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concerning, XI. 679; Kant's Thoughts | Fish, FISHES, XII. 630; XIX. 126; hypo- FISTULARIIDÆ, group of fishes, XXI. on, XIII. 847. thetical primitive form, xxiv. 181;

548. FIRE, FIRES, Destructive (with list of blind, of Mammoth Cave, U.S.A., XV. Fitch, skin of polecat, ix. 838.

fires), ix. 233; in coal mines, VI. 74; 450; works on development of, viii. John, American steamboat inconstruction of houses for protection 168; electric, vii. 694; VIII. 8; XII. ventor, IX. 270. against, IV. 453; extinction of, 1x. 235; 649, 694; XX. 299; XXII. 68; fossil, Ralph, English traveller, ix. 270. in Chicago (1871), v. 611; in London, Agassiz's researches on, I. 275; marine, FITCHBURG, town, Massachusetts, XIV. 826, 848.

distribution of, vii. 280, 282; mimicry U.S.A., IX. 270. FIREBALL, Meteoric, XVI. 108; XXIII. in, XVI. 343; olfactory organs of, xxII. FITCHET, or Polecat, XIX. 332. 330.

166; poisonous, xv. 782; reproduction FITHCHEAL, Irish game, V. 597. FIRE-BALLOONS, I. 206.

of, xx. 409; skeleton of, XXII. 106; | FITNESS, Stoic doctrine of, XXII. 568. FIRE-BRICKS, IX. 238.

spawning of, ix. 244; taxidermy of, Fits, Epileptic, VIII. 479. FIRE BRIGADES, IX. 237.

XXIII. 90; organs of touch in, xxIII. FITTON, Irish chancellor, XIII. 268. FIRE-CLAY, IX. 238.

478; transport of, ix. 243 ; of Amer- Fitz Alwin, Henry, first mayor of FIRE-DAMP, in mines, XVI. 194, 459. ica, I. 684 ; of Himalayas, XI. 834; London, xiv. 844. FIRE-ENGINES, IX. 235.

of India, XII. 743; in Lankester's FITZGERALD, Lord Edward, leader of FIRE-ESCAPES, IX. 236.

classification, xxiv. 812.

United Irishmen, IX. 270.
FIRE-FLY, XVIII. 814.
FISH-Crow, bird, xiii. 533.

Maurice, first earl of Desmond,
FIRE INSURANCE, XIII. 161.
FISH-CULTURE, XIX. 126; XXI. 226.

XIII. 260. FIRE MARBLE, mineral, xvi. 397. FISHER, or Fisher Marten, xv. 577;

Lord Thomas, Irish leader, 1X. 271. FIRENZE (Florence, q.v.), town, Italy, skins of, ix. 838.

FITZGERALDS, of Desmond, noble Irish IX. 330.

James, Scottish divine, xxIII. 728. family, VI. 404. FIRENZUOLA, Agnolo, Italian poet, ix. John, bishop of Rochester, ix. 242; FITZHERBERT, Sir Anthony, English 240. VIII. 414; beheaded, viii. 335.

judge, IX. 271; his Book of Husbandry, FIREPLACE, XXII. 579; in relation to - Mary, English Quakeress, XX, 148, I. 295. smoke abatem XXII. 181; ventila152.

Maria, her marriage with George tion by, XXIV. 159.

FISHERIES, Sea, ix. 243; mackerel, xv. IV., X. 427 FIREPROOF CLOTH, II. 675.

160; mussel, XVII. 110; oyster, XVIII. FITZINGER, L., on reptiles, XX. 436. FIREPROOF SAFES, XXI. 144.

107; pearl oyster, XVIII. 446; pilchard, FITZMAURICE, Henry Petty, third marFIRE-RAISING, crime, II. 635.

Cornwall, VI. 426; seal, XXI. 581; quis of Lansdowne, xix. 148. FIRE-STEALING, in mythology, XVII. sponge, XXII. 428; sword-fish, xxII. William Petty, first marquis of 158; XIX. 807.

804; whale, XXIV. 526; whitebait, Lansdowne, English statesman, xiv. FIRETAIL, bird, xx. 317.

xxiv. 550; of Canada, iv. 774; XX. 289. FIRE TRICKS, in magic, xv. 208.

166; of England, VIII. 233; of Holland, Fitz OSBERT, William, Sedition of, in FIREWORKS, XX. 134.

XII. 67; of Kinsale, Ireland, vi. 403 ; London, VIII. 305. FIRLE BEACON, Sussex, England, xxII. of Labrador, xiv. 176; of Maine, FITZ RALPH, Richard, bishop of Armagh, 723.

U.S.A., xv. 300; of Newfoundland, Ireland, xv. 543; XXIV. 709. FIRMIANUS, Lucius Cælius, early XVII. 384; of Queensland, xx. 174; of FITZROY, river, Queensland, xx. 171. Christian writer, XIV. 195.

