ix. 763; min Louis Stanislas, French Revolu444; XXIII. 777. ing school of, xxiv. 502.

tionist, IX. 769. FREDERICKSHALD, town, Norway, ix. FREIBURG (Freiburg in the Breisgau), FRÉROTS, or Fratricelli, mediæval sect, 742. town, Baden, Germany, IX. 764;

IX. 725. FREDERICKSTAD, town, Norway, ix. cathedral sculptures, xxi. 564; uni- FRESCO, IX. 769; XVII. 42; XXIII. 158; 742. versity, XXIII. 842.

a secco, XXIII. 157; ceilings, in ancient FREDERICTON, town, New Brunswick, town, Prussian Silesia, ix. 765. burial-chapels, v. 214; Raphael's IX. 742; XVII. 375.

, canton, Switzerland, ix. 763; XXII. frescos, XX. 279. FREDERIKSHAAB, district, Greenland, 778; town, ix. 764; XXII. 778, 788. FRESCOBALDI, Girolamo, Italian musi81. 170.

FREIDANK, or Freigedank, German poet, cal composer, ix. 776; XVII. 90. FREDRIKSHALL, Norway, Charles XII. IX. 765.

FRESE, Jacob, Swedish poet, XXII. 755. killed at, V. 422.

FREILIGRATH, Ferdinand, German poet, FRESHWATER, town, Isle of Wight, FREDRO, Count Alexander, Polish com IX. 766; X. 546.

England, xxiv. 562. edian, xix. 303.

FREIND, John, English physician and HERRING, fish, XXI. 224. FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, IX. 742; author, ix. 767; xv. 811.

FRESNEL, Augustin Jean, French XXI. 538; Chalmers's relations to, v. FREIRE, Francisco Joze, Portuguese physicist, ix. 776; his improvements 377.

historian and philologist, IX. 767. in lighting apparatus, xiv. 619, 620. FREEDMAN, Roman, XXII. 133.

FREISCHÜTZ, in German folklore, IX. FRESNILLO, town, Mexico, IX. 776; FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, XIX. 360. 767.

XXIV. 761. FREEDOM OF THE Will, Jonathan Weber's opera, XXIV. 468.

FRESNOY, Charles Alphonse du, French Edwards's work on the, vii. 690. See FREISING, town, Bavaria, ix. 767.

painter and writer, ix. 776. also Free-Will below.

FREIWALDAU, town, Austrian Silesia, FRESNY, Rivière du, French journalist, FREE GRACE, Melanchthon's doctrine IX. 767.

XVII. 424. of, xv. 834. FRÉJUS, town, France, IX. 767.

FRET, in heraldry, XI. 697. FREEHOLD, in English law, ix. 746; VI. FREMONT, town, Ohio, U.S.A., IX. 767. PATTERNS, in Japanese art, XIII. 355; XIV. 264; XX. 305.

John Charles, his operations in 590. FREE IMPERIAL CITIES, of Germany, California, iv. 695; candidate for FREUDENSTADT, town, Wurtemberg,

presidency of United States, xxII. Germany, 1x. 776. FREE LIBRARIES, in England, xiv. 520, 771.

FREUDENTHAL, town, Austrian Silesia, 542. FREMONT'S PEAK, Wyoming, U.S.A.,

IX. 777. FREEMAN, Edward Augustus, on chiv

XXIV. 712.

FREY, in northern mythology, I. 210. alry, xiv. 126; on the origin of trial FRENEAU, Philip, American writer, 1. FREYA, or Fregga, in Teutonic mythoby jury, XIII. 784. 722.

logy, IX. 777; 1. 209, 211.

IX. 747

20.

FREYBERG, or Freiberg, town, Saxony, FRIES, Elias Magnus, Swedish botanist,

1. 751; egg of, xx. 418; hibernation IX. 763. IX. 785.

of, XI. 789; p. rasites of, xvIII. 259; FREYBURG, or Freiburg, town, Baden, Jacob Friedrich, German philo

XXIII. 539. Germany, ix. 764.

sopher, IX. 785; his relations to FROG-FISH, IX. 269. FREYCINET, Louis Claude Desaules de, rationalism, XX. 290.

FROGMORE, Berkshire, England, MauFrench navigator, ix. 777. FRIESEITE, mineral, XVI. 393.

soleum at, 1. 453. FREYSING, or Freising, town, Bavaria, FRIESLAND, province, Holland, IX. 785; FROGS, The, Aristophanes's comedy, II. IX. 767. XII. 98.

509. FREYTAG, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, FRIESLEBENITE, mineral, XVI. 394. FRÖHLICH, Abraham Emanuel, GermanGerman Orientalist, IX. 777. FRIEZE, in architecture, 11. 464.

Swiss poet, ix. 797. Gustav, German novelist, X. 545. FRIGATE-BIRD, IX. 786.

