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concerning, XI. 679; Kant's Thoughts on, XIII. 847.

FIRE, FIRES, Destructive (with list of tires), IX. 233; in coal mines, VI. 74; construction of houses for protection against, IV. 453; extinction of, IX. 235; in Сытно (1871), V. 61 I; in London, XIV. 826, 848.

FIREBALI., Meteoric, XVI. 108; XXIII. 330

FIRE-BALLOONS, 1. 206.

FIRE-BRICRS, IX. 238.

FIRE BRIGADES, IX. 237.

FIRE-CLAY, IX. 238.

FIRE-DAMP, in mines, XVI. 194, 459.

FIRE-ENGINES, IX. 235.

FIRE-ESCAPES, IX. 236.

FIRE-FLY, XVIII. 814.

FIRE INSURANCE, XIII. 161.

FIRE MARBLE, mineral, XVI. 397.

FIRENZE (Florence, q.v.), tomi, Italy, IX. 330.

FIRENzUOLA, Agnolo, Italian poet, 1X. 240.

FIREPLACE, XXII. 579; in relation to smoke abatement, XXII. 181 ; Ventilation by, XXIV. 159.

FIREPROOF CLOTH, II. 675.

FIREPROOF SAFES, XXI. 144.

FIRE-RAISING, crime, II. 635.

FIRE-STEALING, in mythology, XVII. 158; XIX. 807.

FIRETAII., bird, XX. 317.

FIRE TRICKS, in magie, XV. 208.

FIREWORXS, XX. 134.

FIRLE BEACON, Sussex, England, XXII. 723.

FIRIIIIANUS, Lucius Crelius, early Christian writer, XIV. 195. ›

F IRM ICUS, MaternusJ ulius, Latin writer, 1X. 241; XV. 489.

FIRIINESS, in 845.

FIRIIIUM PICENUIII (Fermo), ancient town, Italy, IX. 98.

FIROzPUR, district, India, IX. 241; XX. 109; town, IX. 241.

FIROZ SHAH, Monument of, at Gaul', Bengal, X. 115.

FIRoz-SHAHR, India, Battle of (1845), XX. 112.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF ENGLAND AND
HER PEOPLE, Hugh Miller’s work,
XVI. 319.

FIRSTLINGS,
XVIII. 343.

FIRTH, or Estuary, XXI. 579; formation of, X. 2 57.

Рита-Кон, ancient town, Afghanistan, X. 570.

FISA, or Visions, in Irish literature, V. 310; in Welsh, V. 326.

FISCHART, Johannes, German satirist, IX. 242; X. 528.

FISCHERITE, mineral, XVI. 405.

FISCHER VON ERLACH, Viennese architect, XXIV. 220.

phrenology, XVIII.

Sacrificial offerings of,

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FISH, FISHES, XII. 630; XIX. 126; hypothetical primitive form, XXIV. 181; blind, of Mammoth Cave, U.S.A., XV. 450; works on development of, VIII. 168; electric, VII. 694; V111. 8; хн. 649, 694; хх. 299; ххп. 68; fossil, Agassiz’s researches on, I. 275 ; marine, distribution of, VII. 280, 282; nIiInicI-y in, XVI. 343; olfactory organs of, XXII. 166; poisonous, XV. 782; reproduction of, XX. 409; skeleton of, XXII. 106; spawning of, IX. 244; taxidermy of, XXIII. 90; organs of touch in, XXIII. 478 ; transport of, IX. 243 ; of America, I. 684; of Himalayas, XI. 834; of India, XII. 743; in Lankesteŕs classification, XXIV. 812.

FISH-CROW, bird, XIII. 533.

FISH-CULTURE, XIX. 126; XXI. 226.

FISHER, or Fisher Marten, XV. 577; skins of, IX. 838.

_, James, Scottish divine, XXIII. 728.

_, John, bishop of Rochester, IX. 242; VIII. 414; beheaded, VIII. 335.

_, Mary, English Quakercss, XX. 148, 152.

FISHERIES, Sea, IX. 243; mackerel, Xv. 160; mussel, XVII. 110; oyster, XVIII. 107; pearl oyster, XVIII. 446; pilchard, Cornwall, VI. 426; Seal, XXI. 581; sponge, XXII. 428; sword-fish, XXII. 804; whale, XXIV. 526; whitebait, XXIV. 550; of Canada, 1V. 774; Xx. 166; of England, VIII. 233; of Holland, XII. 67; of Kinsale, Ireland, VI. 403; of Labrador, XIV. 176; of Maine, U.S.A., XV. 300; of Newfoundland, XVII. 384; of Queensland, хх. 174; of Russia, XXI. 85; of the Volga, XXIV. 280.

FISHERMEN, Laws relating to, XXI. 607.

FISHERY BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS, XIX. 129.

FISHERY LAWS, IX. 268; as affecting rivers, XX. 565; with reference to salmon, XXI. 225.

FISHES, XII. 63o. See under Fish, above.

FISH-EVE PROBLEM, in optics, XIV. 599.