Russia, XXI. 85; of the Volga, xxiv. suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, FIRMICUS, Maternus Julius, Latin writer,

280.

xv. 836. IX. 241; XV. 489.

FISHERMEN, Laws relating to, XXI. Henry, natural son of Henry VIII. FIRMNESS, in phrenology, XVIII. 607.

of England, xxII. 694. 845.

FISHERY BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS, Robert, English admiral, hydroFIRMUM PICENUM (Fermo), ancient

XIX. 129.

grapher, and meteorologist, IX. 271. town, Italy, ix. 98.

FISHERY LAWS, IX. 268; as affecting FITZSTEPHEN, William, English hisFIROZPUR, district, India, IX. 241; XX. rivers, XX. 565; with reference to torian, IX. 273; his description of 109; town, IX. 241. salmon, XXI. 225.

London (1184), xiv. 844. FIROZ SHAH, Monument of, at Gaur, FISHES, XII. 630. See under Fish, above. FitzwILLIAM MUSEUM, Cambridge, Bengal, X. 115.

FISH-EYE PROBLEM, in optics, XIV. 599. England, Iv. 729. Firoz-SHAHR, India, Battle of (1845), FISHGUARD, town, Wales, xvIII. 482. FIUME, town, Hungary, IX. 273; III. xx. 112. FISH-HAWK, bird, xvIII. 56.

121; XII. 363. FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF ENGLAND AND FISHING BOATS, IX. 246.

FIUMICINO, town, Italy, xvIII. 61. HER PEOPLE, Hugh Miller's work, FISHING-FROG, fish, ix. 269; XII. 690. FIVE MILE ACT (1665), England, viii. XVI. 319.

FISHING HOOKS AND TACKLE, for 348; XIX. 690. FIRSTLINGS, Sacrificial offerings of, angling, II. 32, 33, 38.

FIVE NATIONS, American-Indian conXVIII. 343. FISHING NETS, XVII. 358.

federacy, XVII. 454. FIRTH, or Estuary, XXI. 579; formation Fish MOTH, destructive insect, in Natal, Fives, game, ix. 273. of, X. 257. XVII. 241.

town, France, IX. 273. FIRUZ-Koy, ancient town, Afghanistan, Fish Oil, XVII. 744, 747.

Fix, Theodore, French political econoX. 570. FISH-PLATES, Railway, XX. 242.

mist, IX. 273. Fisa, or Visions, in Irish literature, v. FISK UNIVERSITY, Nashville, Tennessee, FIXED OILS, XVII. 739. 310; in Welsh, v. 326.

U.S.A., XVII. 236.

FIXED STARS, II. 816. FISCHART, Johannes, German satirist, FISSIPEDIA, suborder of carnivorous FIXTURES, in law, ix. 274; in land IX. 242; X. 528. mammals, XV. 433.

tenure, XIV. 274. FISCHERITE, mineral, XVI. 405.

FISSURELLA, genus of Mollusca, XVI. FJORDS, of Scandinavia, XVII. 576; FISCHER VON ERLACH, Viennese archi. 645.

XXII. 737; formation of, x. 257. tect, XXIV. 220. FISTULA, in surgery, ix. 270.

FLACCUS, Caius Valerius, Roman poet,

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IX. 293.

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XIII.

IX. 274; his place in Roman literature, FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople, FLEURANGES, Robert de la Marck, XX. 726.

Seigneur de, French marshal and hisFLACIUS, Matthias, German theologian, PALACE, at Rome, xx. 823.

torian, IX. 305. IX. 275; on church history, V. 765; on FLAVIGNY, Valérien, French Hebraist,

FLAVIGNY, Valérien, French Hebraist, FLEUR-DE-Lis, heraldic device, IX. 306. Lutheran theology, xv. 85.

IX. 293

FLEURY, France, Library of monastery FLACOURT, Étienne de, French governor FLAvin, dyestuff, ix. 293; XX. 175. at, XIV. 513 of Madagascar, IX. 275.

FLAVIONAVIA (Aviles), ancient town, André Hercule de, French carFLAG, or Iris, genus of plants, ix. 279. Spain, Ill. 157

dinal and statesman, ix. 306, 585. FLAGS, Military and naval, ix. FLAVIUS, the Armenian (Leo V.), Claude, French ecclesiastical his276; knight's, xiv. 117; of United emperor of the East, XIV. 453.

torian, ix. 306. States, xxIII. 742; signals by means the Isaurian (Leo III.), emperor FLEXURE, of a beam or rod, vii. 808. of, XXII. 49.

of the East, XIV. 452.

FLEYDER, on flying, 1. 186. FLAGELLANTS, self-chastising frater Magnus (Leo I.), emperor of the FLIEDNER, Theodore, German philannities, ix. 280. East, XIV. 452.

thropist, ix. 307; his institution of FLAGELLATA, class of Protozoa, XIX. Porphyrogenitus (Constantine Sisters of Charity, XI. 825. 856.

