Heraldry. field a pennon, or long streaming flag, on the end of Order, between a lion of England and a fleur-de-lys of Market

his lance. On occasions of remarkable prowess, the France, a ducal coronet, or. Clarenceux, gules, a lion
Monarch summoned the Knight to his side, and, cut- of England crowned, or. Norroy, per pale, azure and
ting off the long streaming part of the pennon, con- gules, a lion of England crowned between a fleur-de-
verted it into a square flag, or banner, which the Knight lys and a key, or. See 64.
ever after bore, and was termed a Knight Banneret. 69. Younger sons of Knights of the Garter.
49. Viscounts' younger sons.

70. Younger sons of Bannerets.
50. Barons' younger sons.

'71. Younger sons of Knights of the Bath. 51. Baronets. Baronets bear, as Knights, an open hel- 72. Younger sons of Knights Bachelors. met of steel, without bars, damasked crimson. English 73. Gentlemen entitled to bear arms. and Irish Baronets also bear in the dexter or middle The degrees of Precedency among females are as fol- Precede meg chief, or at the fess point, a small escutcheon, argent, en- lows:

of soia signed with a sinister hand erect, apaumy, gules. See 1. The Queen. Her crown is that of the King, fig. 29. This is called the badge of Ulster. Baronets And in general it may be observed, that the coronets of were created by James I. during the troubles in Ire- females are those of the corresponding dignity among land, when the Province of Ulster was, more especially, Helmets never accompany female bearings. in a state of insubordination. They offered their lives, 2. The Princess of Wales. property, &c. for the defence of the Kingdom. Ori- 3. King's daughters. ginally their number was but 200, but since it has been 4. Wives of the King's sons. unlimited. Baronets were also created by Charles I. 5. Wives of the King's brothers. in pursuance of his father's plan, in order to encourage 6. Wives of the King's uncles. the colonization of the Province of Nova Scotia ; these 7. The King's grandaughters. Baronets bear what is called the badge of Nova Scotia, 8. Wives of the eldest sons of Royal Dukes. viz. an escutcheon, borne as by the Baronets of England 9. Daughters of Royal Dukes. and Ireland, argent, a saltire azure, surmounted by an 10. Wives of the King's brothers' or sisters' sons. inescutcheon of Scotland, royally crowned.

11. Duchesses.
52. Bannerets not made by the King in person.

12. Marchionesses.
53. Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. They bear 13. Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes.
their arms encircled with a red riband, bearing in gold 14. Daughters of Dukes.
the motto, Tria juncta in uno. The collar and jewel 15. Countesses.
of the Order may be added. See 38.

16. Wives of the eldest sons of Marquesses.
54. Knights Commanders of the Bath. See 38. 17. Daughters of Marquesses.
55. Knights Bachelors. See 38.

18. Wives of the younger sons of Dukes.
56. Companions of the Bath.

19. Viscountesses. 57. Eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers.

20. Wives of the eldest sons of Earls. 58. Baronets' eldest sons.

21. Daughters of Earls. 59. Knights of the Garter's eldest sons.

22. Wives of the younger sons of Marquesses. 60. Bannerets' eldest sons.

23. Baronesses. 61. Knights of the Bath's eldest sons.

24. Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts. 62. Knights' eldest sons.

25. Daughters of Viscounts. 63. Baronets' younger sons.

26. Wives of the younger sons of Earls. 64. Esquires of the King's body. All Esquires use 27. Wives of the eldest sons of Barons. a helmet of steel in profile with the visor closed. See 23. Daughters of Barons. fig. 113.

29. Maids of Honour. 65. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.

30. Wives of the younger sons of Viscounts. 66. Esquires of the Knights of the Bath. See 64. 31. Wives of the younger sons of Barons. 67. Esquires by creation. See 64.

