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appeared for fourteen years. They already believe their country to be free from such a scourge, and should its contagion appear again in Vera Cruz, it would be easy to counteract it in the beginning by employing the vaccine, although its use might have been for some time laid aside.
The celebrated Dr. Unamie also writes at Luna, that in the two towns of the Sierra of Peru there had been no smallpox, because the inhabitants inoculated themselves by milking the cows who actually had the vaccine. Upon being asked, whether they had ever the small-pox, they answered, they only had a few pimples on their hands.
(Signed) Dr. Servando De Meir Y Noriega.
Translation from the Spanish.
Having been secretary to the Junta, established in Caraccas, for extending the use of the variolous vaccine, I am enabled to authenticate the following facts. In the year 1803 the Spanish government fitted out an expedition for the purpose of transmitting to the Spanish establishments in America and Asia, this inestimable antidote against one of the most fatal scourges that has afflicted mankind, and which in the Spanish colonies of America has been particularly destructive, Dr. A. Francisco Xavier Balmis, private physician to the king, was appointed chief of the expedition, and to his care, and that of others of the faculty, were entrusted a number of children, sufficient to ^preserve the invaluable germ, communicated from arm to arm. One of the first places at which the expedition touched was the Caraccas, where the small-pox was reviving every spring, and committing no small ravages during that and the summer season. Inoculation had been long known in the Caraccas: however, this practice, indisputably beneficial to those individuals who employed it, was most fatal to the people at large, the majority of whom, either from superstition, or want of the means, could not enjoy its benefits; so that the higher.classes, recurring constantly to inoculation, contributed to perpetuate and extend the contagion, of which the people were the victims.
The nature of the colonial government of America afforded the Spanish government particular advantages towards the establishment, and'the universal propagation of the variolous vaccine. Thus it was, that at the expiration of a few months after the arrival of the expedition, the small-pox was entirely exterminated in the department of Fenezuela. The authority of the government, the influence of the clergy, and especially the experience of its salutary effects, together with the mildness of the operation, concurring, it was soon
K % made made general, and the children of every class were brought to the house established for the purpose, under the inspection of the Junta, to which I was some time secretary.
As the institution of this Junta was to watch over the effects of vaccination, for which purpose they communicated with the faculty of physic, and the curates of all the parishes in the department, I was enabled to ascertain, with the greatest certainty, that the success of this establishment has been in the Caraccas the most complete that can be imagined; and that only on some parts of the coast, where the population was so thin that they could not keep up yearly the vaccine fluid, the common small-pox has appeared twice. It, however, only attacked those who had not received its antidote. Equally good effects have been attested in the other parts of Spanish America, and, thanks to the illustrious Jenner, the population of this part of the world yearly receives an augmentation of 1,000,000 of lives, which, but for his glorious discovery, had fallen a prey to the small-pox.
One of the objects to which the Juntas employed in this branch have devoted their attention, was to promote investigation of the cow-pox in those districts in their respective Srovinces, where large herds of cattle are kept; and in the istrict of Calabozo, belonging to that of the Caraccas, they have had the satisfaction of finding it in the cows. The effects produced by the cow-pox originating in Calaboza, were entirely of the same nature with that brought from Europe, only it was observed that the irritation was something greater when they administered the indigenous fluid.
(Signed) A. Bello,
London, Jan. 11,1813.
TREATMENT of INSANITY by MESSRS. TARDY and LUCETT,
communicated by Mr. Tardy, Surgeon, of Alarchmont-street,
to DR. FOTHERGILL. SIR,
THE new method of curing insanity so laudably countenanced by His R. H. the Duke of Kent, and a committee of noblemen and gentlemen, having created considerable interest, I have been induced to transmit to your Journal a detailed report of the first case in which it was tried, conjointly by myself and Mr. Lucett, the gentleman who communicated to me this particular plan of treatment.
Variouls advertisements upon this subject appeared in the newspapers during 1811 respecting this case, inserted, however, without my knowledge, previously to which the following; lowing report was sent, by Mr. Lucett, to the late Mr. PerCeval, Chancellor of the Exchequer, signed by myself and by that gentleman.
Case of Mr. Lucett's Process as performed upon Mr. Morgan, Editor of the Dublin Correspondent Newspaper.
Monday, Sept. 23d, 1811.—I had been informed that Mr. M. had labored under a state of insanity for eighteen months, and had been attended by some eminent gentlemen in that practice. As far as my experience and observation of the case went, it had become one approaching to idiotism blended with melancholy: there was no mania ferox. This patient had very bad nights, getting up frequently to sing, and troubled with frequent inclination to go to stool. On the (irst application, the pulse was lowered in number, but rendered at the same time fuller by it. The patient was put to bed immediately after the operation, which was about ten o'clock at night, and had a bason of white wine whey. From the report of the attendant he slept profoundly, without awaking, from eleven o'clock that night until six o'clock next morning, when he was awoke by Mrs. M. going into his room, but went off to sleep again: be was awoke again about nine o'clock, and took his breakfast: he went to sleep again, and slept until two o'clock in the afternoon, when he was again awoke for his dinner. When I saw him at that time, he appeared refreshed, and was not so troublesome as when I saw him before, nor did I hear him attempt to sing, which he was continually doing the evening previous to this, and seemed more calm.
