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CHRISTOPHER, St, v. 704; wall paint- | CHRONICON EDESSENUM, Syriac work, CHULPAS, burial towers, Peru, II. 451. ings of, XVII. 44.

XXII. 835.

CHUMBE, mineral, xxiv. 785. of Bavaria, king of Sweden, XXII. CHRONICON HELVETICUM, Tschudi's, CHUNAR, or Chunarghur, town, India, 746. XXIII. 601.

V. 757 duke of Würtemberg, XXIV. 702. CHRONICON PASCHALE, Byzantine his- CHUND, or Chand, Hindi writer, V. NORTH, assumed name of John tory, iv. 614.

758; XI. 841, 843. Wilson, Scottish writer, XXIV. 591. CHRONOGRAPH, electric velocity in- | CHUNDERNAGORE, French settlement, CHRISTOPOULOUS, Athanasias, modern strument, XI. 298; XXIII. 395.

India, V. 391. Greek poet, v. 704; XI. 151.

WATCH, XXIV. 398.

CHUNDRAKONA (Chandrakona), town, CHRIST'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, IV. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, from earliest India, XVI. 284. 731.

times to 1875, V. 720.

CHUNNIA, bird, xxi. 677. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, school, London, CHRONOLOGY, V. 709; archæological, CHUPRAH, town, India, V. 758. XIV. 835.

II. 334; Egyptian, vil. 728; Scaliger's CHUQUISACA, department, Bolivia, iv. CHRIST'S VICTORY, poem by Giles contributions to, XXI. 363.

1o; town, XXII. 618. Fletcher, ix. 305.

CHRONOMETER, timepiece, V. 755; XXIII. CHUQUITO, lake, Bolivia, IV. 11. CHRIST'S WOUNDS, marks of stigmatiz 392, 395; XXIV. 394; Berthoud's, III. CHUR, or Coire, town, Switzerland, vi. ation, XXII. 548.

610; Harrison's, XI. 494; navigating, 117; XXII. 778. CHRODEGANG, bishop of Metz, XVI. XVII. 259, 263, 273.

CHURCH, The, V. 758, 9; clergy of the, v. 707.

CHRONOSCOPE, electric velocity instru 827; discipline of the, vill. 800; offices CHROMATES, chemical salts, V. 705; in ment, XI. 298.

in, xix. 674; organization of, v. 698; photographic printing, xvill. 831; as CHRUDIM, town, Bohemia, v. 755. in time of St Paul, xvIII. 4287 views poisons, XIX. 278. CHRYSALIS, pupa stage of butterflies, iv.

of Irenæus on, XIII. 274. CHROMATIC ABERRATION, in lenses, 594.

Catholic, v. 9. XVI. 259; XVII. 803; XXIII. 141. CHRYSANTHEMUM, plant, XII. 254; XV. Greek, XI. 154. CHROMATIC CHORDS, in music, Purcell's 544.

Lutheran, xv. 84. use of, XVII. 90.

CHRYSIPPUS, Greek philosopher, V. 755; AND STATE, Relations of, v. 758; CHROMATIC SCALE, in music, I. 108; XXII. 562.

XI. 16, 18; Calvin on, XIX. 677;
XVII. 79, 91.
CHRYSOBERYL, mineral, xvi. 386.

Erastus on, vill. 518.
CHROMATOPHORES, organs of molluscs, CHRYSOCHEIR, leader of the Paulicians, CLOCKS, VI. 27.
XVI. 665, 681.
XVIII. 434.

FATHERS, IX. 49.
CHROMATROPE, slide for magic lantern, CHRYSOCHLORIDÆ, family of insecti GOVERNMENT, Erastus on, VIII.
XV. 213
vorous mammals, xv. 405.

518. CHROME, Pigments of, xix. 87.

CHRYSOCOLLA, mineral, vi. 347; XVI. HISTORY, V. 760. BLACK, for calico printing, IV. 411.

CHURCHILL, Charles, English satirist, 690.

CHRYSOLITE, precious stone, xvi. 410; v. 766; his place in English literature, CHROMEISEN, or Chromium-Steel, alloy

XVIII. 534.

VIII. 429. of chromium and iron, v. 706; XIII. CHRYSOLORAS, Manuel, Greek gram

John, duke of Marlborough, 352. marian, V. 755; XI. 149.

English general, xv. 553. CHROME TANNING, XIV. 389.

CHRYSOPHAN, constituent of rhubarb, CHURCH MUSIC, XVII. 80, 84, 88. CHROMIC ACID, V. 705.

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, VIII. 370; the CHROMITE, mineral, XVI. 386.

CHRYSOPOLIS (Ingolstadt), ancient town, king the head of, xix. 674; order of CHROMIUM, chemical element, V. 705, Bavaria, XIII. 74.

precedence in, XIX. 667. 534 ; discovery of, by Vauquelin, (Parma), mediæval town, Italy, CHURCH OF ROME, XX. 628. XXIV. 116; combined with iron, XIII.

