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plane. (Art. 43, et seq.) Join V C. (Art. 31.) A parallel zy, to cy, which is also parallel to the picture. Prolong « y at its extremity No
will be fk.
tace of the water, is an angle from the spectator ; because the plane
The points thus found above p x will show the curve formed by the ated at A must be of the same number of degrees as the angle
graduated at B. In other words, the central distance C A must
equal the central distance C B. (Art. 24, 148.) So also of the place Note (B.)
x 10 c, reflected in the plane njoc, the vanishing line of the fornet
eressing at A must have a central distance AC equal to that of the The science of reflections has reference to three particulars. latter crussing at B on the opposite side of W X. 1. the reflecting surface. 2. The object to be reflected. 3. The Obs. 24. The next division of the problem refers to planes of Intereste reflected image of the object. · Respecting the first of these particu- which the intersection with the reflecting plane is perpendicular to panica. lars, we have only space for some observations concerning polished the picture. plane surfaces. Respecting the other two particulars we shall treat 2. Let e a be the common intersection, (Obs. 17,) which being of them as likewise forming portions of planes,
given perpendicular to the picture, must vanish at C. (Art. 73.) Obs. i6. The three planes thus distinguished will have a common Make at C, upon the reflecting surface, and with its vanishing line line of intersection, ea (plate x. fig. 5) or ba. (Plate xii. fig. 3.) W X, any given angle of incidence VCW. Next, on the other side 1. The reflecting plane, as e de. (Fig. 2.)
of W X, (beneath, as it were, or within the reflecting surfier,) 2. The plane that contains the object to be reflected, as a I Oby make the angle of reflection W CR=VCW, the angle of inci(fig. 3,) or abde. (Plate x. fig. 5.)
dence. V C, or V T, is the vanishing line of abde, the plane to be
the image or reflection.
, equal to a b. These will be the reflections
as db; find 7 the seat of b, (Prob. I. Def. 8,) and make 19 (Obs.
24) equal to lb. 9 will refleet to the furthest extremity of 6 d. la
the same manner, find h, the reflection of the nearest extremity.
Draw g h, for the reflection of b d required.
Obs. 20. Problem IV. Given a reflecting plane perpendicular corresponding base or parallel to eh and RH, on the plane vanish
. 82, 88.) Thus may the reflection of the hexagon be obtained
Sotes na other example is added of a plane inclined from the spectator which of intersection with the plane of measure. A straight line through Notes on
a 1 06.
with the reflecting plane an angle of 65° represented by Nb M,
graduated 16°, between which number and 25° (marked at M) ob, V.
Obs. 29. PROBLEM V. Given a reflecting plane inclined to the there must be that difference. (Art. 111.) To find the reflection.
and b p vanishing at the point marked 4° will be the reflection
and its reflection na; Pa and its reflection pa; they are drawn ersection 1. When the common intersection, as ab, (plate xii. fig 3,) is through H in the same manner as those in Obs. 33. Only observe lined to
inclined to the picture. Let H he its vanishing point; HM the that the vanishing line of N a (drawn likewise through H) must be e piane.
vanishing line of the reflecting plane cde; and MW the vanishing parallel to EC, (Obs. 35,) and consequently will not cross MW, the
points 0 KLN P to be points in a curve, would suffice for deli-
The perspecdirect distance at R, (Art. 130,) then draw an occasional base EC picture.
clined, as x c.
. fig. 3.) Since A (plate x. fig. 5)
Obs. 41. The reflection of yz may also be obtained as before,
centre of that vanishing line, towards B an equal number of degrees
No. 6) in v g hop, which forms the reflection of the pyramid u gho:
Other examples may be drawn also from plate x. (See fig. 1,
be reflected by its lower half with the corresponding apex b: spure Obs. 5). But variations in reflexes are caused not only by the one Painting posing the base of the upper half to vanish in PD for the vanishing local colour of the reflecting surface, but also of the body receiving posing
line of the reflecting plane. Again, let the dodecahedron (Art. 213) the reflex. These two local colours mingle and form a third. Thus No. 8 be similarly bisected; and let the plane of its bisection (viz. suppose the spherical interior BXR A be of a yellow colour, and the reflecting plane) vanish in P D. The representation of its the object Z V blue, and let X be the point where a reflex sent from lower half will, in like manner, represent the reflection of its upper Z V strikes upou B XRA, the point X in this case will become half.