FISHGUARD, town, Wales, XVIII. 482.

FISH-HAWK, bird, XVIII. 56.

FISHING BOATS, IX. 246.

FISHING-FROG, fish, IX. 269; XII. 690.

FISHING HooXs AND TACRLE, for angling, II. 32, 33, 38.

FISHING NETS, XVII. 358.

FISH Мотн, destructive insect, in Natal, XVII. 241.

FISH 011., XVII. 744, 747.

FISH-PLATES, Railway, XX. 242.

FISX UNIVERSITY, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A., XVII. 236.

FISSIPEDIA, suborder of carnivorous mammals, XV. 4 33.

FISSURELLA, genus of Mollusca, XVI. 645.

FIs'rULA, in surgery, IX. 270.

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Рштиыкппж, group of fishes, XXI. 548

FITCH, skin of polccat, IX. 838.

_, John, American steamboat тешит‘, 1х. 270.

_, Ralph, English traveller, IX. 27o.

FITCHBURG, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., IX. 270.

FITCHET, or Polecat., XIX. 332.

FITHCHEAI., Irish game, V. 597.

FITNESS, Stoic doctrine of, XXII. 568.

FITS, Epileptie, VIII. 479.

F ITTON, Irish chancellor, XIII. 268.

FITz ALWIN, Henry, first mayor of London, XIV. 844.

FITZGERALD, Lord Edward, leader of United Irishmcn, IX. 27o.

_, Maurice, first earl of Desmond, XIII. 260.

_, Lord Thomas, Irish leader, IX. 271.

FITZGERALDS, of Desmond, noble Irish family, VI. 404.

FITZHERBERT, Sir Anthony, English judge, IX. 271; his Book of Husbandry, I. 295.

_, Maria, her marriage with George IV., X. 427.

FITzINGER, L., on reptiles, XX. 436.

FITZMAURICE, Henry Petty, third marquis of Lansdowne, XIX. 148.

_, William Petty, first marquis of Lansdowne, English statesman, XIV. 289.

F ITZ OSBERT, William, Sedition of, in London, VIII. 305.

FITz RALPH, Richard, bishop of Armagh, Ireland, XV. 543; XXIV. 709.

FITzRoY, river, Queensland, XX. 171.

_, suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, XV. 836.

_, Henry, natural son of Henry VIII. of England, XXII. 694.

_, Robert, English admiral, hydrographer, and темы-0103131, IX. 271. FITZSTEPHEN, William, English historian, 1х. 273; his description of London (1184), XIV. 844.

FITzwILLIAM MUSEUM,
England, IV. 729.

FIUME, town, Hungary, 1X. 273; III. 121; XII. 363.

FIUMICINO, town, Italy, XVIII. 61.

FIVE MILE ACT (1665), England, V111. 348; XIX. 690.

FIVE NATIONS, American-Indian confederacy, XVII. 454.

FIVES, game, IX. 273.

_, town, France, IX. 27 3.

FIX, Theodore, French political economist, IX. 27 3.

FIXED OILS, XVII. 739.

FIXED STARS, II. 816. n

FIXTURES, in law, 1X. 274; ш 1дШ1 tenure, XIV. 274.

FJORDS, of Scandinavia., XVU- 576; XXII. 737; formation of, X. 2 57.

FLACCUS, Caius Valerius, Roman pouf,

in

Cambridge,

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FLAIIAUT DE LA B1LLARDERIE,Auguste C. J., Comte de, French general and diplomatist, IX. 281; XVI. 829.

F LAKSTADÖ, island, Norway, хш. 769.

F LAMBARD, Ranulph or Ralph, bishop ofDurham, IX. 281; VIII. 303; XVII. 548; minister 0f William Rufus, XXIV. 577.

FLAMBERG, German sword, XXII. 803.

FLAMBOVANT, in architecture, II. 431, 464.

FLAME, Ix. 282.

_, Singing, I. 115.

FLAMEL, Nicolas, French alchemist, IX. 285.

FLAME MANOMETER, I. 115, 117.

FLAMEN, Roman priest, IX. 285; XIX. 455

_ DIALIs, priest of Jupiter, хш. 780; ххш. I8.

FLAMINGO, bird, IX. 286.

FLAMINIAN WAV, Roman road, Italy, хх. 555.

FLAMININUS, Titus Quinctius, Roman general and statesman, IX. 287; XX. 752

FLAMINIUs, Саша, Roman (223 в.с.), 1х. 288; хх. 749.

_, Сайт, Roman consul (I87 B.C.), IX. 289.

F LAMSTEED, John, English astronomer, IX. 289; II. 756; XVII. 257.

FLANDERS, countship, Netherlands, IX. 290; provinces, Belgium, III. 515.

FLANDRIN, Jean Hippolyte, French painter, IX. 291.

FLANNEL, woollen stuff, IX. 292.

F LASQUE, in heraldry, X1. 697.

F LATBUSI-I, town, Long Island, New York, U.S.A., IX. 292; XIV. 866.