XVIII. 314.

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, XXI. 536. 284; spectrum of, XXII. 377.

(Scutari), ancient town, Turkey in Church PATRONAGE, in Scotland, XXI. CHROMIUM-STEEL, XIII. 352.

Asia, XXI. 573.

519. CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY, XIV. 700; CHRYSOPRASE, mineral, 1. 278; XVI. 389. CHURCHWARDENS, English, xvIII. 296. XXIII. 708.

CHRYSOSTOM, Dion, Greek rhetorician, CHURCHYARD, Thomas, English soldier CHROMOSPHERE, envelope of the sun, VII. 247; on Indian epic poems, XXI, and writer, v. 767. II. 788; VI. 429; XXII. 645.

281; his romance, The Hunter, xx. CHURCHYARDS, Right of burial in, iv. CHROMO-TYPOGRAPHY, XXIII. 708. 634.

537 ; effects of overcrowding, V. CHRONICA MAJORA, of Matthew of John, St, archbishop of Constanti 329. Paris, xv. 634.

nople, V. 755; against monasteries, CHURLS, social class in early England, CHRONICLE, of Villehardouin, XXIV.

XVI. 703

VIII. 274. 229.

CHRYSOTHRIX, genus of apes, II. 154. CHURRIGUERRA, Joseph, Spanish archiof Villani, XXIV. 227. CHRYSOTILE, mineral, XVI. 414.

tect, II. 442. Saxon, VIII. 406, 408. CHU, the rhea plant, xx. 506.

CHURRUS, or Charas, hemp-resin, III. HISTORIES, in English drama, VII. CHUBB, or Chub, fish, 11. 42; XII. 692; 627; XI. 648. 428.

XX. 582.

CHUSAN, island, China, V. 767. CHRONICLES, Books of, v. 706; III. 636. -Thomas, English deist, v. 757; on CHUTIA NAGPUR, district, India, V. 767; mediæval records, their historical natural religion, VII. 35.

division, xiv. 806. value, XII. 20; Latinity of, XIV. 341; CHUBB'S LOCKS, XIV. 746.

CHUTIA NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES, English, Stow's editions of, XXII. 580; CHUBB'S SAFES, XXI. 144.

India, v. 768. early French, ix. 645; German, x. CHUBUT, river, Patagonia, XVIII. 353. CHUTISGURH (Chhatisgarh), division, 527; Italian, XIII. 505; Judæan, xiv. CHUKCHEES, or Tchuktchis, Land of India, v. 608. 85; Polish, XIX. 299; Russian, XXI. the, Eastern Siberia, xv. 547 ; XXII. CHUTTERPUR, town, India, v. 769. 103; Spanish, XXII. 354, 363.

9; XXIV. 726.

CHWANCHOW, town, China, v. 673.

XX. 530.

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XX. 719.

X. 2.

CHWEN-CHANG (Kirin), town, Man- | CIMBRI, ancient Germanic tribe, v. 780; | CINQUEFOIL, in architecture, 11. 462. churia, xiv. 96.

X. 474.

CINQUE PORTS, England, v. 786; VIII. CHYLE, secretion in digestion, I. 846; CIMBRIC ALPS, 1. 630.

218; their establishment, XVII. 279. VII. 226; XVII. 678.

CIMENTO, Accademia del, of Florence, CINQUE Ports, Barons of the, III. 388. CHYLURIA, disease, XVIII. 270.

1. 70.

Cinthio, or Cintio (Giovanni Battista CHYME, digested contents of the stomach, CIMMERII, or Cimmerians, ancient Scy Giraldi), Italian novelist, X. 620. VII. 225; XVII. 670.

thian race, V. 780; XXI. 577; in Lydia, Cinto, Mont, Corsica, VI. 439. CHYTRIDIEÆ, parasitic fungi, XVIII. XV. 100.

CINTRA, town, Portugal, v. 787. 267.

mythical people, v. 780; supposed CINYXIS, genus of chelonian reptiles, CIBBER, or Cibert, Caius Gabriel, locality of, III. 149.

XXIII, 457
Danish sculptor, v. 769.
CIMOLITE, mineral, xvi. 424.

CIOLEK, Stanislaus, Polish statesman,
Colley, English dramatist and CIMOLOS, island, Egean Sea, xv. 841.

XIX. 453. laureate, V. 769; VII. 436.

CIMON, Athenian statesman and general, CIOMPI, Rebellion of the, Florence, ix. CIBERT, Caius Gabriel, Danish sculptor, V. 780; XI. IOI; XVIII. 529, 573.

334. V. 769.

CIMONE, Monte, mountain, Italy, XIII. CIONE, Andrea di (Orcagna), Italian CIBO, Giovanni Battista (Pope Innocent 437.

painter and sculptor, xvii. 814. VIII.), XIII. 85. CINÆTHUS, poet of Chios, XXI. 466.