FROISSART, Jean, French chronicler, ix. FREZZI, Federigo, Italian writer, XIII. FRIKELL, Wiljalba, conjurer, XIV. 415.

797, 646. 505.

FRINGILLA, genus of birds, xiv. 675; FROME, town, England, ix. 802; XXII. FRIAR, member of mendicant order, ix. XXII. 369.

258. 777; V. 116; VII. 354; IX. 698; xvi. FRINIATES, Ligurian tribe, Italy, XIII.

FRINIATES, Ligurian tribe, Italy, XIII. FROMENTIN, Eugène, French painter, 710; in England, 13th century, vill. 447; XIV. 640.

IX. 802. 316.

FRISCH, J. L., on birds, XVIII. 8. FROMME, C., his experiments in FRIAR-BIRD, XII. 139.

FRISCHE HAFF, lagoon, Prussia, xx. magnetism, xv. 258. FRIAR'S CAP, plant, l. 98.

FRONDE, War of the, in France, ix. FRIAR WILLIAM (Rubruquis), Oriental FRISCHLIN, Nicodemus, German scholar 572; XIV. 867; Condé's connexion traveller, XXI. 46. and poet, ix. 786.

with, VI. 246; Mazarin's, xv. 652; FRIBOURG (Freiburg), canton, Switzer- FRISI, Paolo, Italian mathematician and Louise d'Orléans's, XVI. 793; Retz's, land, ix. 763; XXII. 778; town, ix. astronomer, ix. 787.

XX. 488. 764; XXII. 778, 788.

Frisia, ancient region of Europe, ix. FRONSAC, town, France, XIV. 509. FRICHOT, Alexandre, French musical 787; ancient law code of, XXI. 215. FRONT, St, early French missionary, instrument maker, XVII. 778. FRISIAN LANGUAGE, IX. 788; XII. 84;

XVIII. 535. FRICKER, Edith, first wife of Robert dictionaries of, vii. 187.

FRONTINUS, Justinus (Justin), Latin Southey, XXII. 290. FRISIAN LITERATURE, IX. 788.

historian, XIII. 791. FRICTION, in physics, IX. 777; XV. 702, FRISIANS, ancient Teutonic people, IX. Sextus Julius, Roman soldier and

731,765; expenditureof energy on, VIII. 787; St Willibrord's mission to, XXIV. writer, ix. 803; inspector of Roman 208; of gases, XVI. 618; of liquids, 587.

aqueducts, XII. 435; his language XII. 482 ; xix. 247 ; influence of FRISIUS, Gemma, on navigation, XVII. and style, XIV. 337. lubricants on, xv. 35; stability of, 251.

FRONTO, Marcus Cornelius, Roman XV. 751; tidal, XXIII. 360, 374. FRIT Fly, wheat pest, XXIV. 535.

grammarian, IX. 803; his language FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY, VIII. 99. FRITH, John, early English Reformer, and style, XIV. 338. FRIDA, Emil Bohus, Bohemian poet, IX. 789.

FROSINONE, town, Italy, ix. 803. XXII. 152.

FRITH-Guilds, associations for mutual FROST, Geological action of, X. 265, 280. FRIDERICIA, or Fredericia, town, Den defence, XI. 260.

William Edward, English painter, mark, ix. 728.

FRITHIGERN, Gothic chief, x. 848, 849; IX. 803. FRIEDELITE, mineral, xvi. 424.

XXIII. 258, 720.

FROST-BITE, XVI. 849; XXII. 683. FRIEDLAND, town, Bohemia, ix. 778. FRITHIOFS SAGA, Tegnér's poem, XXIII. FROTTÉ, Louis de, French royalist, XVII. --, town, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Ger

203. many, IX. 778.

FRITILLARIA, genus of Tunicata, XXIII. FROUDE, William, English naval architown, Prussia, ix. 779; battle of 615; XXIV. 186.

tect, XXI. 809. (1807), XVII. 210.

FRITSLAR, Herbert von, romancist, XX. FROWLE, bird, XI. 262. Duke of (Wallenstein), general, 639.

FRUCTIDOR 18, Coup d'état of (1797), XXIV. 328. FRITZLAR, town, Prussia, 1X. 790.

France, XVII. 199. Valentin (Trotzendorf), German Hermann von, German mystic, FRUELA I., king of Leon, XXII. 311. educationist, xxIII. 588.

XVII. 133.

FRUE-VANNER, mining apparatus, xvI. FRIEDRICH (Frederick, q.v.), German FRIULI, district, Austria and Italy, IX. 465. name, ix. 729.

790.

FRUGALITY BANKS, XXI. 327. LUDWIG, prince of Hohenlohe, FRIZON (Gemma Frisius), on naviga- FRUGONI, Carlo Innocenzo, Italian poet, Prussian general, XII. 51. tion, XVII. 251.