FLAT-FISH, 1X. 292.

FLAT HEAD, fish, x11. 686.

F LATLANDS, town, Long Island, New York, U.S.A., XIV. 866.

FLAVEL, John, English theologian, IX. 292.

FLAVIAN I.-Il., patriarchs of Antioch, IX. 293.

consul

FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople, IX. 293.

_ PALACE, at Rome, xx. 823.

FLAVIGNY, Valérien, French Hebraist, IX. 293.

FLAVIN, душит IX. 293; XX. 175.

FLAVIONAVIA (Aviles), ancient town, Spain, III. 157.

FLAVIUS, the Armenian (Leo V.), emperor of the East, XIV. 45 3.

_, the Isaurian (Leo IIL), emperor of the East., XIV. 452.

_, Magnus (Leo 1.), emperor of the East, XIV. 452.

_, Porphyrogenitus (Constantine VIL), emperor 0f the East, VI. 301. ——‚ Sapiens (Leo VL), emperor of the

East, XIV. 453.

_ VOPIscUs, Augustan historian, III. 74

FLAX, plant and fibre, Ix. 293, 133; culture of, I. 380; manufacture of, XIV. 663; of New Zealand (Phormium), XVIII. 812.

FLAXMAN, John, English sculptor, Ix. 298; XXI. 560.

FLAX SPINNING, Girard’s machines for, х. 620.

FLEA, insect, 1X. 300; XIII.
Leeuwenhoek’s study of, XIV. 411.

FLÉCHIER, Esprit, bishop of N îmes, poet and preacher, IX. 301.

FLECKNOE, Richard, English poet and dramatist, IX. 302.

FLEECE, of wool, I. 399; XXIV. 656.

FLEET, river and ditch, London, XIV. 818,850; XVI. 279.

_, British, Officers of the, XVII. 291.

_ STREET, London, XIV. 848.

FLEET-WOOD, town, England, Ix. 302.

——‚ Charles, lord deputy of Ireland, 1X. 302.

_, William, bishop of Ely, IX. 303.

FLEITMANN, his method of working nickel, XVII. 488.

FLEMING, John, on animal classification, XVIII. 15, 18.

_, Paul, German poet, 1X. 303; X. 530

FLEMIsII LANGUAGE, XII. 85; dictionaries of, VII. 187.

FLEMMING, Richard, bishop of Lincoln, IX. 303.

Гьнызвпкс, town, Prussia, 1X. 304; XXI. 415.

FLERS, town, France, XVIII. 2.

FLETCHER, Andrew, of Зашли], Scottish politician, IX. 304; XXI. 519.

, Giles (1548-1610), English poet, Ix. 304.

_, Giles (1584-1623), English writer, IX. 304.

_, Isaac, his observatory, Tambank, England, XVII. 711.

,John, English dramatist, III. 469; VII. 432; XVIII. 347.

--, Phineas, English poet, IX. 305.

150;

FLEURANGES, Robert de la Marck, Seigneur de, French marshal and his~ torian, IX. 305.

F LEUR-nE-Lls, heialdic device, Ix. 306.

FLEURY, France, Library of monastery at, XIV. 513.

_, André Hercule de, French cardinal and statesman, IX. 306, 585.

_, Claude, French ecclesiastical historian, IX. 306.

FLEXURE, of a beam or rod, V11. 808.

FLEVDER, on flying, I. 186.

FLIEDNER, Theodore, German philanthropist, IX. 307; his institution of Sisters of Charity, XIII. 825.

FLIEGI-:NDE HOLLÃNDER,Der, WagneI-’s opera, XXIV. 314.

FLIEs, class of insects, V11. 255; XII. 317; mimicry in, XVI. 343.

_, Artificial, for angling, II. 44.

_, House, XIII. 150.

FLIGHT, Laws of, 1X. 308.

FLINCX, Govert, Dutch painter, IX. 324.

FLINDERS, Matthew, English navigator, IX. 324; his explorations in Australasia, III. 104; X. 190.

FLINT, mineial, 1x. 325; x. 239; хш. 389.

_, county, Wales, 1X. 326; population and representation, XXIII. 727; oualñeld, VI. 52; town, IX. 327.

_, Timothy, American divine and writer, IX. 327.

_ GLASS, Manufacture of, X. 663.

_ WEAPONS, 11. 337, 553.

F LOccULI, of spider-'s silk, II. 296.

FLODDEN, England, Battle of (1513), XIII. 557; XXI. 497.

FLODOARD, French chronicler, IX. 328.

FLOOD, The, of Scripture, их. 55.

_, Henry, Irish orator and politician, IX. 328.

_ ROCK,Ncw York Harbour, Blasting of, XXIII. 622.

FLOODS, in rivers, x11. 502; XX. 571.

FLOOR CLOTH, IX. 329; XIV. 676.

FLOORING, in building, Iv. 452, 455, 482, 493; tiles for, XXIII. 389.

FLOR, Roger di, military adventurer, IX. 330.