Jacopo, Italian painter, XVII. 814. CIBORIUM, in architecture, II. 462. CINCHONA, tree and bark, v. 780; XX. Lionardo, Italian painter, XVII. CIBRARIO, Luigi, Italian economist, 184; cultivation of, in India, III. 568; XIX. 387.

XII. 751; on the Himalayas, XI. 833; Matteo, Italian sculptor and CICACOLE, town, India, V. 770.

in Peru, XVIII. 673.

mosaicist, XVII. 814. CICERO, Marcus Tullius, Roman orator CINCHONIDINE, alkaloid in cinchona, CIONOCRANIA, suborder of lizards, xiv. and writer, v. 770; XX. 764; as XX. 185.

733. Academician, I. 69; his knowledge CINCINNATI, town, Ohio, U.S.A., v. 780; CIPHER-WRITING, VI. 669. of anatomy, 1. 802 ; his economic XVII. 737; population, xxIII. 822; CIPOLLINO, mineral, xvi. 397. theories, XIX. 350; his Latinity, libraries, xiv. 535, 550; observatory, CIPRIANI, Giovanni Battista, Italian XIV. 333; his rhetorical works, xx. XVII. 715.

painter, v. 787. 514; his opposition to Catiline, V. 238; CINCINNATUS, Lucius Quinctius, Roman CIRCAR, province, India, V. 787. his relations with Hortensius, XII. 210; hero, v. 784.

CIRCASSIA, region of the Caucasus, v. his connexion with Tusculum, xxIII. CINCLUS, genus of birds, XVIII. 75. 787. 671; his place in Roman literature, CINCTUS GABINUS, in Roman costume, CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE, Dictionary of

the, VII. 190. Cici, Vlach colony in Istria, xxiv. CINDER, in iron smelting, XIII. 296, CIRCASSIANS, race of people, V. 257 ; 270. 306.

Kuban tribes of, Xiv. 150. CICLATOUN, variety of gold cloth, XXIII. CINEAS, adviser of Pyrrhus, V.785; XX. CIRCE, in Greek mythology, V. 789;

136. CICOGNARA, Leopoldo, Count, Italian CINERARIA, greenhouse plant, XII. 262. CIRCEII, ancient town, Italy, v. 789. archæologist, v. 772.

CINERARY URNS, XIX. 602, 623. CIRCESIUM, town, Mesopotamia, xvi. CICONIA, genus of birds, XXII. 577. CINNA, Lucius Cornelius, Roman consul, 48. CID, The (Ruy Diaz Campeador), Spanish V. 785; XX. 760.

Circle, in geometry, X. 380 ; mensurahero, V. 773; XXII. 315; literature Corneille's play, VI. 420.

tion of the, XVI. 17; Archimedes on, relating to, XXII. 353.

CINNABAR, mineral, v. 785; XVI. 32, II. 380 ; ratio of circumference to Le, Corneille's play, VI. 420. 393.

diameter, XXII. 434 ; XXIII. 563; CIDER, beverage, V. 775; II. 212.

of Pliny, resin, VII. 389.

squaring of the, XXII. 433. CIECHANOW, town, Russian Poland, RED, pigment, XIX. 87.

Transit, astronomical instrument, XIX. 227. CINNAMON, spice, V.785; cultivation of,

XXIII. 515. CIENFUEGOS, Nicasio Alvarez de, Span in Ceylon, V. 369; as incense, XII. 718. CIRCLES, Stone, ancient, xxi. 51; in ish poet, v. 775; XXII. 361.

STONE, mineral, XIII. 532; XVI. Peru, II. 451. CIGAR, V. 775; XXIII. 426; Cuban, vi. 411.

CIRCUIT, in law, v. 789. 681; manufacture of, in Philippine CINNAMUS, Joannes, Byzantine historian, Circuits, Telegraphic, XXIII. 122. Islands, XVIII. 751. IV. 613.

Telephonic, XXIII. 132. CIGARETTES, V. 776; XXIII. 426. CINNYRIS, genus of birds, XXII. 652. CIRCULATION, Capillary, of the blood, CIGNANI, Carlo, Italian painter, v. 776. CINO DA PISTOIA (Guittoncino de' XXIV. 105; Malpighi's discovery of, CIGOLI, Luigi Cardi da, Italian painter, Sinibuldi), Italian poet and jurist, v. XV. 338. V. 776. 786; XIII. 502.

Osmotic, in plants, XIX. 46. CILIATA, class of Protozoa, XIX. 861. CINOSTERNIDÆ, family of chelonian OF THE BLOOD, 1. 899; XXIV. 98; CILICIA, ancient province, Asia Minor, reptiles, XXIII. 457.

Harvey's discovery of, XI. 503; xv. V. 776, 75; coins of, xvII. 648. CINQ-MARS, Vigny's romance, XXIV. 810; in mammals, xv. 364. CILICIAN GATES, pass, Asia Minor, II. 226.