Obs. 52. All reflected colours, and colours of reflexes, are less Note (C.)
vivid than coloured surfaces which receive light from self-luminous
bodies ; in the same degree as the force of reflected rays must be
Let L (plate vii. fig. 7) be the sun's light passing through an Obs. 54. Shadow produces similar appearances. A coloured rå
“ From the foundation of the Venetian school a mode of proceed. angles R Z V and R V 2. Consequently, the point R will receive more light than the point K: and the reflex at X with the angles hand, and a more chaste and lively colouring than is to be found in
a greater promptness of execution, a more commanding dexterity of at Z and V, equal to each other, will be most luminous. Also the
the artists of the Roman or Florentine schools, was also the means point R being nearer the enlightened body than K will be brighter.
of introducing a want of correctness, and a neglect of purity in their (Da Vinci, cap. 80.)
outline. Their method was to paint every thing without the prepa. Obs. 46. Reflexes when double are brighter than when single. Let L, for example, (fig. 6,) be a luminous body, LP and LU
ration of a drawing; whereas the Roman and Florentine Painters
never introduced a figure of which they had not studied and prepared direct reflexes ; P and U parts illumined by L:D and G parts of the same bodies illumined by the reflexes ; LPG a simple reflex; LPD painted immediately from Nature ; and possessed of a correct eye,
a model or cartoon. Following the system of his countrymen, Titian and LUD a double reflex ; the simple reflex G is formed by attuned to the harmony of effect, he acquired a style of colouring the enlightened body P T, and the double reflex D by the two enlightened bodies ST and T U. Hence additional brightness at Ditation, he was little sensible of the select beauty of form, or the
perfectly conformable to truth. Satisfied with this identity of imiscarcely visible; being found between the incident light
, and that adaptation of that characteristic expression, so essential to the higher
order of Historic Painting. In his works of that description, if we of the reflex PD, U D. Da Vinci, cap. 83. (The leller G, at the extremity of the parallel 10 A U through P, has been inadvertently
look for the fidelity of the Historian, he will be found, like other
artists of his Country, little scrupulous in point of accuracy. He omitted in the plate.) Obs. 47. of various reflexes the most powerful comes from the propriety of the costume, nor the accessories best suited to the sub
neither presents us with the precise locality of the scene, the striet least distance. (Cap. 78. 124.) Obs. 48. The darkness of the ground receiving a reflex (whether ject, attributes so estimable in the works of those Painters who con
sulted the best models of antiquity. that darkness be made by the local colour of the ground, or from
Raffaelle and Titian, says Sir Joshua Reynolds, (in his eleventh its being in shade) causes a sensible difference in the brightness of the reflex. If the reflex be cast ou a light or bright ground it will Discourse,) seem to have looked at Nature for different purposes; not appear to impart much light, but when cast on a dark and shady they both had the power of extending their view to the whole ; but ground, will be more distinctly visible in proportion to the depth of
one looked only for the general effect as produced by fore, the other shade receiving it. (Cap. 82. 86.)
as produced by colour. We cannot, he adds, entirely refuse to Titian Colour.-Obs. 49. When a reflex from a coloured surface falls
the merit of attending to the general form of his object as well as on another surface of the same colour, the latter becomes more vivid.
colour ; but his deficiency lay, a deficiency at least when he is com. Thus in the folds of drapery the local colour is deeper and more vivid pared with Raffaelle, in not possessing the power, like him, of corwhere light is reflected by one part of a fold upon any other part.
recting the form of his model by any general idea of beauty in his The reflexes, in like manner, of the human skin, are of a deeper and
own mind. In his colouring, he was large and general, as in his redder carnation, when in the vicinity of other carnations. (Cap. 81. design he was minute and partial : in the one he was a genius, in
the other not much above a copier. 125.) The same appearances are given by reflexes from one object
“As Titian," continues Mr. Northcote, "contented himself with a upon any other separate object of the same colour. Suppose L
faithful representation of Nature, his forms were fine when he found (plate vii . fig. 7) a light, Z V a body directly illuminated by it; X
them in his model. If, like Raffaelle, he had been inspin-d by a another body, out of the reach of L, and only receiving light from Z V, which is supposed of a red colour. In this case the light com
genuine love of the beautiful, it might have led him to have courted
it in selected Nature, or in her more attractive charms as found in municated from Z V, deriving its hue from the local colour of the body, will tinge with red the opposite body X: so that if X were of
the polished graces of the antique. The purity of his design thus a red colour before, its reduess will now be heightened and rendered
united to the enchanting magic of his colouring, would have stamped much brighter than the red of ZV; but supposing X to have been
him the most accomplished master the Art has produced." Northeute, yellow before, then a colour will result which partakes of both. (Cap. Life of Tiliun, vol. ii. p. 60. 117. 125.)