VII.), emperor of the East, vi. 301. FLIEGENDE HOLLÄNDER, Der, Wagner's FLAGEOLET, musical instrument, IX. Sapiens (Leo VI.), emperor of the opera, XXIV. 314. 351.

East, XIV. 453.

FLIES, class of insects, VII. 255; XII. FLAGSTAFF MINE, Utah, U.S.A., XXIII. VOPISCUS, Augustan historian, II. 317; mimicry in, XVI. 343. 815. 74.

Artificial, for angling, 11. 44. FLAHAUT DE LA BILLARDERIE, Auguste FLAX, plant and fibre, ix. 293, 133; House, XIII. 150.

C. J., Comte de, French general and culture of, 1. 380; manufacture of, xiv. Flight, Laws of, ix. 308. diplomatist, IX. 281; XVI. 829.

663; of New Zealand (Phormium), FLINCK, Govert, Dutch painter, ix. FLAKSTADO, island, Norway, XIV. 769. XVIII. 812.

324. FLAMBARD, Ranulph or Ralph, bishop FLAXMAN, John, English sculptor, ix. FLINDERS, Matthew, English navigator, of Durham, IX. 281; VIII. 303; XVII.548; 298; XXI. 560.

IX. 324; his explorations in Australminister of William Rufus, XXIV. 577. FLAX SPINNING, Girard's machines for, asia, Ill. 104; X. 190. FLAMBERG, German sword, xxII. 803. X. 620.

FLINT, mineral, ix. 325; X. 239; XVI. FLAMBOYANT, in architecture, Il. 431, FLEA, insect, IX. 300;

150; 389. 464. Leeuwenhoek's study of, XIV. 411.

county, Wales, IX. 326; population FLAME, IX. 282.

FLÉCHIER, Esprit, bishop of Nimes, poet and representation, XXIII. 727; coalSinging, 1. 115. and preacher, ix. 301.

field, vi. 52; town, ix. 327. FLAMEL, Nicolas, French alchemist, ix. FLECKNOE, Richard, English poet and Timothy, American divine and 285. dramatist, IX. 302.

writer, IX. 327. FLAME MANOMETER, I. 115, 117. FLEECE, of wool, I. 399; XXIV. 656.

GLASS, Manufacture of, x. 663. FLAMEN, Roman priest, ix. 285; XIX. FLEET, river and ditch, London, xiv. WEAPONS, II. 337, 553. 455.

818, 850; XVI. 279.

FLOCCULI, of spider's silk, II. 296. DIALIS, priest of Jupiter, XIII. 780; British, Officers of the, XVII. 291. FLODDEN, England, Battle of (1513), XXIII. 18.

STREET, London, xiv. 848.

XIII. 557; XXI. 497. FLAMINGO, bird, ix. 286.

FLEETWOOD, town, England, ix. 302. FLODOARD, French chronicler, ix. 328. FLAMINIAN WAY, Roman road, Italy, Charles, lord deputy of Ireland, FLOOD, The, of Scripture, VII. 55. XX. 555. IX. 302.

Henry, Irish orator and politician, FLAMININUS, Titus Quinctius, Roman - William, bishop of Ely, ix. 303. IX. 328.

general and statesman, ix. 287; XX. | FLEITMANN, his method of working Rock, New York Harbour, Blasting 752. nickel, xvII. 488.

of, xxIII. 622. FLAMINIUS, Caius, Roman consul FLEMING, John, on animal classification, FLOODS, in rivers, XII. 502; XX. 571. (223 B.C.), IX. 288; XX. 749. XVIII. 15, 18.

FLOOR CLOTH, IX. 329; XIV. 676. Caius, Roman consul (187 B.C.), Paul, German poet, ix. 303; x. FLOORING, in building, iv. 452, 455, IX. 289. 530.

482, 493; tiles for, XXIII. 389. FLAMSTEED, John, English astronomer, FLEMISH LANGUAGE, XII. 85; diction- | FLOR, Roger di, military adventurer, IX. 289; 11. 756; XVII. 257. aries of, vii. 187.

IX. 330. FLANDERS, countship, Netherlands, ix. FLEMMING, Richard, bishop of Lincoln, FLORA, in Roman mythology, ix. 330. 290; provinces, Belgium, III. 515. IX. 303.

of different countries, Grouping FLANDRIN, Jean Hippolyte, French FLENSBURG, town, Prussia, ix. 304; and distribution of, vii. 286. painter, 1X. 291.

XXI. 415.

FLORAL GAMES, Academy of, Toulouse, FLANNEL, woollen stuff, ix. 292. FLERS, town, France, xvIII. 2.

1. 69. FLASQUE, in heraldry, XI. 697.