32. Wives of Baronets. 68. Esquires by office. Kings of Arms, Heralds, 33. Wives of Knights of the Garter. and Pursuivants are Esquires by office. If an inferior 34. Wives of Bannerets. Heraldic officer be a Knight, the superior still takes 35. Wives of Knights of the Bath. precedence. The costume of these officers is a tabard 36. Wives of Knights Bachelors. of the Arms of the Sovereign ; that of the Kings is made 37. Wives of the eldest sons of the younger sons of of embroidered velvet ; that of the Heralds, of satin; Peers. that of the Pursuivants, of sarcenet. The Kings wear a 38. Wives of the eldest sons of Baronets. crown, as represented in fig. 110, composed of a circlet 39. Daughters of Baronets. of sixteen acanthus leaves, oak leaves, or feathers, (for 40. Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Garter. respecting what they are, authors differ,) nine of which 41. Daughters of Knights of the Garter. are visible in painting. Round it is inscribed Miserere 42. Wives of the eldest sons of Bannerets. mei, Deus, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam. 43. Daughters of Bannerets. Both Kings and Heralds wear a collar of SS; on this 44. Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Bath. are two portcullises of silver gilt for the Kings, and of 45. Daughters of Knights of the Bath. plain silver for the Heralds. On the breast is sus- 46. Wives of the eldest sons of Knights Bachelors. pended the Union Badge, and on the back the White 47. Daughters of Knights Bachelors. Horse of Hanover. The Pursuivants have no collars. 48. Wives of the younger sons of Baronets. Each King has Arms of office, which always consist of 49. Daughters of Knights. argent, a St. George's cross, hut the chiefs vary in the 50. Wives of the Esquires of the King's body. following manner; Garter, azure, within a Garter of the 51. Wives of the Esquires to the Knights of the Bath.

ons of

52. Wives of Esquires by creation.

him who uncourteously treats a lady, or deserts his Marshal
53. Wives of Esquires by office.
Sovereign's banner.

ling. Abatements 54. Wives of the younger sons of Knights of the Fig. 197 is a point derter parted, and belongs to a Garter.

55. Wives of the younger sons of Bannerets.

Fig. 198 is a point in point; the designation of one
56. Wives of the younger sons of Knights of the Bath. who behaves slothfully in the field.
57. Wives of the younger sons of Knights Bachelors. Fig. 199 is a point champain. It belongs to one
58. Wives of Gentlemen entitled to bear arms. who kills a prisoner of war.
59. Daughters of Esquires entitled to bear arms. Fig. 200 is a gore sinister. It is given to effeminate
60. Daughters of Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.

3. The crowns mentioned in the early Historical Fig. 201 represents two gussets, dexter and sinister.
part of this Essay are distinctions still in use. Their Both are abatements; the former for voluptuousness,
application has been already noticed. They are mar- the latter for intoxication.
shalled above the helmet, coronet, &c. but usually below The plain point, assigned for lying, is exemplified in
the crest.

fig. 3, where it forms the lowest division of the escutlistinc The Arms of the Sovereign, or part thereof, are cheon.

sometimes allowed to be borne as marks of peculiar The baston, already noticed, is the abatement of a paour. favour. Richard II. is said to be the first who granted bastard, and the only abatement used.* It is, moreover,

Arms of augmentation. Ordinaries, too, are added, of hereditary, and can only be removed by the King. A which the most usual are the chief and the canton. bastard may bear his mother's Arms without this abateThese ordinaries are generally ensigned with some sig- ment; but if he bear his father's, he must add it. The nificant device, or a portion of the Royal Arms as before. illegitimate descendants of some of our Kings have Thus Lord Nelson's paternal coat was augmented by thought fit to incur this blemish for the sake of retaina chief wavy argent, bearing a palm-tree between a ing the Royal Arms; an instance of which we have in ship at sea and a castle, all proper; the Arms of Thomas the family of Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, whose coat will Lord Roos, created in 1525 Earl of Rutland, which be found in fig. 64. The baston must not be borne of were originally, or, two bars, azure, a chief gules, were metal, except by the descendants of Kings. thus altered : or, two bars, azure, a chief quarterly, first A traitor's coat is represented reversed, and is not and fourth, two fleur-de-lys of France, second and third, blazoned by the technical, but proper names of the tinca lion of England; and the Arms of John Churchill, tures, except where such tinctures are themselves techBaron of Eymouth in Scotland, (sable, a lion rampant, nical. argent,) were augmented by James II. with a canton 5. Ensigns are either national or personal. The anti- Easigns argent, charged with a cross of St. George.