CIRCUMCELLIONES, Eastern ascetics, 705. CINQ-MARS, Marquis de, French

XVI. 701. CIMABUE, Giovanni, Italian painter, v. courtier, v. 786; conspiracy of, ix. CIRCUMCISION, V. 789; among the 778; XXI. 434; his method of fresco570.

Bechuanas, III. 478; among the Malapainting, IX. 770.

CINQUA MIGLIA, plain, Italy, XIII. 438. gasy, XV. 173. CIMA DEL MERCEDARIO, mountain, CINQUECENTO, Period of the, in archi- Circus, Roman, v. 791 ; X. 65; XX. Chili, v. 616.

tecture, 11. 436, 438; Arabesque of 829. CIMAROSA, Domenico, Italian musical the, II. 234.

genus

of birds, XI. 491. composer, V. 779; XVII. 99.

WORK, in cameos, IV. 739.

CIRENCESTER, town, England, v. 792 ;

210.

XV. 202.

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agricultural college at, 1. 408; X. City of God, Augustine's work, 111. 78. Clan, V. 799; marriage relationships in, 688.

CIUDAD BOLIVAR, town, Venezuela, II. XXIII. 472 ; relationships of, among CIRENCESTER, Richard of, English his

45; XXIV. 140.

the Sawaioris, xix. 424; totems of, torian, XX. 542.

CIUDAD DEL PRINCIPE, town, Cuba, XXIII. 467. CIREY, Haute-Marne, France, Voltaire's

CLANGULA, genus of birds, XVI. 824. residence, XXIV. 287.

CIUDAD DE VICTORIA, town, Mexico, CLANNY'S LAMP, for mines, VI. 73. CIRILLO, Domenico, Italian physician VII. 553; XVI. 214.

CLANS KAY AND CHATTAN, Fight and patriot, v. 792.

CIUDADELA, town, Minorca, v. 796. between, at Perth, xxi. 491. CIRPHIS, mountain, Greece, xvIII. 801. CIUDAD REAL, town, Spain, V. 796; CLAN TARTANS, XXIII. 68. CIRRHA, ancient town, Greece, VI. 590. province, XV. 458; XXII. 298.

CLAPARÈDE, J. L. R. A. Édouard, Swiss CIRRHIPEDIA, or Cirripedia, VI. 632, CIUDAD REAL, town, Mexico, XXI. 255. naturalist, v. 801; on Annelida, 11. 69. 653, 664; distribution of, vii. 279, CIUDAD RODRIGO, town, Spain, V. 796; CLAPHAM, district, London, XIV. 822. 283; in Lankester's classification,

XXI. 203.

CLAPPERTON, Hugh, African traveller, XXIV. 813.

CIULLO D'ALCAMO, Italian poet, XIII. v. 801; I. 246; X. 192. CIRRHOSIS OF THE LUNG, disease, XIX. 499.

CLARAS, Poor, religious sisterhood, IX. 251.

Civet, carnivorous mammal, v. 796; 693, 699; XVI. 711. CIRRUS, cloud, xvi. 127.

XV. 436.

CLARE, county, Ireland, v. 802; popuCirta (Constantine), ancient town, , perfume, v. 796; XVIII. 526. lation and representation, XXIII. 727; Africa, V. 793; VI. 298; xv. 609; CIVIDALE, town, Italy, V. 797.

transferred to Munster, XIII. 246. XVII. 628.

CIVIL COURTS, in England, vl. 516. - John, English poet, v. 804. CISMONTANE PRINCIPLES, of Roman Civilis, Claudius, Germanic leader, X. CLARE CONSTAT, writ, in Scots law, Catholicism, VI. 241. 475.

XXIV. 697. CISSA, island, Adriatic, XXI. 29. CivilizATION, its earliest seats, II. 342; CLARE ISLAND, Ireland, xv. 650. Cis-SUTLEJ STATES, India, v. 793

development of, 11. 120; in relation to CLARENCE, river, New South Wales, CISTEAUX (Citeaux, q.v.), village, France, ethnology, VIII. 614, 624.

XVII. 408. V. 794.

History of, Buckle's, IV. 421.

Lionel, duke of, son of Edward CISTERCIAN ABBEYS, I. 15.

History of, Condorcet's, VI. 255. III. of England, XXIV. 752. CISTERCIANS, order of monks, v. 793; CIVIL LAW, v. 797; XX. 678.

, George, duke of, brother of XVI. 709; in England, viII. 372. Civil LAWS OF THE EMPERORS, Syriac Edward IV., VII. 685. CISTERNS, in houses, iv. 503; XXI. 715. versions, XXII. 834.

William, duke of (William IV. of CISTICOLA, genus of birds, XXIV. 367.

CIVITA CASTELLANA, town, Italy, v. England), xxiv. 580. CISTUDO, genus of chelonian reptiles, 797

CLARENDON, First Earl of (Edward XXIII. 457

CIVITA DI CHIETI, town, Italy, v. 615. Hyde), English statesman and hisCITATION, in law, XXII. 642.