IX. 804; XIII. 511. FRIEDRICHSHALL, spa, Saxe-Meiningen, FROBEN, or Frobenius, Joannes, German Fruit, of plants, IV. 148; formation Germany, XVI. 436.

printer and scholar, ix. 791; his of, xx. 429; culture of, I. 384; 11. 322; FRIENDLY ISLANDS, South Pacific, ix. lations with Erasmus, VIII. 514. dried, xix. 707; garden, XII. 268. 779.

FROBERGER, Johann Jacob German FRUMENTIUS, early Christian missionary FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, IX. 780; registra musician, XVII. 90.

and first bishop of Abyssinia, ix. 804; tion of, xx. 344. FROBISHER, Sir Martin, English navi

I. 65. FRIENDS, Society of (Quakers), xx. 147; gator, ix. 791; X. 184; his Arctic FRUSINUM, or Frusino (Frosinone), founder of, ix. 500. explorations, XIX. 316.

ancient town, Italy, IX. 803. — IN COUNCIL, Helps's work, XI. FRODOART (Flodoard), French chro- FRUYTIERS, Philip, Flemish painter, ix. 639. nicler, ix. 328.

804. OF GOD, mystic sect, xvii. 486; FROEBEL, Friedrich Wilhelm August, Fry, of fish, as article of food, xxiv. XXIII. 82.

German educationist, IX. 792; XIV. 550. OF THE PEOPLE, Society of, Eng.

Elizabeth, English philanthropist, lish political party, XI. 190.

FROG, amphibian, ix. 795; anatomy of, IX. 804; on prison discipline, xix. 749.

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FRYING, of meat, VI. 333.

FULFORD, England, Battle of (1066), XI. reproduction of, iv. 162; XX. 423, 430; FRYTH, or Frith, John, early English 485.

vegetative organs of, iv. 107; edible Reformer, ix. 789.

FULGENTIUS, Gottschalk, German theo species, xvII. 74; parasitic species, FRYXELL, Anders, Swedish historian, logian, X. 855.

XVIII. 266; for the herbarium, XI. 718; XXII. 758.

FULGINIUM (Foligno), ancient town, phosphorescence in, xvIII. 813; in F's, The Three, in Irish land tenure, Italy, ix. 356.

vine diseases, XXIV. 240. XIV. 277.

FULGORA, genus of insects, XIV. 290. FUR, IX. 836; of ermine, vill. 526; of FUAD PASHA, Mehmed, Turkish states- FULHAM, suburb of London, ix. 813; seals, xxi. 583; Canadian, iv. 775; man and author, ix. 805. XIV. 822.

yield in Siberia, XXII. 9. FUCHITE, mineral, xvi. 413.

FULIGNO, or Foligno, town, Italy, ix. in heraldry, XI. 691. FUCHS (Fux), Johann Joseph, Austrian 356.

-, group of Negroes, Africa, vi. 825; musical composer, ix. 855; XVII. 90. FULIGULA, genus of birds, xix. 252;

XVII. 319. Johann Nepomuk von, German XXI. 378.

FURETIÈRE, Antoine, French lexicochemist and mineralogist, IX. 805.

FULK, count of Anjou, Knight Templar, grapher, ix. 839; his French dictionary, Leonhard, German physician and XXIII. 16o.

VII. 185; his dispute with La Fontaine, botanist, ix. 6.

FITZWARIN, romance, xx. 658. XIV. 205; ana of, 1. 784. FUCHSIA, plant, ix. 806; XII. 263. FULLER, Andrew, English Baptist FURIES (the Greek Erinyes), in Latin FUCINUS (Fucino), lake, Italy, v. 286; divine, ix. 813.

mythology, ix. 840; VIII. 524. XIII. 440; drainage tunnel at, xxIII. Sarah Margaret, Marchioness Ossoli, FURLANIANS, ancient people of Friuli, 623 American writer, XVIII. 57.

Italy, ix. 790. FUEGIA, islands, Tierra del Fuego, Thomas, English divine and his- FURNACE, IX.840; method of measuring South America, XXIII. 384. torian, ix. 814.

temperature of, xx. 132; for assaying, FUEGIANS, races of Indians, XII. 829. FULLER'S EARTH, IX. 816; XVI. 424. II. 725; for the garden, XII. 228; for FUEL, IX. 807; composition of various FULLING, in wool manufacture, xxiv. glass-making, x. 657; for iron and kinds of, vi. 47; for blast furnaces, 661.

steel making, xIII. 293, 349; for lead XIII. 292, 315; gas as, Siemens's experi- FULLONICA, fuller's shop, at Pompeii, smelting, XIV. 375; for minting operaments with, xxII. 37; petroleum as, XIX. 449.

tions, XVI. 486; Siemens's regenerative, XVIII. 720; for smelting ores, XVI. 60; FULMAR, bird, ix. 817.