quity of the former has been already shown; and they Henry VIII. was, in the highest degree, lavish of still retain some peculiarities of ancient Heraldry. They Heraldic distinctions. On Ann Boleyn he conferred the are, for the most part, different altogether from the Arms Arms of the Earls of Lancaster, of Angoulême, and of the Country which they represent; except what are Guienne, which she quartered with those of the alli- called “Standards,” which are usually the same. The ances of her own family; but her family coat itself was ensigns of the Norman Monarchs appear to have been dropped. To Jane Seymour he gave a coat of augmen- wholly different from the National bearing and from each tation, or, on a pile, gules, between six fleur-de-lys, other. Argent, a cross, gules, was, at an early period, azure, three lions of England, which is quartered by borne in the English army, and considered hence the the Seymours, Dukes of Somerset, to the present day. National banner. In nothing is the Heraldry of NaTo Katharine Howard he assigned two whole coats, to tional ensigns more decidedly distinguished from that of be quartered with her own, viz. I. azure, three fleur-de- National escutcheons, than in the particular that while lys, in pale, or, on two flanches ermine, as many roses ordinaries rarely enter the latter, they are as rarely gules; and II. azure, two lions passant gardant, between absent from the former. This circumstance also draws four demi-fleur-de-lys, or. Lastly, to Katharine Parr a wide distinction between the ancient and modern he granted the following coat, to be quartered with her Heraldry of ensigns; and we may observe, as another proper one: argent, on a pile, between six roses, gules, distinction of this department of modern Heraldry, that three others of the field.

colour, as in the escutcheon, so in the banner, is an 4. While we are on the subject of Marshalling, we essential feature. Yet the rules which prescribe the may be expected to notice what Menestrier calls sottises different combinations of colours and metals in ordinary Anglaises; abatements, or symbols of disgrace intro- modern Heraldry, have no application in the theory of duced into Arms. In this respect we fear we are too ensigns. open to the sarcastic Frenchman's assaults. Abatements, The largest species of ensign is the Standard, commonly Standard. of course, are never used, except in a case which we of a square form, but now somewhat oblong. It was shall presently mention; and in this, if they are follies, generally used by Sovereign Princes, or by the Comthey are shared by our continental neighbours.

manders of armies. The Gonfanon, as used anciently, Gonfanon. Abatements must always be tawny or murry, except did not, according to Dr. Meyrick, resemble the species only bastons. As it would be impossible or invidious of ensign commonly termed by that name in modern to present the reader with real coats containing these Heraldry, but “was fixed in a frame made to turn like abatements, we must give them separately.

Fig. 195 is a delf, or quadrant spot. If this bearing * “ All the bastardis of all cotarmuris shall bere a fesse, sum call be repeated in the escutcheon, or be of metal, or

hit a baston of oon of the iiü dignites of colouris, except the bastarde charged, it is not to be taken for an abatement. This of the fixiales, and the bastarde of the brethyrne of the cheve blode:

where theritaunce is deparded to evych brothir e like moch, theys is the sign of a revoked challenge.

bastardis shall add more bagy to his armys, or take away a bagy of Fig. 196 is an escutcheon reversed. It belongs to armys."--Book of St. Albans.


[ocr errors]

Heraldry. a modern ship’s vane, with two or three streamers or had also their respective Banners; which, on particular Manual tails. The object of the Gonfanon was principally to occasions, were paraded in the field.

ling. render great people more conspicuous to their followers, The Banner was not only displayed on a staff, but and to terrify the horses of their adversaries; hence the was also appended to the trumpets of the owner. It Gonfanon became a mark of dignity.” These Gonfanons was borne, too, by Heralds, when acting on the part of appear to have differed little from the Pennon. We have the Prince or Chief to whom it belonged.