Note (E.) Obx. 56. Where different coloured reflexes having the same degree of light are cast upon any colourless surface, the latter will “In Titian's pictures the tones are so subtly melted, as to leave receive its deepest tinge from the nearest reflex, and will receive no intimation of the colours which were on his palette, and it is. likewise various additional tints from the others proportioned to perhaps in that respect that his system of colouring differs so essentheir nearness. The object, therefore, reflecting its colour with the tially from that of Rubens, who was accustomed to place his colours greatest vigour upon an opposite body is that which has no colour one near the other with a slight blending of the tints. He observed near it, but of its own kind; and on the contrary of all reflexes, that that in Nature every object offered a particular surface or character, produced by the greatest number of ubjects of different colours will transparent, opaque, rude, or polished; and that these objects differeu be the most dim and confused. (Cap. 86. 124.) This phenomenon in the strength of their tints and in the depth of their shadows la may be thus illustrated. Let P (plate vii. fig. 6) be a yellow this diversity he discovered the generality and perfection of his Art. colour reflected upon the point D of the spherical interior B G DA, In imitating Nature, he took, as Mengs observes, the principle for and let the blue colour U have its reflex upon the same point D. the whole. His fleshy tones, composed in Nature chiefly of dem By the mixture of these two colours in D the reflex will be converted tints, he represented totally by demitints, while he divested altogeiher into a green, if the ground be white. (Cap. 85.) For a white surface of demitints those parts in which few were discernible in Nature. is better disposed than any other for the reception of a coloured re- By these means he arrived at an indescribable perfection of colou flex. (Cap. 123.)
ing." ibid. p. 65.
Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꭱ Ꭺ Ꮮ Ꭰ Ꭱ Y.
Heraldry. HERALDRY, which, from its connection with Paint- incredible that, employed as they were in every variety History.
ING, may be introduced in this portion of our Work, of appropriation, they should have been absent from
may be defined “ The Art of blazoning and assign- the decorations of the Egyptian hero; while the early
derable perfection; to them, according to Herodotus,
the Art was derived from the Carians.t We use the HISTORY OF THE SYSTEM.
term Heraldry advisedly. The Art, it is true, had no I. Personal Heraldry.
connection with those public functionaries from whom
it afterwards received its name, and who were as well yptian We cannot with Gwillim extract from Diodorus known and as distinctly recognised in the Heroic times raldry. Siculus the arms of Osiris, Hercules, Macedo, and as in the days of Chivalry. It was not till the esta
Anubis; nevertheless, we think it highly probable that blishment of Colleges of Arms (institutions subsequent
described by those Poets, prove that, in their time at
* Numb. ch. ii. pass.
+ Clio, clxxi. + Display of Heraldry, ch. i.
Scutis, quibus ad Trojam pugnatum est, continebantur imagines. ilistory of Middle Ages, vol. i. p. 146.
Plin. lib. XXXY, c. 3. 559
Heraldry, shields, are much less inethodical and appropriate than would not anticipate a precarious victory. Indeed the History,
those which apply to the shields of the Antithebans ; a emblems of all his companions in arms had reference circumstance which may lead us to conjecture that the to future glories. But, in some instances, heroes more latter are the invention of the later Poets, who lived in prudently appealed to Memory rather than Hope, and an improved condition of the Art. The transition from where this was the practice, a maiden shield betokened these to the present refined theory of Heraldry is so an undistinguished warrior. Thus the youthful Heeasy, that it will not be impertinent to state them. lenor is designated by Virgil parmâ inglorius alba ;* According to Æschylus, Tydeus bore in his shield a and this sentiment is in strict accordance with the full moon, surrounded with stars ; Capaneus, a naked usages and opinions of Chivalry.f The plain shield of man holding a lighted torch, with the motto IIPHEN Camillaf was an emblem of purity; nor was this at all TOAIN; Eteocles, an armed man ascending a ladder at variance with the ideas received at a more advanced placed against a tower, with the motto OYA' AN APAE period of the Art. But the instance which, above all M'EKBAAOI IYPTOMATON; Hippomedon, Typhon, others, seems to approximate the characters of ancient vomiting smoke and fire, surrounded by serpents ; Par- and modern Heraldry is to be found in the devices thenopæus, a sphinx, holding a man; and Polynices, granted by Alexander to his followers, with an espeJustice leading an armed man, with this motto: cial provision that the same should not be borne by any ΚΑΤΑΞΩ Τ' ΑΝΔΡΑ ΤΟΝΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΝ
other person throughout his Empire. ΕΞΕΙ ΠΑΤΡΩΙΑΝ ΔΩΜΑΤΩΝ Τ' ΕΠΙΣΤΡΟΦΑΣ. .