CIVITA DI PENNE, town, Italy, v. 797. torian, v. 804. CITEAUX, village, France, v. 794; I. 15, CIVITAS CADURCORUM (Cahors), ancient Fourth Earl of (G. W. F. Villiers), 17; monastery of, l. 17; III. 601; V. town, France, iv. 642.

English statesman, v. 807. 793; XVI. 709.

CIVITA VECCHIA, town, Italy, v. 797. Constitutions of, l. 32; VIII. 372; CITHÆRON, mountain, Greece, v. 794; CIVOLI, or Cigoli, Luigi Cardi da, XI. 657, 658. III. 58. Italian painter, V. 776.

PRESS, Oxford, xvIII. 96. CITHARA, Greek lyre, XV. 114. CLACKMANNAN, county, Scotland, v. CLARES, or Claras, Poor, religious sisterCITIES, English, growth of, VIII. 276, 798; area and population, XXI. 528; hood, ix. 693, 699; XVI. 711. 303; European, population of, viii. representation, XXIII. 727.

CLARET, wine, XXIV. 604. 705.

CLADDAGH, village, Ireland, x. 57. CLARGES, Anne, wife of General Monk, CITIZENSHIP, 1. 575; municipal, xvII. CLADOBATES, mammal, mimicry in,

XVI. 752. 27; Roman, XX. 687, 704, 736.

XVI. 341.

CLARI, Giovanni Carlo Maria, Italian CITLALTEPETL, mountain, Mexico, XVII. CLADODACTYLA ROSEA, sea cucumber, musical composer, v. 809. 845.

XX. 411.

CLARIAS, genus of fishes, XXII. 67. CITRATE OF MAGNESIA, XV. 218. CLADORHYNCHUS, genus of birds, XXII. CLARINET, musical instrument, xvii. CITRATES, chemical salts, V. 795.

552.

707, 708. CITRIC ACID, V. 794; XIV. 438. CLADOTRICHEÆ, group of Schizomy- CLARINO PART, trumpet music, XXIII. CITRINE OINTMENT, XVI. 34.

cetes, XXI. 405.

593. CITRON, tree and fruit, v. 795.

CLÄFEN (Chiavenna), town, Italy, v. CLARISSA HARLOWE, Richardson's CITRUS, genus of fruit trees, XIV. 437; 610.

novel, VIII. 430; XX. 544. XVII. 810.

CLAIRAULT, Alexis Claude, French CLARISSES, religious sisterhood, ix. 693, CITTÀ DELLA PIEVE, town, Italy, v. mathematician, V. 798 ; II. 759; on 699. 795.

the ellipticity of the earth, VII. 600. CLARITE, mineral, xvI. 396. CITTÀ DI CASTELLO, town, Italy, v. CLAIRMONT, Claire, her relations with CLARK, B. J., American temperance re795; XX. 275. Shelley and Byron, XXI. 791.

former, XXIII. 158. CITTADINI, Celso, Sienese historian, CLAIR-ON-EPTE, France, Treaty of (912), George Rogers, American revoluXXII. 43. XVII. 539.

tionary officer, XXIII. 745. CITTÀ VECCHIA, town, Malta, v. 796; CLAIRVAUX, France, Monastery of, 1. 15; Sir James, English physician, v. XV. 340. III. 602; V. 793.

809. City, v. 796; county of a, VI. 513; in- CLAIRVOYANCE, XV. 277; XXII. 405; in Thomas, Scottish chemist, v. 809. corporated, in United States, xxIII. conjuring, XV. 208.

CLARKE, Adam, Wesleyan divine, v. 827; municipal, XVII. 27, 31. CLAM, Soft, mussel, xvii. 110.

809. OF DREADFUL NIGHT, Thomson's CLAMECY, town, France, v. 798; XVII. - Edward Daniel, English traveller, poem, XXIII. 312. 496.

v. 810.

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CLARKE, Samuel, English philosopher CLAUSTHAL, town, Prussia, xiv. 108. CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, theologian,

and theologian, v. 810; Butler's corre CLAUSTHALITE, mineral, xvI. 391. v. 819; as Biblical interpreter, XI. 745; spondence with, iv. 582; on deism, CLAUSTHAL TURN-TABLE, ore-dressing on the canon of Scripture, v. 8; on XXIII. 234; his conception of ethics, machine, XVI. 59.

the Mysteries, XVII. 128. VIII. 598.

CLAVELINIDÆ, family of Tunicata, CLEMENS ROMANUS, early Christian Captain William, American ex XXIII. 609.

writer, II. 195; XIX. 489; on the plorer, XIV. 494.

CLAVERHOUSE, John Graham of, Vis Gospels, X. 814
W. B., on the geology of Australia, count Dundee, VII. 536; XXI. 516. CLEMENT I., pope, v. 821.
III, 108.