Sept. 24th.—Mrs. M.'s report to-day is, that he slept without interruption, was more tractable, and had not sun°during this day.
25th.—Report the same as to sleep, &c. &c.
26th.—Report the same; sleep very good; diet, &c. as usual.
27th.—Report the sleep as before, but he bad become somewhat more troublesome; would not keep up his stockings; and had begun to sing this evening.
28th.—Repeated the operation. He did not go to sleep so soon after the repetition of the process this night as at first, but he slept from ten o'clock until nine o'clock, when he was awoke for his breakfast. Mrs. M. reports that he was more rational through the day than previously, and that he did not commit any glaring act of inconsistency, nor did he sing, but went on to sleep again, and awoke for his dinner.
29th.—Report: slept soundly from nine o'clock this night until nine o'clock in the morning, when he was awoke for his breakfast, and considered by Mrs. M. as much improved ■with regard to any errors or extravagance or mind. Mrs M. reports likewise that he was more particular in regard to his dress than she had observed him since the commencement of his malady, as he expressed a particular wish to have his coat brushed before he went out, and inquired for and wore his gloves, which he had not done before: he sung once this evening, but it was by particular desire of one who was not so well aware of his state of mind.
80th.—Report as to sleep the same; eat extremely hearty.
Oct. 1st to the 2d inclusive.—Slept composed from eleven o'clock (during a considerable noise in the neighbourhood) until nine o'clock on the next morning. Mis. M. has not noticed any irrational word from him during these days: he dressed himself entirely, putting on his cravat himself without help, which he had not done previous to this time, and likewise his boots, which he had not worn for some time before. Mrs. M. reports that she had been obligated to dress him before when going out with him, but he appeared dressed correctly when she wished to take him out with her. He was extremely anxious to walk out with Mrs. Morgan on these days." E. Tardy.
To which Mr. Lucett subjoined his signature.
The gentleman whose case is described in the above report was about 44 years of age, inclining to corpulency; had been of a cheerful disposition, and his avocations being of a public nature, he was led much into company, when he sometimes unavoidably exceeded the bounds of temperance.* Ho was subject to hemorrhoidal affections, and for about nine or ten years previous to the first accession of his malady, he had had repeated attacks of the gout, which totally disappeared after the accession of insanity. For some time before the first appearance of his mental derangement, he complained of a constant pain in the back of his head, which was supposed to arise at that time from a translation of gout. On the superior part of the right parietal bone he had the cicatrix of an injury he received early in life, but I could never Jearn that it had been attended with any bad symp.
* Through life he had been an affectionate husband and father. Some months previous to the accession of his malady he lost a favorite child: it was conceived of consequence to open the child's head after death: he insisted upon being present, and Mrs. M. was of opinion that his symptoms of derangement advanced more rapidly from that time. About this time, likewise, he experienced a disappointment in his hopes of remuneration for his professional services, and his cu<\ cumstances in consequence became considerably embarrassed.
toms. toms. The approaches to insanity were gradual, various slight symptoms of an erroneous judgment showing themselves for some time previously.
These, as nearly as I could learn, were the principal facts that tended to elucidate the causes and nature of this gentleman's malady.
It will be observed by the report, that his state of rest was restored, and his disposition to sing and tear books, &c\ during the day, was removed. His erroneous train of thoughts still remained after the process, though somewhat diminished; such as his constant regret at his reduced circumstances, at the smallness of his house, and his desire to have a larger one, with a number of servants to attend him, although his style of living was as good as his means could justify.
The treatment employed by Mr. Lucett and myself upon this gentleman, were warm immersion and warm affusions on the head, conducted in such a manner, by a-considerable column of water, as to produce a slight concussion upon the shaven vertex. The bath was at first 93°, and subsequently increased to 107 and 8. He was kept in the bath about four minutes in the first trial, and afterwards from thirty to forty minutes.
The treatment was continued a short time after the above report had been sent to Mr. Perceval; but owing to an incautious and sudden increase of the temperature of the bath, a considerable and dangerous discharge of blood took place from the hemorrhoidal vessels, to the amount often ounces per day. At first I was inclined to hope that this discharge might prove critical and beneficial, more especially as his liaemorrhoidal affection ceased suddenly previous to his first attack: but those hopes were disappointed; for after three clays continuance of this profuse discharge, he evidently became worse, symptoms of fatuity and loss of memory being clearly perceptible. Under those circumstances, I objected to the further continuance of the bath, &c. This discharge ■was the more to be regretted, as unequivocal symptoms of amendment had shown themselves from the moderate application of the above means.
There were no other means used in this case but the above; indeed he had been attended by many eminent gentlemen in that practice, and I considered medicine as superfluous, and as likely to be injurious in his case.
In an establishment in which I am about to engage for the reception of insane persons, I propose to try this process with some variations on this gentleman again; and the results upon him, as well as upon some others, I will transmit to you for publication.