F LORA, in Roman mythology, IX. 33o.

_, of different countries, Grouping and distribution of, VII. 286.

FLORAL GAMES, Academy of, Toulouse, i. 69.

FLORALIA, Roman festival, IX. 33o.

FLORENCE, town, Italy, IX. 33o; xx. 275; as a republic, XIII. 479; council of (1439), XIX. 503; in time of Dante, V1. 810; Medici family, XV. 783; its rivalry with Pisa, XIX. 120; intime of Savonarola, XXI. 334; its wars with Siena, XXII. 39, 4I; academy of, I. 74; Accademia del Cimento, I. 7o; banking in, III. 316; baptistery, XIX. 122; bridge, IV. 332; cathedral, II. 436; campanile of cathedral, II. 456; coins, XVII. 656; cupola of church of S. Maria del Fiore, IV. 399; dialect of, XIII. 497; libraries, XIV. 53o, 548; majolica ware, XIX. 628; nobility of, XVII. 528; observatory at, XVII. 714; its school of painting, XXI. 434, 442; picture galleries, XXI. 446; porcelain, XIX. 636; sculptures, XX. 589; XXI. 567; terra-cotta art, XXIII. 194; university, XXIII. 837.

FLORENCE, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., XVII. 5 58.

_of Worcester, English chronicler,

IX. 337. . FLORENTIA (Florence), ancient town,

Italy, IX. 333.

FLORENTINE DIAMOND, vII. 166.

FLORES, island, Indian Archipelago, IX. 337

, island, Azores, Atlantic, III. 172.

_, town, Guatemala, х1. 239.

F LOREZ, Enrique, Spanish historian, IX. 337

FLORIAN, patron saint of Poland, IX. 337

_, Jean Pierre Claris de, French poet and romancist, IX. 337; XVIII. 348. FLORIDA, State, U.S.A., IX. 338; population, XXIII. 802; Orange culture in,

XVII. 81 I.

F LORIDA-BLANCA, Count of, Spanish statesman, IX. 341; XXII. 340.

Гьокшнлэ, order of plants, XXIV. 127.

FLORIDO, Venetian {Невы-8.151, I. 513.

F LORINUS, Polycarp’s letter to, XIX. 414.

FLORIO, Giovanni,English lexicographer and translator, 1х. 341; teacher and friend of Shakespeare, XXI. 7 56.

FLORIS l.-V., counts of Holland, XII. 71.

_, Frans, Flemish sculptor and painter, IX. 342.

FLORUS, Roman historian, IX. 342.

_, Gessius, Roman procurator in J udaea, XIII. 427.

FLoscULARIA, genus of Rotifera, XXI. 4.

F LOTATION, Position of animals in, IX. 309

FLOTSAM, in English law, IX. 342; V. 787.

FLOT'rA, island, Orkney, Scotland, XVII. 846.

FLOUNDER, fish, IX. 342.

FLOUR, Manufacture of, Ix. 343; III. 251; XV. 310; adulteration of, I. I7I.

FLOURENS, Gustave, French communist and writer, IX. 347.

, Marie Jean Pierre, French physiologist, IX. 347.

FLOWER, of plants, defined and dcscribed, IV. 126; XII. 215; хх. 424. FLOWER-DE-LUCE, genus of plants, Ix.

279. _ FLOWER GARDEN, XII. 247. FLowERING, of plants, Iv. 121.

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FLOWERS, Artificial, IX. 348.

_- or TIIE FOREST, Scottish ballad, VI. 98.

FLOYD-CARROLL-GRAYSON PLATEAU, Virginia, U.S.A., XXIV. 256.

FLOYER, Sir John, English physician and writer, IX. 349.

FLUDD, Robert, English physician and Inystic, IX. 349.

FLUELLITE, mineral, XVI. 384.

FLÜGEL, Gustav Lebrecht,
Orientalist, IX. 349.

_, Johann Gottfried, German lexicographer, IX. 349.

FLUID, FLUIDs, XII. 435; definition and physical primi', VI. 310; XIX. 24o; friction of, XIX. 247; motion of surface of, XV. 753; theory of motion of, III. 43; resistance 0f, XXI. 810; surface-tension of, V. 56.

FLUKE, parasitic worm,
XXIV. 205.

FLUOCERITE, mineral, XvI. 383.

FLUOREscENcE, source of light, хш. 579, 602; 1х. 350; in crystals, XVI. 376.

FLUORESCIN, chemical compound, XVIII. 85 5.

FLUORINE, chemical element, IX. 349; V. 490.

FLUOR SPAR, or Fluorite, mineral, IX. 349; X. 228; XVI. 383; as a llux, XVI. 62.

FLUSHING, town, Holland, IX. 35o; population, XXIV. 772.

_, town, Long Island, New York, U.S.A., 1X. 35o; XIV. 866.

FLUTE, musical instrument, IX. 350; ххш. 519.

FLUTE-MOUTH, fish, XXII. 548.

FLUXES, in smelting ores, XVI. 62; in iron smelting, XIII. 295.