given some representations of ensigns called by ancient Beside this Banner, a Knight might have what was Pennon. writers Gonfanons and Pennons. Yet that there was called his Standard, which differed wholly from the some difference is evident from the language of Wace: species of flag now known by that name ; since, while Li barons ourent gonfanons,

the modern Standard universally displays the Arms, the Li chevaliers ourent penons.

early one always bore the badge or cognizance. The The difference was, perhaps, rather in the charge than Standard was somewhat longer than a Banner, but not the form. Indeed, the Gonfanon appears to have an- so deep. Both Standard and Banner led 100 men. ciently sustained the office of the banner, to indicate the The Pennon, like the Banner, contained armorial presence of some important person ; while the Pennon bearings; every Knight having the command of 100 was borne by every ordinary Knight, as well as by the men was allowed to bear one of these. We have more powerful feudal dignitaries.

already spoken of the manner of creating a Banneret.
A writer in the Retrospective Review, to whose obser- ! The Guidon, or, as some write it, Guidhomme, was Guiden
vations this department of our Treatise is greatly indebted, the ensign of an esquire or gentleman, and conducted
observes, “When the English army was composed of 50 men. It bore no Arms, but simply the crest, cogni-
tenants in capite of the Crown, with their followers, it Zance, or Device.
appears that such tenants were entitled to lead them The Pennoncell might be used by any individual. It Peazer szil.
under a banner of their Arms; but the precise number bore the cognizance, or "avowry," i.e. the name of the
of men so furnished, which conferred this privilege, tutelar saint of the bearer.
has not been ascertained. Judging, however, from the This interesting department of Heraldry has in this
Siege of Karlaverock, it would seem that early in the Country almost wholly fallen into decay. At the funeral
XIV th century there was a banner to every twenty-five of Lord Nelson great attention was paid to ensigns, as
or thirty men at arms."*

well as to every other branch of the study; but at that
“When the tenant in capite was unable to attend in of the late Duke of York the utmost disregard of the
person from sickness, or from being otherwise engaged subject prevailed.
in the King's service, he nevertheless sent the quota of We here conclude our summary of this curious and
men at arms and archers, for which, by the tenure of his not unprofitable theory. Prejudices, founded on gene-
lands, he was engaged; and his banner was committed rous and noble sentiments, but now fast decaying before
to the charge of a deputy of equal rank to his own opinions, which, if less prejudiced, are less honourably
Thus at Karlaverock, the Bishop of Durham, being pre- grounded, have exalted, it must be allowed, the pursuits
vented from attending by some public duty which detained of Heraldry to a very exaggerated and unmerited dig-
him in England, he sent one hundred and sixty of his nity; but there are extremes in this as in all subjects

men at arms with his banner, which, it is worthy of and the contempt which the elegant fabric of Heraldry
remark, was simply that of his paternal Arms, without is fated to experience at the hands of utilitarians, is
any reference to those of his See; which tends also to equally discreditable to modern taste and to modern
prove that in the field he was considered merely as a knowledge. Heraldry is, at least, a very beautiful
temporal Baron.”+

structure; and, if material utility must be the standard "The most curious fact on the subject which is esta- of Good, Heraldry, even here, may advance her pretenblished by the Poem is with respect to the banner of an sions. For if the maintenance of a high spirit of Earl; for it is evident that it was considered to belong honour, attachment to existing institutions, and the preto the dignity rather than to the individual. Ralph de servation of those gradations to which Society is inMonthermer, the Earl of Gloucester in right of his wife, debted for all its symmetry and solidity, be objects of Joan, daughter of King Edward I., and widow of Gil- importance, Heraldry has valuably contributed to all. bert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by which title he was Heraldry, too, was chief handmaid of the ornamental repeatedly summoned to Parliament, led his followers Arts in dark and barbarous Ages: and whatever may on that occasion under the banner of Clare, the Earl be said of the pedantry of early Heralds, who crowded of Gloucester, whilst he was himself vested in a surcoat their Treatises with information wholly alien from their of his paternal Arms, which he also bore on his shield.” subject, yet this alone is good evidence that a Herald, “The fact is the more worthy of attention, because it as such, was expected to be a man of various erudition; corroborates the opinion that he possessed the dignities inasmuch as his very Science led him to treat of objects of Earl of Gloucester and Hereford solely in right of almost universal. Heraldry, too, has been the means his wife; for on her death in 1307 he ceased to enjoy of determining genealogies and inheritances through them, and they were assumed by Gilbert de Clare, her very remote conclusions : its use in illustrating History, son by her first husband; Monthermer being sum- both as regards customs and facts, must be allowed to