FLETCHER, Andrew, of Saltoun, Scottish FLORALIA, Roman festival, ix. 330. FLATBUSH, town, Long Island, New politician, ix. 304; XXI. 519.

FLORENCE, town, Italy, IX. 330; XX. York, U.S.A., IX. 292; XIV. 866.

Giles (1548-1610), English poet, 275; as a republic, XIII. 479; council FLAT-FISH, IX. 292.

of (1439), xix. 503; in time of Dante, FLAT HEAD, fish, XII. 686.

Giles (1584-1623), English writer, VI. 810; Medici family, xv. 783; its FLATLANDS, town, Long Island, New

rivalry with Pisa, xix. 120; in time of York, U.S.A., XIV. 866.

Isaac, his observatory, Tarnbank, Savonarola, xxi. 334; its wars with FLAVEL, John, English theologian, ix. England, xvii. 711.

Siena, XXII. 39, 41; academy of, 1. 292.

John, English dramatist, III. 469; 74; Accademia del Cimento, I. 70; FLAVIAN I.-II., patriarchs of Antioch, VII. 432; XVIII. 347.

banking in, III. 316; baptistery, xix. Phineas, English poet, IX. 305. 122; bridge, Iv. 332; cathedral, II.

IX. 304.

IX. 304.

IX. 293.

V. 490.

436; campanile of cathedral, 11. 456; FLOWERS, Artificial, ix. 348.

FEDERA, Rymer's historical collection, coins, XVII. 656; cupola of church of S. OF THE FOREST, Scottish ballad,

XXI. 119. Maria del Fiore, iv. 399; dialect of, VI. 98.

FENICULUM, genus of plants, ix. 76. XIII. 497 ; libraries, xiv. 530, 548; FLOYD-CARROLL-GRAYSON PLATEAU, FÆTUS, Circulation of the blood in, majolica ware, xix. 628; nobility of, Virginia, U.S.A., XXIV. 256.

XXIV. 108; syphilis in, XXII. 687. XVII. 528; observatory at, XVII. 714; FLOYER, Sir John, English physician IN FETU, monstrosity, XVI. 766. its school of painting, XXI. 434, 442;

and writer, IX. 349.

Foc, London, xiv. 827; causes of, XXII. picture galleries, XXI. 446; porcelain, FLUDD, Robert, English physician and 180. XIX. 636; sculptures, xx. 589; XXI. mystic, IX. 349.

FOGARAS, town, Hungary, IX. 353. 567; terra-cotta art, XXIII. 194; uni- FLUELLITE, mineral, xvi. 384.

FOG-Bow, or Fog-Eater, halo, XI. 399. versity, XXIII. 837.

FLÜGEL, Gustav Lebrecht, German FOGELBERG, Benedict Erland, Swedish FLORENCE, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., Orientalist, IX. 349.

sculptor, ix. 353. XVII. 558.

Johann Gottfried, German lexico- Foggia, town, Italy, ix. 353; province of Worcester, English chronicler, grapher, IX. 349.

(Capitanata), v. 73. IX. 337

FLUID, FLUIDS, XII. 435; definition and Fogo, one of Cape Verd Islands, V. 52. FLORENTIA (Florence), ancient town, physical properties of, vi. 310; xix. FoG SIGNALS, XXII. 49. Italy, ix. 333.

240; friction of, xix. 247; motion of Föhn, local wind, Switzerland, xxII. FLORENTINE DIAMOND, VII. 166.

surface of, xv. 753; theory of motion 777. FLORES, island, Indian Archipelago, Ix. of, 11. 43; resistance of, xxi. 810; FÖHR, island, Schleswig-Holstein, xxi. 337 surface-tension of, v. 56.

414. island, Azores, Atlantic, III. 172. FLUKE, parasitic worm, XXIII. 535; Foil, thin sheet-copper, 1X. 353. town, Guatemala, XI. 239. XXIV. 205.

Fencing, ix. 69. FLOREZ, Enrique, Spanish historian, ix. FLUOCERITE, mineral, xvi. 383. Foix, town, France, 1X. 353. 337.

FLUORESCENCE, source of light, xiv. Counts of, ix. 354; II. 18. FLORIAN, patron saint of Poland, ix. 579, 602; IX. 350; in crystals, XVI. Paul de, French prelate and dip337. 376.

lomatist, IX. 354. Jean Pierre Claris de, French poet FLUORESCIN, chemical compound, xvIII. FOKSHAN, town, Roumania, ix. 354. and romancist, 18. 337; XVIII. 348. 855.

FOLARD, Jean Charles de, French FLORIDA, State, U.S.A., 18. 338; popu- FLUORINE, chemical element, ix. 349; writer on tactics, IX. 355. lation, XXIII. 802; orange culture in,

FOLC-LAND, or Folk-Land (9.v.)in XVII. 811.