FLUXIONS, in mathematics, XIII. 8, Io; Nc\vton’s invention of, XVII. 446; Maclaurin’s discussion of, XV. 161.

FLY, insect,v11. 255; XII. 3I7;XIII. 150; proboscis of, XXIII. 478.

_, river, New Guinea, XVII. 386.

FLYCATCIIER, bird, IX. 351.

FLY-FISHING, II. 36; hooks for, II. 33, 38.

FLYING, IX. 310; attempts at, I. 186.

_ DOVE, of Archytas, I. 185.

_ DUTCIIMAN, legend, XIII. 674.

— DUTCIIMAN, Wagners opera, XXIV. 314.

FLYING-FISH, IX. 352; хп. 693.

FLYING-FOX, bat, IX. 352, 310.

FLYING GURNARD, ñsh, XII. 690.

FLYING LEMUR, insectivorous mammal,

German

XXIII. 535;

Xv. 401.

FLYING MACHINES, IX. 308, 317; I. 186, 202.

FLY-WHEEL, Xv. 769; of steam-engine, XXII. 5o9, 511.

FOCA, island, Peru, XVIII. 671. FOCAL LINES, in optics, XVII. 799.

[graphic]

FG-ZDERA, Rymcr’s historical collection, XXI. 119.

FCENICULUM, genus of plants, 1X. 76.

FIETUS, Circulation of the blood in, XXIV. 108; syphilis in, XXII. 687.

_ IN FIETU, monstrosity, XVI. 766.

FOG, London, XIV. 827; causes of, XXII. 18о.

FOGARAS, town, Hungary, IX. 353.

FOG-Bow, or Fog-Eater, halo, Xl. 399.

FOGELBERG, Benedict Erland, Swedish sculptor, IX. 3 5 3.

FOGGIA, town, Italy, IX. 353; province (Capitanata), V. 7 3.

FOGO, one of Cape Verd Islands, V. 52.

FOG SIGNALS, XXII. 49.

FÖHN, local wind, Switzerland, XXII. 777° '

Fone, island, scIilt-avi'g-Holstcin, хх1. 414.

FOIL, thin sheet-copper, IX. 35 3.

_, Fencing, IX. 69.

I­`OIX, town, France, IX. 353.

——‚ Counts of, 1X. 354; 11. 18.

—, Paul de, French prelato and diplomatist, IX. 354. FOKSI-IAN, town, Roumanie, IX. 354. FOLARD, Jean Charles de, French writer on tactics, 1X. 355. ‘ FOLC-LAND, or Folk-Land (q.v.), in English law, IX. 357.

FOLDVAR, town, Hungary, IX. 355.

F OLENGO, Тесто, Italian poet, IX. 35 5.

FOLEY, John Henry, British sculptor, Ix. 35 5.

FOLIGNO, town, Italy, Ix. 356.

FOLK-BOOKS, XvIII. 204.

FOLKES, Martin, English antiquary, IX. 356

FOLKESTONE, town, England, 1X. 356; XIV. 39.

FOLK-LAND, in English law, IX. 357, 305; VIII. 275; Saxon, XVIII. 302.

FOLX-LORE, Ix. 357 ; in relation Io mythology, XVII. 144 ; magical survivals in, XV. 204 ; totemism in, XXIII. 467; Indian, XVIII. 660.

FOLK-SONGS, 111. 283.

F OLLEN, August Ludwig, German poet, IX. 359.

_, Charles, German poet and theologian, IX. 359.

FOLLETT, Sir William Webb, English lawyer, 1X. 359.

FOLLICLE, form of fruit, Iv. 151.

FOLLOWER, in applied mechanics, XV. 755

FOLQUET, of Marseilles, Provençal poet, XIX. 874.

FOMORIANS, of Irish legend, V. 3оо; хш. 243.

FONIILANQUE, Albany William, English political writer, IX. 360.

FONDANTS, French comtit, 111. 257.

FOND DU LAC, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 1х. 361; population, XXIV. 617.

roam, town, Italy. 1X- 361

FONS CASTALIUS (Castalia), fountain, Parnassus, Greece, V. 186; VII. 52.

FONS EERALDI (Fontevrault), ancient town, France, IX. 365.

FONSECA, Bay of, Honduras, XII. 130.

FONT, Baptismal, IX. 361 ; 111 architecture, II. 464.

FONTAINE, Jcan de la. (La Fontaine, q.v.), French poet, XIV. 203.

_, Pierre François Léonard, French architect, IX. 362.

FONTAINEBLEAU, 363; XXI. 625.

FONTANA, Carlo, Italian architect, хх. 836.

_, Domenico, Italian architect, IX. 363; II- 439- .

_, Lavinia, Italian painter, IX. 363.

_, Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian шашеmatician, XXIII. 68.

, Prospero, Italian painter, IX. 364.

FONTANES, Louis, Marquis de, French poet, IX. 364.

FONTANET, or Fontenay, France, Battle of (841), 1х. 533; XV. 9.

town, France, IX.