CLAVERING, Captain, Arctic explorer, II., pope, V. 821; XIX. 498; XX. CLARKE'S FORK, river, Montana, U.S.A.,

XIX. 319.

790. XVI. 772; XXIII. 797.

CLAVICHORD, musical instrument, XIX. III., pope, v. 821; XX. 794. CLARK'S FILAR MICROMETER, XVI. 65.

III., antipope, XI. 255. 245, 247:

CLAVICIMBALUM, musical instrument, IV., pope, v. 821; XIII. 475; XX. CLARKSON, Thomas, English philan XIX. 67.

797. thropist, v. 813; XXII. 139; his rela- CLAVICITERIUM, musical instrument, V., pope, V. 821; XIX. 501; XX. tions with Wilberforce, XXIV. 565. XIX. 70.

798; his subjection to Philip IV. of CLARUS, Julius, on the infliction of tor- CLAVICLE, or Collar-bone, anatomy of, 1. France, ix. 544; suppression of the ture, XXIII. 466. 826.

Templars under, XXIII. 164. CLASS DISTINCTIONS, V. 186.

CLAVICORNES, group of beetles, VI. 131. VI., pope, v. 822. CLASSICS, Early editions of the, III. 655. CLAVIÈRES, Etienne, Mirabeau's col - VII., pope, V. 822; XIII. 482; xv. CLASSIFICATION, Botanical, III. 683; laborator, XVI. 497.

787; XIX. 502 ; his attitude towards XVI. 845; XX. 421; XXII. 372. CLAVIGO, Goethe's play, x. 726.

the Reformation, XX. 328. Zoological, 11. 49; III. 683; XVI. CLAVIJO, Ruy Gonzalez de, Spanish VII., antipope, XX. 803. 845; XXII. 372; xxiv. 805.

traveller, v. 817; X. 179; XXII. 354. VIII., pope, v. 822; XIX. 505; his CLAUBERG, John, German philosopher, CLAVIS UNIVERSALIS, Arthur Collier's opposition to Father Sarpi, XXI. 311. v. 814; VII. 126. work, VI. 143.

IX., X., popes, V. 822.
CLAUDA, island, Crete, vi. 570.

CLAVIUS, Christopher, his calculations XI., pope, V. 822; XIX. 507.
CLAUDE of France, daughter of Louis for the Gregorian calendar, Iv. 671; XII., pope, v. 823.
XII., IX. 555.
on prosthaphæresis, XVII. 183.

XIII., pope, V. 823; XIX. 507; his of Lorraine (Claude Gelée), French Claws, of animals, XXII. 107; XV. 348. relations to the Jesuits, XIII. 654. painter, v. 814; Turner's rivalry of, CLAY, X. 237; XVI. 424; for brick-mak XIV., pope, v. 823; XIX. 507; his XXIII. 664.

ing, iv. 280; for pottery and porce measures against the Jesuits, XIII. of Lorraine, founder of the Guise lain, xix. 600; used as food, by 655. family, XI. 265.

Indians, 1. 703; burnt, used as manure, of Alexandria, v. 819, 8; XI. 745; Jean, French Protestant writer, v. 1. 351; in England, viii. 229; red, XVII. 128. deposits of, in Pacific, xvIII. 123.

of Rome, II. 195; X. 814; XIX. 489. CLAUDET, Antoine François, French Cornish, or China, XIV. I.

François, French historian, v. 823. photographer, v. 815.

Fire, IX. 238.

CLEMENTI, Muzio, Italian musical comCLAUDIANUS, Claudius, Roman poet, London, geological formation, X. poser, v. 823. V. 815; his place in Roman literature, 361; XVI. 279.

CLEMENTINE LEAGUE, XX. 328. XX. 727

Henry, American politician, v. CLEMENTINES, The, early work on the CLAUDIA PROCULA, wife of Pontius 817; XXIII. 762, 764, 770.

church, II. 196. Pilate, xix. 89.

CLAYEATERS, tribe of Indians, 1. 703. CLEMMYs, genus of chelonian reptiles, CLAUDIOPOLIS (Klausenburg), ancient CLAY IRONSTONE, XIII. 287.

XXIII. 457 town, Hungary, XIV. 107. CLAYMORE, weapon, XXII. 801.

CLEOBULUS, Greek sage, v. 824. CLAUDIUS, Appius Cæcus, Roman patri- CLAYTON'S BRICK-MAKING MACHINES, CLEOMENES I., king of Sparta, v. 824. cian, v. 816. IV, 282.

III., of Sparta, v. 825; XVIII. 790. Appius Crassus, Roman decemvir, CLAZOMENÆ, ancient town, Asia Minor, CLEON, Athenian leader, v. 825. V. 816.

V. 818.

CLEOPATRA I.-VI., queens of Egypt, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor, CLEANLINESS, in relation to health, XII. VII. 746, 747 V. 817. 568.