Nor was the Crest unknown to antiquity, and it Ancient Euripides assigns somewhat different appointments to arose as naturally as the impress of the shield. A plain cits's. his heroes. According to his enumeration, Parthenopæus ridge of rough horsehair, which has been proved by exhibited his mother Atalanta chasing the Ætolian boar; experience an excellent defence against sabre cuts, was Hippomedon, the figure of Argus; Tydeus, the figure the first appendage to the helmet. This was afterwards of Prometheus, holding in his right hand a torch; doubled, tripled, and even quadrupled ;$ whence the Polyneices, the horses of Glaucus; Capaneus, a giant Tpupaleia, quasi tpepaleia, as Grammarians say, although bearing a city on his shoulders; and Adrastus, a hydra this etymology may be disputed. Something was neof 100 heads, carrying the Thebans off their walls. cessary to unite this covering to the surface of the helThe shield of Amphiaraus, according to both authors, met, and fancy and art soon contrived to make this had no device.*
Without urging the argument from supplement ornamental and emblematical. Gems and tradition, and supposing the Poets had no authority Statues furnish us abundantly with the forms of anifor their devices, beyond what fancy, aided by the cus- mals, &c. used in this manner. Turnus is described by toms of their own time, suggested, (a supposition cer- Virgil as bearing for his Crest a Chimæra ;|| and Corvitainly somewhat exceeding what might be fairly allowed) nus, in the Poem of Silius, exhibits on his helmet a we have here a proof of a very considerable advance in Crow. We may here observe more fully that the arHeraldry so early as 450 years before the Christian morial bearings of the Ancients were occasionally here- Bezediat Æra. A principal difference between this and the more ditary. This Crow was ostentans ales praaritæ insignia bearinga modern system appears to be, that, in the former, colour pugne; the Story of Io appeared on the shield of her is an unimportant circumstance, in the latter, essential. descendant Turnus ;** the Swan's plume on the helmet The devices on ancient shields were, indeed, most com
of Cupavo indicated his descent from Cycnus:ft and the monly, expressed in relief on the metal; although Hydra on the shield of Aventinus declared him the Virgilt mentions the picti scuta Labici, concerning progeny of Hercules.f1 The family device was frequently whom our want of information is to be much regretted, impressed on the hilt of the sword.$$ There is a much as the learned Poet most probably wrote from authentic litigated passage of Suetonius which seems to have tradition. Another material distinction is the absence been very properly adduced by those who support the in ancient Heraldry of everything like ordinaries, antiquity of Heraldry. Vetera familiarum insignia, which form so extensive a department of the new. But says the Historian, speaking of Caligula, nobilissimo with respect to the hereditary property of Arms, this cuique ademit; Torquato torquem ; Cincinnato crinem: has not always been observed even since the acknow- Cn. Pompeio, stirpis antiquæ, Magni cognomen.III Nisledged existence of Heraldry, as may be seen in the bet strangely explains away this direct and positive case of the last two Earls of Chester, the two Quincies, language. It imports no more," he observes, “than Earls of Winchester, and the two Lacies, Earls of Lin- that Caligula, being displeased with the grandeur of coln; no positively hereditary bearings have been found these families, commanded to take from their Images or in England before llenry III.'s time; while in some
Statues, as from that of Torquatus, the collar or chain instances, something like hereditary devices may be that he took from one of the Gauls
, and from that of found among the Ancients, as we shall presently ob- Cincinnatus the tuft of hair which that brave Roman serve. And the assumption of Arms for a peculiar
# Æn. ix. 548. object is not confined to ancient Heraldry, since Stephen, + " A young knight would not, during his first enterprises, assume King of England, changed the leopards into Sagittaries, his family Arms, but he wore plain armour, and a shield without ang on account of his landing when the Sun was in that Sign. device, till he bad won renown." -Mills, History of Chiralry, ch. ii. We have remarked here that the shield of Amphi
Puráque interrila parmd.-£n. si. 711. araus was blank.
αμφί δε καλή Æschylus and Euripides concur in
ΤΕΤΡΑΦΑΛΟΣ φοίνικι λόφω επιλέμτετο σεληξ. representing this as the effect of his modesty, which
Apoll. Rhodh ai. 321.
li Æn. vii. 785.
ŠŠ Ov. Met. vü. 422. Senec, Hippol. f En. vii. 796.
Mi Suet. Cal. xxxv.