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` FONT/IRABIA, town, Spain, IX. 810.

FONTENAY, France, Battle of (841), IX. 533i XV- 9

, Lefèvre de, French journalist, XvII.

424. ‚

, Theresa, Comtesse de, XXIII. 3 3.

F ONTENAY-LE-COMTE, town, France, IX. 364.

FONTENELLE, Bernard lc Bovier de, French writer, IX. 364, 664.

F ONTENOY, Belgium, Battle of (1745), v1. 705; 1х. 586; XXI. 346.

FONTEvRAUD, Order of, monks and nuns, хш. 709.

FONTEVRAULT, town, France, IX. 365.

FOO-Chow, town, China, 1х. 812.

FOOD, VIII. 616; dietetics, v11. 2oo; cookery of, VI. 331; digestion of, XVII. 669; gelatinous, X. 132; laws against luxurious, XXII. 644; milk as, XVI. 303; poisonous, XV. 781; preserved, XIX. 707; supply of, in Great Britain, И. 415;’ tabooed, XXIII. 16, 468; of plants, XIX. 48.

FOOL, jester, IX. 366.

FOOT, Anatomy of the human, I. 830; joints and muscles of, I. 841; club-foot, VI. 42; redundant or defective toes on, XVI. 762; of mammals, XV. 360.

_, measure of length, XXIV. 483.

FOOT-AND-MOUTII DISEASE, xvII. 60.

FOOTBALL, game, 1X. 367.

FOOTE, Samuel, English дышишь and actor, 1х. 368; VII. 438.

FOOT-POUND, unit for measurement of work, VIII. 206; XV. 700.

FOOTSTI-:Ps OF THE CREATOR, Hugh Miller’s work, XVI. 320.

FOOTWAYS, in streets, хх. 588.

FOPPA, Vincenzo, Italian painter, IX. 371; XXL 437

FoRAOE CROPs, Culture of, I. 37o.

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FORAMINIFERA, Ix. 371 ; distribution of, V11. 277, 283.

FORBACH, town, German Lorraine, IX. 387.

FORBES, Alexander Penrose, bishop of Brechin, IX. 387.

_, David, English chemist and geologist, IX. 388.

_, Duncan, of Cullodcn, Scottish lawyer and statesman, IX. 388.

_, Edward, English naturalist, IX. 389.

_, James David, Scottish natural philosopher, IX. 390; on the motion of glaciers, X. 629.

, Sir John, physician and writer, IX. 393; XV. 816.

_, William Alexander, on birds, XVIII. 39

FORIIIDDEN FRUIT (Shaddock), XXI. 727.

FORBIN, Claude de, French naval conimander, IX. 393.

_, Comte de, French painter, XI. 48.

FORCE, in dynamics, VII. 581; xv. 676, 746, 764; electric, VIII. 20; its equival~ ent of heat, XI. 558; as the product of heat, XXIII. 283; measure of, vII. 584; XV. 698; Kant on the theories of, XIII. 847; Leibnitz’s doctrine of, XIV. 421.

FORCELLINI, Egidio, Italian pliilologist, 1х. 393.

FORCHHAMMER, Johan Georg, Danish mineralogist, IX. 393. ‚

Роксннмимнштв, mineral, XVI. 415.

FORCIII-IEIM, town, Bavaria, 1х. 394.

FORCIBLE ENTRY, Law of, v1. 583.

FORD, Horace A., archer, II. 373.

_, John, English dramatist, IX. 394; ‘111. 432.

_, Richard, English writer on Spain, IX. 396.

_, Thomas, English musician, IX. 396­

FORDUN, John of, Scottish historian, IX. 397

FOREHEAD, Bone of the, I. 824.

FOREIGN ENLISTMENT ACTS, 196.

FOREIGNERS, in Roman law, XX. 695.

FORENSIC COSTUME, VI. 476.

FORENSIC MEDICINE, Xv. 778.

FORENSIC RHETORIC, XX. 511.

FOREORDINATION, in theology, XIX. 668.

FOREsITE, mineral, хп. 42 3.

FOREST ADMINISTRATION, IX. 397.

FORESTALLING, of corn, Laws against, I. 298; VI. 412.

FOREST DISTRIcTs, Switzerland, XXII. 782.

FORESTERS, Ancient Order of, IX. 782.

FOREST LAW, English, IX. 409.

FOREST OF DEAN, district, Gloucester, England, X. 687, 689; coalfìeld of, v1. 5o.

FORESTS, 1х. 397; their cffecton climate,

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XIII.

VI. 4; submerged, X. 256; American, distribution of, I. 676; of Africa, I. 252; European, VIII. 692; of India, XII. 753; of Kentucky, XIV. 43; of the United States, XXIII. 807.

FOREZ, mountains, France, XX. I 19; plain, хш. 807.

F ORFAR, county, Scotland, 1х. 410; arca and population, XXI. 528; rcprc~ sentation, XXIII. 727; town, IX. 412.

FORFICULA, genus of insects, v11. 612.