moned to the very next Parliament as a Baron only."I be considerable; and its study, therefore, can never be Banners. Corporations and Fraternities, secular and religious, unworthy the Historian, the Biographer, and the man

of Letters; while the Philosopher may well be required * Retrospective Review, Second Series, Oct. 1827.

to tolerate what has proved in many instances of essen+ Ibid


tial value to Society.

[merged small][ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

Origin of the Art of Coinage.

rous modifications were employed before the dye asNumis

sumed this simple character. Instances occur of Coins Fabric of matics. Prior to the invention of stamped money, commerce in which the dye is circular, but divided like the pre

the most

ancient ! jature and was carried on by the exchange of commodities, and the ceding into four parts; others there are, also, in which abrication little metal employed probably consisted of pieces cut the bounding figure is square, but the cavities are trif the without regard to shape but regulated by weight; for angular, from the cross lines running diagonally. urliest all large, and even for small sums recourse was, conse- The Coins of some Cities of Asia Minor present a sinCoins.

quently, had to scales, and, if we take into consideration gular variety; in these the surface on which the metal
the diversity of weights existing in Countries apart from was placed had angular pieces cut out, not the deep Plate II.
each other, we shall readily perceive the inconvenience grooves noticed above; as it is difficult to convey in Fig. 10.
attending this original barter. On the earliest Grecian words an idea of this modification, we have given a

Asia Minor
Coins a variety of types appear which are derived, as we representation of the form of the end of the instrument coeval with
shall shortly explain, from circumstances connected with by which, possibly, it was effected. The difference in the Lydian
the Country; it will not then be unreasonable to sup- the appearance of the Coin thus formed will be, that Kingdom.
pose that each City having adopted some particular instead of the area being divided as before by bands, the Fig. 11.
emblem, affixed it to the pieces of metal there struck, at separation is effected by an angle of each department being
once designating the City to which they belonged, and considerably depressed. The improvements resulting
indicating in a manner their value. This stamping of from this variety in the dye may be easily conceived; in the
pieces of metal was, in fact, a public testimony that they course of time it was found unnecessary to give so great
were of the weight required, and might pass in traffic a depth to the depressions, which therefore gradually
without trial by scales. It will be obvious, that it was became less apparent, and about the year 460 B.C., but
sufficient to affix the stamp on one side only of the Coin, four slight triangular indentations are seen, disposed
but a difficulty arose as to the means of effecting this; like the sails of a windmill. There are a few Coins in
if the metal were laid on an even surface, the dye which the triangular parts are given in relief, possibly
containing the device placed upon it, and the hammer suggested by the preceding variety, and admirably
resorted to, the pieces would in all probability be dis- adapted for fixing the planchet during the operation of
placed during the operation, and the impression would forming the type. The depressions were by no means
thus be rendered imperfect. At the present day, the limited to four, although that number is by far the most
piece of metal, or planchet as it is termed, is placed frequent; on the Persian Coins denominated Darics but
within a steel collar corresponding with it in size ; but one indentation appears, of an irregular form, and on
this being a contrivance unknown to the Ancients, the ancient Coins ascribed to the city of Ephesus there are Fig. 12.

