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The list of contributors, and the initials appended to the longer articles, are sufficient to show that the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is no mere compilation, but the work of specialists writing from firsthand knowledge, to an extent that had not been attempted in previous works of the kind. But an Encyclopædia, however brilliant its list of contributors, must always owe much to the constant and stated labours of a resident staff, whose members give their whole time to the work, and to these gentlemen a special acknowledgment is due. The Rev. George M'Arthur read every sheet of the book down to 1883, after which date he had the assistance of Mr J. T. Bealby, but continued to take the chief and most responsible share in that minute revision which every line of such a work demands. The late Mr W. Browning Smith from 1873 to 1878, Prof. Adamson from 1874 to 1876, Mr H. A. Webster from 1874 to 1887, Mr F. H. Butler in 1876 and 1877, and Mr T. F. Henderson from 1877 to 1884 gave their daily service to the work of the Encyclopædia, writing regularly on their own subjects, and helping the editors in various other ways. From the year 1878 Mr J. Sutherland Black acted as assistant editor, and from 1883 to the close of the work he was chief of the resident staff. To his knowledge, zeal, and judgment the work owes more than can be here expressed. It ought to be added that the task of the editors has at all times been much facilitated by the excellent administration of the publishers, who, quite apart from the ability and liberality with which they have conducted the business part of the undertaking, have throughout taken the greatest interest in the literary work of the Encyclopædia, and have given to the editors the manifold assistance which can be derived from a practical knowledge of affairs.

W. ROBERTSON SMITH.

CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,

February 18, 1889.

IN D E X

ENCYCLOPÆDIA

BRITANNICA.

INDEX

A — ABD

I. I.

1. 25.

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A, the first letter of the alphabet, | ABÆ, town, Greece, I. 4; XVIII. 801. ABBASINATION, kind of torture, VI.

ABAI (Blue Nile), river, Abyssinia, I. 802. AA, rivers, various European countries, 62; XVII. 507

ABBÉ, French title, I. 9. 1, 2. ABAKANSK, town, Siberia, 1. 4.

ABBE, Prof. E., his researches on the AACHEN (Aix-la-Chapelle, q.v.), town, ABANA, river, Syria, I. 4; VI. 790; XXII. microscope, XVI. 264, 269, 274. Germany, 1. 431.

821.

ABBEOKUTA (Abeokuta), town, West AAHMEs, king of Egypt, VII. 736. ABANCAY, town, Peru, 1. 4.

Africa, 1. 9; XXIV. 754.
AALBORG, town, Denmark, 1. 2.
ABANDONING, in law, I. 5.

ABBESS, I. 9; XVI. 706.
AALEN, town, Würtemberg, I. 2. ABANDONMENT, in marine assurance, 1. ABBEVILLE, town, France, I. 10; XXII.
AALST (Alost), town, Belgium, 1. 597.

4; XIII. 186.

261. AALUM, or Alam, emperor of Delhi, Vi. in law of railways, 1. 5.

ABBEY, 1. 10. 12; XII. 802.

ABANO, town, Italy, 1. 5; mineral water ABBIATE GRASSO, town, Italy, I. 22. AAR, river, Switzerland, I. 2; XX. 519;

of, XVI. 434.

ABBON of Fleury, French writer, I. 22. XXII. 776.

Pietro d', Italian philosopher, 1. 5; ABBOT, I. 22; XVI. 700; in House of AARAU, town, Switzerland, 1. 3; XXII. on physiognomy, XIX. 4.

Lords, XVIII. 459, 463. 778.

ABARIS, the Hyperborean, 1. 5; VII. 478. Charles, Lord Colchester, VI. 124. AARD-VARK, species of Edentata, 1. 3; ABASIA, district, Russia, 1. 50.

George, archbishop of Canterbury, XV. 389.

ABATED WORK, in architecture, 11. 459.
AARD-WOLF, species of Carnivora, 1. 3; ABATEMENT, in law and commerce, George, the Puritan, I. 25.
XV. 437
1. 5.

Robert, Puritan divine, I. 25. AARGAU, canton, Switzerland, 1. 3; ABATI, Niccolo, Italian painter, 1. 5.

OF UNREASON, V. 704. XXII. 778, 785, 794.

ABATTIS, in fortification, ix. 422. ABBOTSFORD, I. 26. AARHUUS, town, Denmark, I. 3. ABATTOIR, I. 5.

CLUB, I. 26. AARON, of Scripture, I. 3; XVIII. 510; ABAUZIT, Firmin, French writer, 1. 7. ABBREVIATIONS, with list, i. 26; in family of, X. 143; Aaronite priest- ABB, town, Arabia, 1. 8.

inscriptions, XIII. 126. hood, XIV. 489.

ABBACOMITES, lay abbots, I. 24. ABBREVIATORS, writers in papal chanBAR MADANI, Syriac writer, XXII. ABBADIE, James, Protestant divine, 1. 8.

cery, I. 29. 853

ABBA JARED, mountain, Abyssinia, 1. ABBT, Thomas, German philosopher, X. AARSSENS, Francis van, Dutch diplo 250.