FORFICULIDE, order of insects, УЛ. 613; хш. 152.

FORGE, for iron, IX. 412; its history, XIII. 29o.

FORGERY, in English law, Ix. 413.

_, Literary, in ancient times, I. 461.

FORGES, Evariste Désiré de, Vicomte de Parny, French poet, XVIII. 318.

FORGES-LES-EAUX, spa, France, XVI. 434

FORGET-ME-NOT, plant, 1х. 414; X11. 252.

FORGING MACHINES, IX. 413.

FORKEL, Johann Nikolaus, musician, IX. 414.

FORLI, town, Italy, IX. 414; district, хх. 560.

_, Melozzo da, Italian painter, IX. 414.

Рокцмгоюы, town, Italy, 1X. 415.

FORM, Abstract idea of, XV. 629.

FORMAN, Simon, English physician and astrologer, Ix. 415.

FORMARTIN, district, Scotland, 1. 43.

FORME, Printeŕs, XXIII. 700.

FORMENTARA, one of the Balearic Islands, Spain, III. 278.

FORMEY, Johann Heinrich Samuel, German writer, IX. 415.

FORMIA, town, Italy, IX. 415.

F ORMICA, genus of insects, II. 94.

FORMOSA, island, China, Ix. 415; II. 687; V. 636; birds of, 111. 762; camphor production, IV. 761; Psalman

i azar’s work on, XX. 28.

FORMOSUS, Pope, IX. 418.

FORMULAR SYSTEM, in Roman law, XIX. 707.

Рокошьшм (Friuli), ancient town, Italy, 1х. 790.

FORRES, town, Scotland, v1II. 130.

F ORS, constitution of Béarn, France, III. 465.

F ORSKÃL, Peter, Swedish naturalist and philosopher, IX. 418.

FORST, town, Prussia, IX. 418.

FORSTER, François, French engraver, 1X. 418.

_, G. S., on birds, XVIII. 8.

­­­­­­, Johann Georg Adam, German naturalist, IX. 418.

_, John, English historian and critic, IX. 419.

_, John R., on birds, XVIII. 8.

F ÖRSTER, Friedrich, German historian, IX. 418.

FORSTERITE, mineral, XVI. 410.

German

___

FORSYTH, William, on the origin of trial by jury, XIII. 784.

FORT, Construction of a, IX. 433, 434.

FORTALEZA (Ceara), town, Brazil, v. 282.

FORT CARILLON, New York, U.S.A., ххш. 352.

FORT DE FRANCE, town, Martinique, West Indies, IX. 420; XV. 586.

FORT DE Коск, Sumatra, ххп. 639.

FORTEBRACCIO, Nicola, Roman captain, хх. 805.

FORT EDMONTON, Canada, xv. 490.

FORTESCUE, Sir John, English lawyer, Ix. 420; щи. 416.

FORTH, river, Scotland, 1X. 42o; ххп. 553

_ BRIDGE, Scotland, xx. 234.

FORTIFICATION, Ix. 42x (index, 468); of ancient Rome, XX. 812.

FORT N ARYN, Syr-Daria, Central Asia, XXII. 818.

FORTRESS, Armament of a, Ix. 454.

F ORTROSE, town, Scotland, IX. 468.

FORT SCOTT, town, Kansas, U.S.A., XIII. 844.

FORT SUMTER, South Carolina, U.S.A., Surrender of (1861), XXIII. 774.

FORTUNA, Roman goddess, IX. 468; temple of, at Prteneste, XIX. 654; at Rome, II. 417; xx. 827.

F ORTUNATUS, legendary hero, IX. 468.

_, Venantius H. C., bishop of Poitiers, Latin poet, 1х. 469; as hymnwriter, x11. 582.

FORTUNE BAV, Newfoundland, xvII. 382.

FORTUNE-TELLING, Laws against, xv. 204; XXIV. 622.

FORTUNY, Mariano, Spanish painter, XXL 440» 443

FORT WAYNE, town, Indiana, U.S.A., Ix. 469.

FORT WORTH, town, Texas, U.S.A., ххш. 205.

FORUM, at Pompeii, х1х. 446.

_, at Rome, Ix. 469; хх. 813, 815, 825; architecture of, II. 419.

_ CORNELII (Imola), ancient town, Italy, хп. 717.

_ ­IULII (Cividale), ancient town, Italy, v. 797.

_ JULII (Fréjus), ancient France, Ix. 767.

_ JULII (Friuli), ancient town, Italy, Ix. 790.

_ LIVII (Forli), ancient town, Italy, IX. 414.

FOSBROKE, Thomas Dudley, English antiquary, IX. 469.

FOSCARI, Francesco, doge of Venice, IX. 470; хш. 480.

FOSCARINI, Antonio, Venetian conspirator, xxIv. 147.

_, Giacomo, Venetian statesman, x1. 121.

town,

FOSCARINI, Marco, doge of Venice, historian, 1X. 47I.

_, Michele, Venetianhistorian,IX.47x.