method they adopted may be thus explained. Deep two; on early Coins of Dyrrachium and Corcyra three vins of

grooves, generally two in number, were cut out of the cavities may be seen, on those of Egina they are, with acia

surface of one extremity of a bar of metal or a pun- scarcely an exception, five in number, and in those of Plate I. ria, ,

cheon, by which means projections were formed and the Sicily yet more numerous. Two varieties, more compli-
planchet was then laid thereon ; in this manner, after a cated, occur of Bæotia and Thebes; on a few Coins of
single blow of a hammer, the metal would be partially these Cities the square is divided both by transverse and
secured and retained in its place until the operation of diagonal lines, thereby forming the triangular depres-
striking was completed. From the great relief given to sions before alluded to.
the early Coins, the type could only be brought out by The first attempt at the introduction of types on both
repeated blows, and their extreme thickness and glo- faces of the Coins, appears in the insertion of some small
bosity leads us to suspect they were, in the first in- object in one of the compartments. On Coins of Egina
stance, of a spherical form. The Coins produced after a Dolphin is common; and in a few of Syracuse, the
the manner we have just described, would bear on one square divided into four parts may be recognised, and
of the sides the type of the City rudely executed, and on in the centre a circular cavity is reserved containing a
the other several deep indentations made by the fixed head of Proserpine.
puncheon; these depressions most frequently partook Such are the combinations in early Coinage which
of a quadrilateral form, and were four in number; hence possess chief interest, and these are as many as our
after the lapse of a few years, when the Coins were cha- limits will permit us to detail. There are a few Cities on
racterised by a greater degree of neatness, the reverses the Coins of which the progressive stages of the Art may
represented a square divided into four equal parts. be traced, as is the case with those of Chios; some Cities

The lines, which at first were of considerable breadth, also retained to themselves a peculiar modification; 1. insensibly disappear, and about the year 500 B. c. but thus in the colonies constituting Magna Græcia, a

one slight depression of a square form remained occu- singular method was practised, but one equally effec-
pying the field of the Coin ; this compartment served for tual for securing the planchet; the Coins of Metapon-
the introduction of a second symbol, and instances tum, Tarentum, Crotona, Sybaris, and Posidonia, are
occur in which the former divisions are slightly indicated hollowed on the reverse with the obverse in relief with Coins of
on the surface.

the same object : these Coins, termed incused, we may
We have as yet noticed but one variety of indenta- presume to have been struck at the period during which
tions on the reverses; for although about 500 B. c. the the simple square dye prevailed in Græcia Propria.
indented square prevailed throughout Greece, nume- One advantage gained by this method was, that these


Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.




Numis- Coins required a smaller quantity of metal; the pieces donia, and of Græcia Magna, but we have first to notice Of Grecia matics. exceed in their diameter the ordinary dimensions of the Coinage of the Asiatic Countries.

Chicco Greek Coins, but are extremely thin.

The Lydians occupied a portion of Asia Minor, Plate I.

The Cities of Maronea, Abdera, Acanthus, Amphi- lying between the rivers Thermus and Menander, and Lydia. Fig. 5.

polis, and Ænos, situated on the coasts of Macedon and are the nation recorded to have first stamped the metal Coins of

Thrace, near to their junction, have commonly on their used in commerce.* Upon reviewing the annals of the Macedonia.

Coins a double square, a peculiarity which being found Lydian Kingdom, we shall find their History, at the

to exist on Coins of the Macedonian King, Alexander I., commencement of the VIIIth century B. C., involved Fig. 4. determines their age. (500 B.C.) On the reverses of these in obscurity, and intermixed with fable; at that period

Coins the divided square appears, considerably reduced also the surrounding nations enjoyed independence.
in size, around it the name of the City is inscribed, and Upon examining the Coins ascribed to this Country, we
there is a second square beyond. The divisions of the will venture to say that the rudest among them cannot Plate II.
inner square were afterwards omitted when some device claim a higher antiquity than many of acknowledged Fig. 10.
was introduced, and in a short time the inner square Grecian workmanship, which we shall show in the
was altogether dispensed with.

sequel to have been struck about 600 B. C. Under
Having in the preceding remarks shown the possibility Cræsus, 560 B.C., Lydia was incorporated with the Per-
of effecting a chronological arrangement of these curious sian Empire, and as we must assign the year 700 B. C.
Coins by a careful examination of the indented marks, it as the earliest date for the practice of the Art of Coinage,
may be proper to state, that the interpretation we have we may consider the Lydian Coins as having been struck
assigned to them is not altogether in accordance with during this interval. It may be remembered that
the opinions hitherto received. In hazarding these con- throughout the Poems of Homer, who flourished, ac-
jectures we would by no means insist that the various cording to Newton, 870 B. C., no passage is found from
figures certainly originated in the manner we have de- which we can infer the existence of stamped money, an
scribed, but we think the supposition consistent through- omission which could scarcely have occurred if Coins had
out, and neither forced nor improbable.

been in his days a medium of commerce.