FLUOR SPAR, or Fluorite, mineral, 1x. English law, ix. 357. FLORIDA-BLANCA, Count of, Spanish 349; X. 228; XVI. 383; as a flux, XVI. FOLDVAR, town, Hungary, ix. 355. statesman, ix. 341; XXII. 340.

62.

FOLENGO, Teofilo, Italian poet, IX. 355. FLORIDEÆ, order of plants, XXIV. 127. FLUSHING, town, Holland, ix. 350; FOLEY, John Henry, British sculptor, FLORIDO, Venetian algebraist, I. 513. population, XXIV. 772. FLORINUS, Polycarp's letter to, xix. , town, Long Island, New York, FOLIGNO, town, Italy, ix. 356. 414.

U.S.A., IX. 350; xiv. 866.

FOLK-BOOKS, XVIII. 204. Florio, Giovanni, English lexicographer Flute, musical instrument, ix. 350; FOLKES, Martin, English antiquary, ix. and translator, ix. 341; teacher and XXIII. 519.

356. friend of Shakespeare, XXI. 756. FLUTE-MOUTH, fish, XXII. 548. FOLKESTONE, town, England, ix. 356; FLORIS I.-V., counts of Holland, xii. FLUXES, in smelting ores, xvi. 62; in XIV. 39. 71.

iron smelting, XIII. 295.

FOLK-LAND, in English law, ix. 357, Frans, Flemish sculptor and Fluxions, in mathematics, XIII. 8, 10; 305; VIII. 275; Saxon, XVIII. 302. painter, ix. 342.

Newton's invention of, XVII. 446; FOLK-LORE, IX. 357 ; in relation to FLORUS, Roman historian, ix. 342. Maclaurin's discussion of, xv. 161. mythology, xvII. 144; magical sur

Gessius, Roman procurator in Fly, insect, VII. 255; XII. 317; XIII. 150; vivals in, XV. 204 ; totemism in, Judæa, XIII. 427. proboscis of, XXIII. 478.

XXIII. 467; Indian, XVIII. 660. FLOSCULARIA, genus of Rotifera, XXI. 4. —, river, New Guinea, XVII. 386. FOLK-SONGS, III. 283. FLOTATION, Position of animals in, 1x. FLYCATCHER, bird, ix. 351.

FOLLEN, August Ludwig, German poet, 309.

FLY-FISHING, II. 36; hooks for, 11. 33, FLOTSAM, in English law, ix. 342; V. 38.

Charles, German poet and theo787.

FLYING, IX. 310; attempts at, I. 186. logian, ix. 359. FLOTTA, island, Orkney, Scotland, XVII. DOVE, of Archytas, 1. 185.

FOLLETT, Sir William Webb, English 846.

DUTCHMAN, legend, XIII. 674. lawyer, IX. 359. FLOUNDER, fish, ix. 342.

DUTCHMAN, Wagner's opera, xxiv. Follicle, form of fruit, iv. 151. F UR, Manufacture of, ix. 343; III. 314.

FOLLOWER, in applied mechanics, xv. 251; XV. 310; adulteration of, 1. 171. FLYING-FISH, IX. 352; XII. 693.

755. FLOURENS, Gustave, French communist FLYING-Fox, bat, ix. 352, 310.

FOLQUET, of Marseilles, Provençal poet, and writer, ix. 347. FLYING GURNARD, fish, XII. 690.

XIX. 874. Marie Jean Pierre, French physio- FLYING LEMUR, insectivorous mammal, FOMORIANS, of Irish legend, v. 300; logist, IX. 347 XV. 401.

XIII. 243. FLOWER, of plants, defined and de- FLYING MACHINES, ix. 308, 317; 1. FONBLANQUE, Albany William, English scribed, iv. 126; XII. 215; XX. 424. 186, 202.

political writer, ix. 360. FLOWER-DE-LUCE, genus of plants, ix. FLY-WHEEL, XV. 769; of steam-engine, FONDANTS, French comfit, VI. 257. 279.

XXII. 509, 511.

FOND DU LAC, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., FLOWER GARDEN, XII. 247. Foca, island, Peru, xvIII. 671.

X. 361; population, xxiv. 617. FLOWERING, of plants, IV. 121.

Focal LINES, in optics, XVII. 799. FONDI, town, Italy, ix. 361.

IX. 355.

IX. 359.

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IX. 393.

FONS CASTALIUS (Castalia), fountain, | FORAMINIFERA, IX. 371; distribution VI. 4; submerged, X. 256; American, Parnassus, Greece, v. 186; VII. 52. of, vil. 277, 283.

distribution of, I. 676; of Africa, 1. FONS EBRALDI (Fontevrault), ancient FORBACH, town, German Lorraine, ix. 252; European, VIII. 692; of India, town, France, ix. 365. 387.

XII. 753; of Kentucky, xiv. 43; of FONSECA, Bay of, Honduras, XII. 130. FORBES, Alexander Penrose, bishop of the United States, XXIII. 807. Font, Baptismal, ix, 361 ; in archi Brechin, ix. 387.