FOSCOLO, Ugo, Italian writer, IX. 471; VII. 417; XIII. 513.

FOSS, Edward, English legal writer, IX. 472

_, H. H., Norwegian poet, XVII. 591.

F OSS.­\NO, town, Italy, IX. 472.

, Ambrogio Stefani da (Il Bor~ gognone), Italian painter, IX. 472; xxl. 437.

FOSS DYKE, the oldest British canal, lv. 783.

FOSSE, in fortification, IX. 444.

_, War of the, Arabia (627), хп. 5 56.

FOSSILS, in geology, X. 319; the oldest known, IX. 384; birds, III. 728; fishes, xn. 666 ; mammals, xv. 375 (and article Mammalia throughout); of America, I. 682.

FOSSOMERONE, town, Italy, 1x. 473.

FossOMBRoNI, Vittorio, Italian statesman and mathematician, IX. 473.

FOSSORES, or Grave-Diggers, of the Catacombs, У. 214.

F OSSWAY, Roman remains, Lincolnshire, England, XIV. 656.

FOSTER, John, English essayist, Ix. 473

, Stephen Collins, American songwriter, IX. 475.

FOSTERAGE, under Brehon Law, in Ireland, ш. 253.

FOTHERGILL, John, English physician, Ix. 475; xv. 815.

FOTHERINGAY CASTLE, Northampton, England, XVII. 557; confinement of Mary, queen of Scots, at, XV. бот.

FOUCAULT, Jean Bernard Léon, French physicist, IX. 475; his experiment showing the earth’s rotation, X. 197; on radiation, хх. 215.

FOUCHÉ, Joseph, French minister of police, Ix. 476; his relations with Wellington, XXIV. 497.

FOUCHER, Simon, French sceptic, Ix. 478

FOUGASSE, in military mining, IX. 464.

FOUOÈRES, town, France, Ix. 478.

FOULA, island, Shetland, Scotland, XVII. 846.

FOULAHS, or Fulahs, Negro race, Africa, xvII. 319; I. 263; ххп. 248,278,279.

FOULD, Achille, French financier, IX. 478

FOULDREY CASTLE, Lancashire, England, xIv. 254.

FOULIS, Andrew and Robert, Scottish printers and publishers, IX. 479; their editions of the classics, III. 657.

гонщике, Gui (Pope Clement ПЛ), V. 821.

FOUMART, or Polecat, шк. 332.

FOUNDATIONS, in building, Iv. 452, 456; under water, lv. 326.

FOUNDING, casting metal, IX. 479.

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[graphic]

FOUNDLING HOSPITALS, Ix. 481. FOUNDLINO WHEEL, in Italy, хш.

449.

FOUNDRY OPERATIONS, Ix. 479; XIII. 355

FOUNTAIN, spring of water, IX. 484.

FOUNTAINE, Sir Andrew, collector of majolica ware, XIX. 628.

FOUNTAlNs ABBEY, Yorkshire, England, 1. 18, 19; ххш. 749.

FOUNTAINS OF MOSES, hot wells, Sinai, Arabia, II. 236.

FOUQUÉ, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte, German uriter, 1x. 486; x. 542; hymns by, хп. 588.

F OUQUET, Nicolas, French financier and statesman, Ix. 487, 574; patron of La Fontaine, XIV. 204.

FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, Antoine Quentin, French Revolutionist, IX. 488.

FOURAII BAY COLLEGE, Sierra Leone, lVeSt Africa, XXII. 45.

FOUR BOOKS, of China, v. 661.

FOURCHAMBAULT, town, France, 1x. 488; xvII. 496.

FOURCROV, Antoine François, Comte de, French chemist, IX. 488.

FOUR GEORGES, The, by Thackeray, XXIII. 216.

FOURIER, François Charles Marie, French socialist writer, IX. 489; XXII. 208.

, Jean Baptiste Joseph, French mathematician and physicist, 1X. 490; I. 5x6; his theorem of simple harmonic analysis, XV. 689; XVII. 105; on the conduction of heat, XI. 578, 587; xvII. 738

FOUR MASTERS, Annals of the, v. 307, 326.

FOURMENT, Helena, Rubens’s second wife, XXI. 45.

FOURMONT, Etienne, French Orientalist, Ix. 491.

_, Michel, French Syriac scholar, Ix. 491

FOURNEYRON, Benoit, inventor of turbine water-wheel, XII. 438.

FOURNIER, Pierre Simon, French printer, Ix. 491.

FOURRÉ, Marie, heroine at siege of Peronne, France, XVIII. 552.

FOUR SoNs or AYMON, romance, xx. 652.

FOURVIÈRES, ancient building, Lyons, France, XV. III.

FOUSSA, Malagasy cat, xv. 435.

FOvEAUx STRAIT, New Zealand, xvII. 467.

FOwL, FowLS, poultry, Ix. 491; х1х. 644; successive stages of cranium of, III. 700; management of, I. 4OI.

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Гон/шк, Charles, English architect, Ix.

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