- VI., queen of Egypt, v. 826; VII. Matthias, German poet, v. 817; X. CLEANTHES, Greek philosopher, v. 818; 747 ; XX. 769; her relations with 541. XXII. 562.

Mark Antony, II. 141. Tiberius, Roman emperor, v. 816: CLEARCHUS, Spartan general, v. 818; CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLES, I. 495; II. 390; XVII. 348; XX. 772, 773. XVIII. 576.

VII. 768; XVII. 703. QUADRIGARIUS, Q., Roman his of Rhegium, bronze sculpture by, CLEOPATRIS, ancient town, Egypt, XXII. torian, XIV. 729. II. 348.

620. CLAUGHTON - CUM - GRANGE, part of CLEARING-HOUSE, for banks, III. 328. CLEOPHAS, or Clopas, of Scripture, XIII. Birkenhead, England, 111. 780. CLEARING NUT, XVII. 664.

552. CLAUSEL, Bertrand, French general, I. CLEAVAGE, in crystals, VI. 672; in CLEPH, king of the Lombards, xiv.

rocks, X. 261, 306, 372; XVI. 378. 814. CLAUSEN BURG, town, Hungary, XIV. CLEDDY, river, Wales, XVIII. 481. CLEPSINIDÆ, subfamily of leeches, XIV. 107.

CLEIRAC, on the sea laws, XXI. 583. 404. CLAUSIUS, Rudolf J. E., his theorem in CLEITOPHON, Leucippe and, classical CLEPSYDRA, hydraulic clock, v. 826. dynamics, III. 39.

romance, XX. 636.

CLERC, Jean le, or Clericus, xiv.

397; CLAUSSEN, or Claussön, Peder, Norse CLÉMENGES, Nicholas de, on corrup his Parrhasiana, I. 785. writer, vii. 90; XVII. 589.

tions in the church, XX. 320.

CLERESTORY, in architecture, 11. 462.

814.

567.

VI. 7.

IX. 529.

Vl. 37

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CLERGY, V. 826; an estate of the realm CLINTON, Sir Henry, British general, CLOT, Antoine, French physician, vi. of England, vill. 557. XXIII. 744.

37. Benefit of, in law, v. 827.

Henry Fynes, English scholar, Bernat des, Catalan chronicler, CLERGYMAN'S SORE THROAT, XXIII.

XXII. 363. 320.

CLINTONITE, mineral, xvi. 413. Cloth, dressed by calendering, iv. 682; CLERICIS LAICOS, papal bull, ix. 544. Clio, Muse of history, XVII. 74.

painted, in wall decoration, XVII. 37; CLERICUS (Jean le Clerc), Protestant CLIONE, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 667. printing on, iv. 684; trade in, at theologian and writer, XIV. 397; I. CLIPPING, of coins, XVI. 482.

Leeds, XIV. 407; weaving of, xxiv. 785.

CLISSON, Oliver, constable of France, 463, 466; ancient weaving of, xxIII. CLERKENWELL PRISON, London, xiv.

IX. 548.

206; woollen, xxiv. 661. 834.

CLISTENTERATA, group of Brachiopoda, CLOTHING, in relation to health, XII. CLERK'S GAS-ENGINE, XXII. 524.

IV. 189, 194.

568; of British army, II. 588. CLERMONT, Count of, French general, CLISTHENES, tyrant of Sicyon, XXII. 32. CLOTILDA, St, wife of Clovis, vi. 37; IX. 589.

CLITANDRE, Corneille's play, Vi. 420. EN BEAUVOISIS, town, France, V. CLITARCHUS, on the taking of Perse CLOTTED CREAM, VI. 771. 828; XVII. 749.

polis, XVIII. 559.

CLOUDS, XVI. 126, 138; their connexion CLERMONT-FERRAND, town, France, v. CLITHEROE, town, England, vi. 7.

with the aurora, III. 91. 828; church of Notre-Dame-du-Port, Clito, William of, son of Robert of -The, of Aristophanes, II. 508. II. 456; monastery, I. 20; opium culti Normandy, IX. 539.

CLOUGH, Arthur Hugh, English poet, vation, XVII. 792.

CLITOMACHUS, Greek philosopher, Vi. 8. CLERMONT-L'HÉRAULT, town, France, Clitor, ancient town, Greece, VI. 8. CLOVER, first introduced by Weston, I. V. 828.

Clitus, killed by Alexander, I. 483. 297; culture of, 1. 375. CLERMONT MANUSCRIPT, of the Scrip- CLIVE, Lord, of Plassy, vi. 8; in India, SEED, I. 383. tures, V. 9.

XII. 800; at siege of Arcot (1751), 11. CLOVES, tree and fruit, vi. 38; XII. 817; CLEVEDON, town, England, XXII. 258. 478.

yield of, in Amboyna, 1. 661. CLEVELAND, town, Ohio, U.S.A., V. CLOACÆ, sewers, Roman, xx. 814. CLOVESHOE (Abingdon), England, Synod

828; XVII. 737; population, XXIII. CLÖBBERGOLL, social institution, Pelew of (747), VIII. 371. 822.