535. matist, 1. 4.

ABBAS I., the Great, shah of Persia, 1. 8; ABDALLAH, Omayyad caliph in Spain, AASEN, Ivar, Norwegian philologist, XVIII. 637

XXII. 312. XVII. 592; XXI. 374.

II., of Persia, xvIII. 638.

B.-YAZIM, founder of the AlmoABABDE, African tribe, I. 4, 260; XVII. III., of Persia, xvIII. 640.

ravides, 1. 595. 611.

Persian poet, xvIII. 655.

B.-ZOBAIR, pseudo-caliph, XVI. ABACA, plant, 1. 4; XV. 488; culture of, Theophilus, instructor of Justinian, 567. in Philippines, XVIII. 751.

XXIII. 276.

ABDALLATIF, physician and traveller, ABACI, Liber, Leonardo of Pisa's work, MIRZA, prince of Persia, 1. 8; XVIII. 1. 30; on anatomy, 1. 805.

648.

ABD AL-MELIK, Omayyad caliph, xvi. ABACO, islands, Bahamas, III. 236. ABBASIDS, or Abbassides, caliphs of 569. ABACUS, I. 4; XVII. 626.

Baghdad, 1. 8; XVI. 578; II. 259; VII. ABD AL-MUMIN, Moorish prince in ABADAVINE, bird, xxII. 99.

749; their coins, XVII. 660.

Spain, I. 593; XXII. 316.

XIX. 125.

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1. 30.

ABD AL-RAHMAN I., emir of Cordova, | ABERCROMBIE, John, Scottish physician | ABIMELECH, of Scripture, I. 49; XIIL
XVI. 578, 579; XXII. 310.
and philosopher, 1. 36; xv. 817.

401.
II., emir of Cordova, XXII. 312. ABERCROMBY, David, Scottish physician | ABINGDON, town, England, 1. 49.
III., caliph of Cordova, XXII. and philosopher, 1. 36.

ABIOGENESIS, in biology, I. 49; III. 313.

James, speaker of the House of 688. ABD-EL-CAABA (Abu-Bekr), 1. 60.

Commons, l. 37.

ABIPONES, Indian tribe, I. 50; DobrizABD-EL-KADER, Algerian emir, 1. 30, Patrick, Scottish writer, 1. 37. hoffer's history of them, vii. 308. 567

Sir Ralph, British general, 1. 38. ABJURATION, Oath of, I. 581; XVII. 701. ABD-EL-WAHHAB, founder of the Wah- ABERDARE, town, Wales, I. 38.

ABKHASIA, district, Asiatic Russia, I. habees, II. 260.

ABERDEEN, town, Scotland, 1. 39; lib 50.
ABDERA, town, Thrace, 1. 30; coins of, raries, XIV. 523, 542; newspapers, ABKHASIANS, race of Circassians, v.
XVII. 640.

XVII. 423; population, XXI. 528; uni 257.
town, ancient Spain, I. 30.
versity, xxIII. 843, 854.

ABLATION, of glaciers, X. 627.
ABDERAME (Abd al-Rahman), emir of Fourth Earl of, I. 46; English ABLUTION, 1, 50.
Cordova, XXII. 310.

premier, VIII. 366.

ABNER, of Scripture, I. 51. ABDICATION, with list, 1. 30;

of

emperor Old, town, Scotland, 1. 43. ABNEY, Capt. William de W., his conCharles V., V. 417.

ABERDEENSHIRE, Scotland, 1. 43; area tributions to photography, XVII. 826, ABDOMEN, I. 31, 835; VII. 223; surgery and population, XXI. 528; representa 830, 834; XXIII. 142 ; investigations of, XXII. 690; wounds of, xv. 781. tion, XXIII. 727

in spectroscopy, XXII. 380. ABDOMINALES, subdivision of fishes, I. ABERDEVINE, bird, XXII. 99.

ABNICUM (Anni), ancient town, Asia 31.

ABERDOUR, village, Scotland, I. 46. Minor, 11. 72. ABDOMINALIA, division of Crustacea, VI. ABERFELDY, village, Scotland, 1. 46. ÅBO, province, Finland, ix. 217. 666.

ABERGAVENNY, town, Monmouthshire, --, town, Finland, 1. 51; Observatory ABDUCTION, in law, 1. 31; XIV. 69; XXIV. England, 1. 46; XVI. 754; wood sculp at, XVII. 714. 642.

ture in church, xxiv. 646.

ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, general moveABD-UL-Aziz, Turkish sultan, XXIII. ABERNETHY, town, Scotland, 1.46; XVIII. ment for, XXII. 141; Wilberforce's 651. 667; XX. 477

part in, XXIV. 565; in United States, ABD-UL-HAMID, Turkish sultan, XXIII. John, Irish divine, I. 47.