FOREZ, mountains, France, xx. 119; tecture, II. 464.

David, English chemist and geo plain, XIV. 807. FONTAINE, Jean de la (La Fontaine, logist, ix. 388.

FORFAR, county, Scotland, IX. 410; 9.v.), French poet, XIV. 203.

Duncan, of Culloden, Scottish area and population, XXI. 528; reprePierre François Léonard, French lawyer and statesman, ix. 388.

sentation, XXIII. 727; town, ix. 412. architect, ix. 362.

Edward, English naturalist, IX. FORFICULA, genus of insects, vii. 612. FONTAINEBLEAU, town, France, IX. 389.

FORFICULIDÆ, order of insects, VII. 363; XXI. 625.

James David, Scottish natural 613; XIII. 152. FONTANA, Carlo, Italian architect, xx. philosopher, ix. 390; on the motion of FORGE, for iron, ix. 412; its history, 836. glaciers, X. 629.

XIII. 290. - Domenico, Italian architect, ix. Sir John, physician and writer, ix. FORGERY, in English law, IX. 413. 363; II. 439.

Literary, in ancient times, I. 461. Lavinia, Italian painter, IX. 363. William Alexander, on birds, xvIII. FORGES, Évariste Désiré de, Vicomte de Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian mathe 39.

Parny, French poet, XVIII. 318. matician, xxIII. 68.

FORBIDDEN FRUIT (Shaddock), XXI. FORGES-LES-Eaux, spa, France, xvi. Prospero, Italian painter, IX. 364. 727.

434. FONTANES, Louis, Marquis de, French FORBIN, Claude de, French naval com- FORGET-ME-Not, plant, ix. 414; XII. poet, ix. 364. mander, ix. 393.

252. FONTANET, or Fontenay, France, Battle Comte de, French painter, Xi. 48. FORGING MACHINES, IX. 413. of (841), IX. 533; XV. 9.

FORCE, in dynamics, Vol. 581; XV. 676, FORKEL, Johann Nikolaus, German FONTARABIA, town, Spain, ix. 810. 746, 764; electric, VIII. 20; its equival musician, IX. 414. FONTENAY, France, Battle of (841), IX. ent of heat, XI. 558; as the product of Forlì, town, Italy, IX. 414; district, 533; XV. 9.

heat, XXIII. 283; measure of, vii. 584; XX. 560. Lefèvre de, French journalist, XVII. xv. 698; Kant on the theories of, XIII. Melozzo da, Italian painter, IX. 414. 424.

847; Leibnitz's doctrine of, XIV. 421. FORLIMPOPOLI, town, Italy, IX. 415. Theresa, Comtesse de, XXIII. 33. FORCELLINI, Egidio, Italian philologist, FORM, Abstract idea of, xv. 629. FONTENAY-LE-COMTE, town, France,

FORMAN, Simon, English physician IX. 364.

FORCHHAMMER, Johan Georg, Danish and astrologer, IX. 415. FONTENELLE, Bernard le Bovier de, mineralogist, ix. 393.

FORMARTIN, district, Scotland, 1. 43. French writer, ix. 364, 664.

FORCHHAMMERITE, mineral, XVI. 415. FORME, Printer's, XXIII. 700. FONTENOY, Belgium, Battle of (1745), Forchheim, town, Bavaria, ix. 394.

FORMENTARA,

one of the Balearic VI. 705; IX. 586; XXI. 346.

FORCIBLE ENTRY, Law of, vi. 583. Islands, Spain, III. 278. FONTEVRAUD, Order of, monks and FORD, Horace A., archer, 11. 373. FORMEY, Johann Heinrich Samuel, nuns, XVI. 709.

John, English dramatist, ix. 394; German writer, IX. 415. FONTEVRAULT, town, France, 1x. 365.

VII. 432.

FORMIA, town, Italy, IX. 415. Foo-Chow, town, China, ix. 812.

Richard, English writer on Spain, FORMICA, genus of insects, II. 94. Food, VIII. 616; dietetics, VII. 200; IX. 396.

FORMOSA, island, China, ix. 415; II. cookery of, vi. 331; digestion of, xvII. Thomas, English musician, IX. 687; V. 636; birds of, 111. 762; cam669; gelatinous, X. 132; laws against 396.

phor production, iv. 761; Psalmanluxurious, XXII. 644; milk as, XVI. FORDUN, John of, Scottish historian, ix. azar's work on, XX. 28. 303; poisonous, xv. 781; preserved, 397.

FORMOSUS, Pope, IX. 418. XIX. 707; supply of, in Great Britain, FOREHEAD, Bone of the, 1. 824. FORMULAR SYSTEM, in Roman law, VI. 415; tabooed, xxIII. 16, 468; of FOREIGN ENLISTMENT ACTS, XIII.