Islands, V. 126.

Clovio, Giulio, Italian painter, Vi. 38. Duchess of, her relations with CLOCK, VI. 13; XXIII. 392; driving, for Clovis, king of the Franks, IX. 528; x. Wycherley, XXIV. 706.

telescope, XXIII. 154; hydraulic, v. 476; XVIII. 287; conversion of, xx. Grover, president of the United 826.

378. States, XXIII. 785.

CLOCK-MAKING, in Switzerland, XXII. CLOWES, John, Swedenborgian clergyJohn, English poet, v. 829. 779.

man, XXII. 760. BAYS, breed of horses, I. 385. CLODION, Claude Michel, French sculp William, Methodist preacher, XVI. MONUMENTS, at Bhagalpur, India, tor, XXI. 563.

192. III. 626.

CLODIUS, Christian August, his relations CLOWN, jester, ix. 366. CLEVES, town, Prussia, v. 829.

with Goethe, X. 722.

CLOYNE, town, Ireland, vi. 38. Clichy, town, France, Vi. I; XXI. 624. Publius, Roman tribune and dem- | CLUB, CLUBS, early types, vi. 38; XI. CLIENT, Patron and, Roman relationship agogue, XVI. 323; XX. 765; his oppo 259; modern, VI. 41; the Kit-Cat, of, XVIII. 412; XX. 669, 736. sition to Cicero, V. 771.

XIV. 103; rowing, XXI. 31; scientific CLIFDEN, village, Ireland, x. 56. CLODOALD, or Cloud, founder of St and literary, XXII. 221; social, vi. 38. Cliff, hills, Lincolnshire, England, xiv. Cloud, France, XXI. 160.

CLUB-FOOT, VI. 42. 653

Clofon, insect, larval stage of, viii. CLUB-HAULING, of ships, xxi. 600. CLIFFORD, Rosamond (Fair Rosamond), 457

CLUB-MOSSES, XV. 95. mistress of Henry II., XX. 848. CLOGG ALMANACS, I. 590.

CLUFF, English Plymouthist, XIX. 239. W. K., on evolution, VIII. 765. CLOG-SHOES, XXI. 830.

CLUGIA (Chioggia), town, Italy, v. 674. CLIFFORT, George, friend of Linnæus, CLOISONNÉE, partitioned artistic work, CLUGNI, or Cluny (q.v.), town and abbey, XIV. 673.

in enamelling, VIII. 183; XIII. 679; in France, I. 14; V. 794; VI. 43. CLIFTON, town, England, vi. I.

mosaics, XVI. 850; Japanese, XIII. 591. CLUNIAC MONASTERIES, I. 14. CLIMATE, VI. I; science of, XVI. 114; CLOISTER, VI. 35; 1. 12.

CLUNIAC MONKS, V. 793. adaptation of animals and plants to, CLONCURRY, district, Queensland, xx. CLUNY, town, France, 1. 14; VI. 43; 1. 84; affected by cosmical causes, X. 172.

monastery of, v. 794; XVI. 708; library 218; James Croll on, X. 218. CLONES, town, Ireland, xvI. 718.

in, XIV. 513. CLIMAX, mountain pass, Asia Minor, CLONMACNOISE, Ireland, its

MUSEUM, Paris, XVIII. 282. XV. 93.

churches, XIV. 87.

CLUPEA, genus of fishes, XI. 764; XVI. CLIMBERRUM (Auch), ancient town, CLONMEL, town, Ireland, vi. 36; XXIII. 10; XIX. 90, 275; XXI. 726; XXII. France, III. 67. 406.

432. CLINE, Henry, his experiments in vac- CLONTARF, Ireland, Battle of (1014), CLUSIUM (Chiusi), ancient town, Italy, cination, XIII. 623. XIII, 254; XXI. 479.

v. 676; VIII. 635. CLINICAL THERMOMETER, XXIII. 292. CLOONFINLOUGH, Ireland, Crannog of, CLUSIUS (Charles de l'Escluse), on the CLINKSTONE, rock, X. 234.

potato plant, XIX. 594. CLINOCHLORE, mineral, XVI. 414. CLOOTz, Jean Baptiste, Baron, French CLUTHA, river, New Zealand, XVII. CLINOCLASE, mineral, XVI. 406.

Revolutionist, VI. 37.

467. CLINTON, town, Iowa, U.S.A., VI. 7. CLOPAS, or Cleophas, of Scripture, XIII. | CLUVER, Philip, German geographer, -town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., VI. 7.

552. De Witt, American statesman, CLOSTER SEVEN, Prussia, Capitulation CLYDE, river, Scotland, VI. 43; xiv.

of (1757), v. 74; VI. 706; IX. 588. 250; XX. 395; dredging of, vii. 466;

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VI. 552.

VI. 43.

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