XXIII. 752, 763, 767, 781; Garrison's 652.

John, English surgeon, I. 47.

advocacy, X. 85.
ABD-UL-LATIF (Abdallatif), physician, ABERRATION, of light, 1. 47; XIV. 584, ABOMASUM, fourth stomach of rumin-

589; XVI. 259; XVIII. 246, 252; XXIV. ants, I. 51.
Persian sovereign, XVIII. 632. 424, 435, 439; its discovery by ABOMEY, town, Dahomey, Africa, I. 51;
ABD-UL-MEJID, Turkish sultan, I. 31; Bradley, 11. 757 ; chromatic, XVI. 259; VI. 765.
XXIII. 650.

XVII. 803; XXIII. 141; in the eye, VIII. ABONG ABONG, mountain, Sumatra,
À BECKET, or Becket, Thomas, arch 819; of lenses, XVII. 803; XXIII. 140. XXII. 638.
bishop of Canterbury, 1. 31.

ABERTEIFI (Cardigan), town, Wales, v. ABOO ARESH, district, Arabia, 11. 253. A'BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott, English

95.

ABOOSEER (Abusir), town, Egypt, iv. humorist, I. 33.

ABERYSTWITH, town, Wales, I. 48; Uni 576; pyramids of, vil. 772; XX. 123. ABEL, of Scripture, I. 33.

versity College at, XXIII. 856. ABOOSIMEEL (Abu-Simbel), temple of, Sir Frederick A., his experiments ABESHR, town, Wadai, Central Africa, Nubia, 11. 388. on gun-cotton, XI. 277; on gunpowder,

XXII. 279.

ABORIGINES, I. 51.
XI. 322; XVI. 445, 460.
ABETTOR, in law, I. 83.

ABORTION, in midwifery, I. 52; crimi-
Karl Friedrich, German musician, ABEYANCE, in law, l. 48.

nal, xIII. 4; XV. 780; in cows, xxiv. Peerages in, XVIII. 467.

204. Niels Henrik, Norwegian mathe- ABGAR, kings of Edessa, I. 48; VII. 653. ABOUKIR, town, Egypt, I. 52; Nelson's matician, 1. 33, 516; VIII. 508; XIII. 40, ABGEORDNETENHAUS, Prussian cham victory off (1798), XVII. 322; Napo66, 67, 69. ber, xx. 18.

leon's victory off (1799), XXIII. 648; Thomas, English divine, I. 33. ABHA, Syriac writer, xxii. 828.

Abercromby's debarkation at (1801), ABELARD, Peter, scholastic philosopher, 5 patriarch, Syriac writer, XXII.

1. 38. I. 34; XXI. 424; his contest with St 844.

ABOU-MENGEL, bird, XII. 606.
Bernard, 111. 602; his relations with ABHD-ISHO, Syriac writer, XXII. 827. ABOUT, Edmond, French writer, IX.
William of Champeaux, V. 386.

ABHD-ISHO BAR BAHRIZ, metropolitan 679.
ABELIAN FUNCTIONS, VI. 726; IX. 821. of Mosul, XXII. 849.

ABRABANEL, Isaac, Jewish statesman
ABELIANS, religious sect, 1. 33-

ABHD-ISHO BAR BERIKHA, metropolitan and writer, 1. 52.
ABENCERRAGES, Moorish family, I. 35. of Nisibis, Syriac writer, XXII. 855. ABRACADABRA, charm, I. 52.
ABENDANAS, translators of Mishnah, ABHIDHARMA, the philosophy of Bud- | ABRAHAM, Hebrew patriarch, I. 52.
XVI. 506.
dhism, IV. 432.

of Kashkar, Syriac writer, XXII.
A BENEZRA, Jewish writer, 1. 36. ABHSAMYA, Syriac writer, XXII. 828. 837
ABENSBERG, town, Bavaria, 1. 36. ABHZUDH, Syriac writer, XXII. 849.

of Nephtar, Syriac writer, xxII.
ABEOKUTA, town, West Africa, 1. 9; ABIAD, Bahr-el (White Nile), river, 836.
XXIV. 754.
Africa, I. 48; XVII. 506, 508.

of Nisibis, Syriac writer, XXII. 836. ABERAVON, town, Wales, I. 36. ABIDE WITH ME, Lyte's hymn, xv. Plains of, Quebec city, xx. 168. ABERBROTHOCK (Arbroath), town, Scot

BAR DASHANDADH, Syriac writer, land, II. 324.

AB-I-ISTADA, lake, Afghanistan, I. 230. XXII. 844. ABERCIUS, Phrygian saint, XVIII. 853. ABILA, ancient town, Syria, I. 49.

B. DAVID, rabbis, xx. 191. ABERCONWAY (Conway), town, Wales, ABILDGAARD, Nikolaj, Danish painter, A SANCTA CLARA, German preacher

I. 49; VII. 93.

and satirist, I. 55; X. 531.

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I21.

VI. 330.

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