XIX. 707. plants, XIX. 48.

196.

FOROJULIUM (Friuli), ancient town, Fool, jester, ix. 366.

FOREIGNERS, in Roman law, xx. 695. Italy, IX. 790. Foot, Anatomy of the human, l. 830; FORENSIC COSTUME, VI. 476.

FORRES, town, Scotland, viii. 130. joints and muscles of, 1. 841; club-foot, FORENSIC MEDICINE, XV. 778.

FORS, constitution of Béarn, France, VI. 42; redundant or defective toes on, FORENSIC RHETORIC, XX. 511.

III. 465. XVI. 762; of mammals, x'v. 360. FOREORDINATION, in theology, xix. FORSKÅL, Peter, Swedish naturalist and measure of length, XXIV. 483. 668.

philosopher, 1X. 418. FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, XVII. 60. FORESITE, mineral, XVI. 423.

FORST, town, Prussia, IX. 418. FOOTBALL, game, ix. 367.

FOREST ADMINISTRATION, IX. 397. FORSTER, François, French engraver, FOOTE, Samuel, English dramatist and FORESTALLING, of corn, Laws against, 1. IX. 418. actor, ix. 368; VII. 438. 298; VI. 412.

G. S., on birds, xvIII. 8. Foot-POUND, unit for measurement of FOREST DISTRICTS, Switzerland, xxII. Johann Georg Adam, German work, vill. 206; XV. 700. 782.

naturalist, IX. 418. FOOTSTEPS OF THE CREATOR, Hugh | FORESTERS, Ancient Order of, ix. 782. John, English historian and critic, Miller's work, XVI. 320.

FOREST LAW, English, ix. 409. FOOTWAYS, in streets, xx. 588.

FOREST OF DEAN, district, Gloucester, John R., on birds, XVIII. 8. FOPPA, Vincenzo, Italian painter, ix. England, x. 687, 689; coalfield of, vi. FÖRSTER, Friedrich, German historian, 371; XXI. 437. 50.

IX. 418.
FORAGE CROPS, Culture of, 1. 370. FORESTS, IX. 397; their effecton climate, | FORSTERITE, mineral, xvi. 410.

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IX. 419.

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FORSYTH, William, on the origin of | FOSCARINI, Marco, doge of Venice, his- | FOUNDLING HOSPITALS, IX. 481. trial by jury, XIII. 784.

torian, IX. 471.

FOUNDLING WHEEL, in Italy, XIII. Fort, Construction of a, IX. 433, 434.

Michele, Venetian historian, IX.471. 449. FORTALEZA (Ceara), town, Brazil, v. Foscolo, Ugo, Italian writer, IX. 471; FOUNDRY OPERATIONS, IX. 479; XIII. 282. VII. 417; XIII. 513.

355. FORT CARILLON, New York, U.S.A., Foss, Edward, English legal writer, ix. FOUNTAIN, spring of water, ix. 484. XXIII. 352.

472.

FOUNTAINE, Sir Andrew, collector of FORT DE FRANCE, town, Martinique, H. H., Norwegian poet, XVII. 591. majolica ware, xix. 628. West Indies, IX. 420; XV. 586. FOSSANO, town, Italy, IX. 472.

FOUNTAINS ABBEY, Yorkshire, EngFORT DE KOCK, Sumatra, XXII. 639.

Ambrogio Stefani da (Il Bor land, 1. 18, 19; XXIV. 749. FORTEBRACCIO, Nicola, Roman captain, gognone), Italian painter, ix. 472; FOUNTAINS OF Moses, hot wells, Sinai, XX. 805. XXI. 437.

Arabia, II. 236. FORT EDMONTON, Canada, XV. 490. Foss DyKE, the oldest British canal, FOUQUÉ, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, FORTESCUE, Sir John, English lawyer, IV. 783.

Baron de la Motte, German writer, IX. 420; VIII. 416. Fosse, in fortification, IX. 444.

IX. 486; X. 542; hymns by, XII. 588. FORTH, river, Scotland, ix. 420; XXII. War of the, Arabia (627 XVI. 556. FOUQUET, Nicolas, French financier 553.

Fossils, in geology, X. 319; the oldest and statesman, ix. 487, 574; patron BRIDGE, Scotland, xx. 234.

known, ix. 384; birds, III. 728; fishes, of La Fontaine, XIV. 204. FORTIFICATION, IX. 421 (index, 468); of XII. 666 ; mammals, xv. 375 (and FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, Antoine Quentin, ancient Rome, XX. 812.

article Mammalia throughout); of French Revolutionist, IX. 488. FORT NARYN, Syr-Daria, Central Asia, America, 1. 682.

FOURAH BAY COLLEGE, Sierra Leone, XXII. 818.