XXII. 37; for smelting pres, xvi. 60; in relation to smoke abatement, XXII. FULMINATES, explosives, VIII. 808. for steam-boilers, XXII. 496. 182; for steam boilers, xxii. 500, FULTON, Robert, American engineer, FURNEAUX, Captain, his explorations 519.

IX. 817; his invention of a steamboat, of Australian coasts, III. 104. FUENTE DE CANTOS, town, Spain, ix.

III. 542

FURNESS ABBEY, Lancashire, England, 810.

FUMARIA, genus of plants, ix. 817. III. 396; XIV. 254. FUENTE DEL MAESTRE, town, Spain, FUMIGATION, Religious, with incense, FURNITURE, IX. 847. IX. 810.

XII. 718, 721.

FURREEDKOTE (Faridkot), state, India, FUENTERRABIA (Fontarabia), town, FUMITORY, plant, ix. 817.

IX. 33. Spain, ix. 810.

FUNARIA HYGROMETRICA, species of FURREEDPORE (Faridpur), district, FUENTES, Manuel A., Peruvian writer, mosses, XVII. 71, 72.

British India, ix. 33. XVIII. 676.

FUNCHAL, town, Madeira, XV. 179. FURRUCKABAD (Farrakhabad), district, FUERO, Spanish legal charter and code, FUNCTION, in mathematical analysis, ix. India, IX. 42. IX. 810.

818; XIII. 13; XV. 630; XXIV. 71. FURSEY, abbot of Lagny, Celtic reFUERTEVENTURA, island, Canaries, iv. FUNCTIONS, Analytical, Theory of, La former, XVI. 707. 800.

grange's work, XIV. 209.

FÜRST, German title, XIX. 739. FUGGER, Swabian family, Germany, IX. Elliptic, Legendre's researches on, Julius, German Orientalist, IX. 811.

XIV. 413; Henry J. S. Smith's papers 850. FU TIVE SLAVE LAWS, in United on, XXII. 173.

FÜRSTENBERG, two

noble German States, IX. 165; XXIII. 768.

FUNDI (Fondi), ancient town, Italy, ix. families, IX. 851. FUGUE, in music, XVII. 82.

361.

FÜRSTENBUND, league of German prinFUH-Chow, or Fuh-Chow Foo (Foo FUNDS, national debt, XVII. 245.

ces, XX. 11. Chow), town, China, ix. 812; V. 636. FUNDY, Bay of, North America, XVII. FÜRSTENWALDE, town, Prussia, 1X. FUH-KEEN, province, China, v. 636.

851. FÜHRICH, Joseph von, Austrian painter, FUNEN, island, Denmark, vii. 80, 83. FÜRTH, town, Bavaria, Ix. 851. IX. 812.

FUNERAL RITES, IX. 824; III. 398; FURTUM, or Theft, Law of, XXIII. FUJI-SAN, or Fuji, volcano, Japan, XIII. their origin and meaning, 11. 56; 231. 571; pilgrimages to, XIX. 92.

dances, vi. 799; feasts, ix. 113; in FURZE, shrub, ix. 851. FULAHs, or Foulahs, Negro race, Africa, primitive church, V. 211; XXI. 155; FUSANUS, genus of trees, XXI. 255.

I. 263; XVII. 319; XXII. 248, 278, 279. in relation to totemism, xxIII. 470; FUSE, in pyrotechny, xx. 135; safety, FULBERT, Canon, uncle of Heloise, 1. 34. Egyptian, VII. 722, 728; XVII. 20; for mining, XVI. 445; for ammunition

- scholastic philosopher, XXI. 421. ancient Mexican, xvi. 213; Parsee, shells, 1. 745; XI. 305. FULBROKE PARK, Warwickshire, Eng XVIII. 326; Phænician, xvi1.810; Scy- FUSEE, match, xv. 626. land, XXI. 753.

thian, XXI. 576; Tibetan, XXIII. 344. of a watch, XXIV. 394. FULCHER, Geoffrey, Knight Templar, FÜNFHAUS, suburb of Vienna, ix. 827. FUSELI, Henry, Swiss painterand writer, XXIII. 161.

FÜNFKIRCHEN, town, Hungary, IX. IX. 852.
FULDA, monastery and town, Germany, 827; university of, xxIII. 840. FUSEL OIL, IX. 853.

IX. 812; monastic library of, xiv. FUNGUS, FUNGI, division of vegetable FUSIBILITY OF METALS, Table showing
513; philosophical school, xxi. 420. kingdom, ix. 827; XXIV. 127 ; rela the, XVI. 66.
river, Germany, XXIV. 503.

tions to Algæ, 111. 692; XXIV. 128; Fusil, in heraldry, XI. 697.

373, 601.

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