The earliest of the Persian Coins in existence are the Persia. PART I.-ANCIENT Coins. pieces denominated Darics, and commonly referred to Fig

. 12 Civic.

Darius I., who ascended the throne 521 B. c. Upon a
Grecian ..

careful inspection of them, they will be found scarcely
SRoman Asses.

reconcilable with this date, being of extreme rudeness,
Coins of the Families.

whereas the Greeks of Asia Minor had, at the period

in question, arrived at some proficiency in the Art. We

may then conjecture that they were issued by order of

(Colonies&Municipia. Darius, a King of the Medes, who, upon a partial (Roman.

conquest of Lydia, 544 B. C., caused the money of that Medallions

Country to be recoined for his own use.t (European.

For the epoch of the institution of Coinage in Græcia Gracia Barbarian. Asiatic.

Propria, antiquaries usually adduce a passage in the Profore. (African.

Arundelian Marbles, relating that Phidon, a Prince of

the Argives, established a Mint in the Island of Egina, Sect. I.-GRECIAN Coins.

869 b. c.

The Coins struck by him bear the marks of Pate I.

high antiquity, and as they are found to this day in great Fig. 1. I. Grecian The Coins of the Greek Cities may be subdivided into numbers, must have circulated extensively. The date Civic Coins. those 1. of Græcia Propria, and the Islands; 2.of the Greek assigned for these Coins will be perceived to be quite at

Colonies; and 3. of the Greek Cities in Asia. The first variance with the generally received opinion that the
two divisions embrace Coins from the invention of the Lydian Coinage is the most ancient. To free ourselves
Art of striking them until the subjugation of the Country from this embarrassment we may observe, that a Prince,
by the Romans. The third division is of minor import- also bearing the name of Phidon, is reported to have
ance, comprehending the Coins of Cities founded by flourished nearly three centuries later than the former,
Alexander the Great while prosecuting his conquests in while the events recorded of their lives perfectly coincide;
the East. This class terminates with the Augustan a circumstance so improbable, that Sir Isaac Newton
Age, and includes many Cities of Asia Minor, Arabia, without hesitation rejects the first name as fictitious, and
Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia.

fixes the date of Phidon at 584 B. C. We heartily Era of No chronological arrangement of the early Coinage concur in the opinion entertained by this great PhilosoGrecian of the Grecian States can at present be effected, but we pher, and we conceive that we shall not greatly err, if Civic Coins.

are, nevertheless, induced to offer some hints for the con- we place the earliest Coins of Egina as struck about 600
sideration of the student on their probable era ; viewing B.C. This conclusion will guide us in ascertaining the
them in connection with the Coins of the ancient King- era of many Coins of the neighbouring Cities and Islands,
doms of Lydia and Persia. The subject has indeed as Thebes, Melos, &c.
seldom been more than imperfectly touched upon; and Coins of great antiquity are found of many Cities of Maced. --
we conceive much valuable information connected with Macedon and Thrace, bordering on the coast of the
the chronology of Ancient Greece, the progress of the Egean Sea. A knowledge of the circumstances which
Art of Sculpture, and comparative wealth of the several gave rise to a Coinage in this distant region, will acquaint
States, might be obtained, if this inquiry were more fully us also with the period of their fabrication. The founda-
pursued. We shall confine our remarks to a few Coins
on which there remain grounds for reasonable conjecture

• Herodotus, i. 94.
as to their era; such are those of Egina, of Mace-

† Newton, Chronology, Babylonians and Medles,


« ElőzőTovább »