FOSSOMBRONE, town, Italy, IX. 473. West Africa, XXII. 45. FORTRESS, Armament of a, IX. 454. FOSSOMBRONI, Vittorio, Italian states- Four Books, of China, v. 661. FORTROSE, town, Scotland, 1x. 468. man and mathematician, IX. 473. FOURCHAMBAULT, town, France, IX. FORT SCOTT, town, Kansas, U.S.A., FOSSORES, or Grave-Diggers, of the Cata 488; XVII. 496. XIII. 844.

combs, V. 214.

FOURCROY, Antoine François, Comte Fort SUMTER, South Carolina, U.S.A., FOSSWAY, Roman remains, Lincolnshire, de, French chemist, ix. 488. Surrender of (1861), XXIII. 774. England, xiv. 656.

FOUR GEORGES, The, by Thackeray, FORTUNA, Roman goddess, IX. 468; FOSTER, John, English essayist, ix. XXIII. 216. temple of, at Præneste, XIX. 654; at 473.

FOURIER, François Charles Marie, Rome, 11. 417; XX. 827.

- Stephen Collins, American song French socialist writer, IX. 489; XXII. FORTUNATUS, legendary hero, IX. writer, ix. 475.

208. 468.

FOSTERAGE, under Brehon Law, in Ire Jean Baptiste Joseph, French Venantius H. C., bishop of Poi land, iv. 253

mathematician and physicist, 1X. 490; tiers, Latin poet, ix. 469; as hymn- FOTHERGILL, John, English physician, 1. 516; his theorem of simple harmonic writer, XII. 582. IX. 475; XV. 815.

analysis, xv. 689; XVII. 105; on the FORTUNE BAY, Newfoundland, xvII. FOTHERINGAY CASTLE, Northampton, conduction of heat, XI. 578, 587; XVII. 382.

England, xvII. 557; confinement of 738. FORTUNE-TELLING, Laws against, xv. Mary, queen of Scots, at, xv. 601. FOUR MASTERS, Annals of the, v. 307, 204; XXIV. 622.

FOUCAULT, Jean Bernard Léon, French 326. FORTUNY, Mariano, Spanish painter, physicist, IX. 475; his experiment FOURMENT, Helena, Rubens's second XXI. 440, 443.

showing the earth’s rotation, X. 197; wife, XXI. 45. FORT WAYNE, town, Indiana, U.S.A., on radiation, XX. 215.

FOURMONT, Étienne, French Orientalist, IX. 469.

FOUCHÉ, Joseph, French minister of FORT WORTH, town, Texas, U.S.A., police, ix. 476; his relations with Michel, French Syriac scholar, ix. XXIII. 205 Wellington, XXIV. 497.

491. FORUM, at Pompeii, xix. 446.

FOUCHER, Simon, French sceptic, ix. FOURNEYRON, Benoit, inventor of turat Rome, IX. 469; xx. 813, 815, 478.

bine water-wheel, XII. 438. 825; architecture of, 11. 419. FOUGASSE, in military mining, 1x. 464. FOURNIER, Pierre Simon, French prinCORNELII (Imola), ancient town, FOUGÈRES, town, France, ix. 478.

ter, IX. 491. Italy, XII. 717.

FOULA, island, Shetland, Scotland, xvii. FOURRÉ, Marie, heroine at siege of JULII (Cividale), ancient town, 846.

Péronne, France, xvIII. 552. Italy, V. 797

FOULAHs, or Fulahs, Negro race, Africa, FOUR SONS OF AYMON, romance, xx. JULII (Fréjus), ancient town, XVII. 319; I. 263; XXII. 248, 278, 279. 652. France, ix. 767.

FOULD, Achille, French financier, ix. FOURVIÈRES, ancient building, Lyons, JULII (Friuli), ancient town, Italy, 478.

France, XV. III.
FOULDREY CASTLE, Lancashire, Eng. Foussa, Malagasy cat, xv. 435.
Livii (Forli), ancient town, Italy, land, XIV. 254.

FOVEAUX STRAIT, New Zealand, XVII. FOULIS, Andrew and Robert, Scottish 467. FOSBROKE, Thomas Dudley, English printers and publishers, 1X. 479; their Fowl, Fowls, poultry, ix. 491; XIX. antiquary, IX. 469. editions of the classics, III. 657.

644; successive stages of cranium of, FOSCARI, Francesco, doge of Venice, 1x. FOULQUES, Gui (Pope Clement IV.), v. III. 700; management of, 1. 401. 470; XIII. 480.

821.

Fowler, Charles, English architect, ix. FOSCARINI, Antonio, Venetian FOUMART, or Polecat, XIX. 332.

492. spirator, xxiv. 147.

FOUNDATIONS, in building, iv. 452, John, inventor of steam plough, Giacomo, Venetian statesman, XI. 456; under water, iv. 326.

IX. 492; I. 314.
FOUNDING, casting metal, 1x. 479.

William, Scottish poet, ix. 492.

IX. 491.

IX. 790.

IX. 414.

con

121.

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