Notes on


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plane. (Art. 43, et seq.) Join V C. (Art. 31.) A parallel zy, to cy, which is also parallel to the picture. Prolong « y at its extremity No
VC, or V W, (viz. to the vanishing line of a plane of rays contain c, (c being the seat of y,) till ef equals e y. cf will be the reflection
iny N -,) will be the direction (Obs. 6) of the shadow of Nz. of cy. In the same manner is to be found ok, the reflection of 5 2.
Another example is the line w v, vanishing on the line A B, some- Or, let it be required to find the reflection of yz, also a parallel
where between H and B. Join its vanishing point to V, (Art. 31,) to the picture, but having another direction. Find c, the seat
and draw v u, parallel to the vanishing line so found, of a plane of (Def. 8, Prob. I.) of y, and e, the seat of z. Find also the reflection
rays containing the given line vw. Lastly, v u, determined by the cf and ok of cy and oz. Then join s k. The reflection of y z
ray Vw, (Obs. 6,) will be the shadow of v w.

will be fk.
Fig. 5 further exemplifies Prob. Ill. by the representation of Obs. 21. Let it next be required to find the reflection of the line
the shadows thrown upon three successive planes from the divisions iu, (fig. 5,) perpendicular to the picture. Find the points j and t,
of a window frame. First, upon the ground plane; the shadows of by the method above stated, (Obs. 20,) and join jt, which will be
il, gh, &c. perpendicular to the picture vanish with the lines them- the reflection sought.
selves in the centre C of the picture, (Obs. 2,) and have their lengths Or, let the reflection be required of r с, inclined to the picture.
(Obs. 6) determined by rays Vi, VI, V g, Vh; while the parallels Draw C m, which obtains m for the seat of r. (Prob. 1. No. 2.) Make
to the picture in the direction i g, 1 h, &c. have their shadows vanish- mn equal to m x. Then join n c. The reflection of cr will be en
ing in L. (Obs. 14.) Secondly, on the plane that vanishes in AB In like manner, oj reflects o i, o 1 reflects ou, &c.
the shadows of parallels to il, and g h, vanish at the point where Obs. 22. The angle of inclination here made by a plane with the
VW, the vanishing line of their plane of rays, (Def. 1,) cuts A B, the reflecting surface may be made either from or towards the spectator.
vanishing line of the plane receiving their shadow. (Obs. 14.) It is from the spectator when it lies beyond a plane passing through
Thirdly, on the plane in the distance, parallel to the picture, the the line of intersection, and perpendicular to the reflecting surface.
shadow of the line lh at 0, will be parallel to the line itself. (Obs. 2 Thus the angle w o C (fig. 5) made by the plane c u with the sus.
and 14.)

tace of the water, is an angle from the spectator ; because the plane
Other examples are given in the foreground of fig. 5 which seem cu is beyond the plane cyzo, perpendicular to the water.
to require no further observation here, and which the student, after On the other hand, the angle of inclination made with the re-
the rules above given, may work out for himself, with the exception, Alecting surface is towards the spectator when made on this side of
perhaps, of the following. The shaduw of a plumb line is cast the perpendicular plane. Thus the angle x cm, made by the plane
upon a cylinder. Find p, the seat of any point in the plumb line * o with the reflecting plane, is towards the spectator ; to being on
on the ground plane. (Prob. 1.) Draw p L and x j for the shadows this side of cy z o.
of the plumb line on the ground plane and on a plane vanishing in Observe a separate example (on the intersection p9) of a reflection
A B. (Obs. 14.) Construct a circular section of the cylinder per with the angle towards the spectator; and another on the intersee
pendicular to the ground plane. Divide the section by a diameter tion r s) with the angle from the spectator.
representing a parallel to the ground plane, and also by perpendi- Obs. 23. The vanishing line of the plane to be reflected, and that
culars crossing it between q and s. Draw q H, s H, and between of the plane containing the reflection, will lie on different sides of
them draw the representations of any number of parallels crossing W X, the vanishing line of the reflecting surface. If the vanishing
p. x. At the points where they cross p r raise perpendiculars ; as line, for example, of cou (the plane to be reflected) crosses B A at
also betweeti 7 and son qs. Let these perpendiculars meet a like B; the other vanishing line of the plane cot containing the
number of parallels to s H on the upper surface of the cylinder. reflection) will cross B A at A. Remark also that the angle grado

The points thus found above p x will show the curve formed by the ated at A must be of the same number of degrees as the angle
shadow of the plumb line.

graduated at B. In other words, the central distance C A must

equal the central distance C B. (Art. 24, 148.) So also of the place Note (B.)

x 10 c, reflected in the plane njoc, the vanishing line of the fornet

eressing at A must have a central distance AC equal to that of the The science of reflections has reference to three particulars. latter crussing at B on the opposite side of W X. 1. the reflecting surface. 2. The object to be reflected. 3. The Obs. 24. The next division of the problem refers to planes of Intereste reflected image of the object. · Respecting the first of these particu- which the intersection with the reflecting plane is perpendicular to panica. lars, we have only space for some observations concerning polished the picture. plane surfaces. Respecting the other two particulars we shall treat 2. Let e a be the common intersection, (Obs. 17,) which being of them as likewise forming portions of planes,

given perpendicular to the picture, must vanish at C. (Art. 73.) Obs. i6. The three planes thus distinguished will have a common Make at C, upon the reflecting surface, and with its vanishing line line of intersection, ea (plate x. fig. 5) or ba. (Plate xii. fig. 3.) W X, any given angle of incidence VCW. Next, on the other side 1. The reflecting plane, as e de. (Fig. 2.)

of W X, (beneath, as it were, or within the reflecting surfier,) 2. The plane that contains the object to be reflected, as a I Oby make the angle of reflection W CR=VCW, the angle of inci(fig. 3,) or abde. (Plate x. fig. 5.)

dence. V C, or V T, is the vanishing line of abde, the plane to be
3. The plane that contains the reflected image of the object, as reflected, and R H the vanishing line of ga eh, the plane containing
a y he, (fig. 5,) or ai o b. (Plate xii. fig. 3.)

the image or reflection.
Obs. 17. Their common line of intersection, when parallel to the Obs. 25. The reflection here of lines parallel to the picture must
picture, as co, pq, or r s, (plate x. fig. 5,) will be parallel to W X, be drawn parallel to the vanishing line of the plane containing the
the vanishing line of their reflecting plane. (Art. 143.) But when image. Thus, as e d is parallel to V T, so eh, the reflection of
not parallel to the picture, their intersection will vanish where the must be parallel also to the vanishing line of its plane, namely,
three vanishing lines, or any two of them, cross each other. (Art. parallel to RH. Likewise, ag must be parallel to RH, just as a b,
145.) Thus the common intersection e a, (fig. 5,) vanishes at C its prototype, is parallel to VT. Prolong, therefore, any portion of
where the vanishing lines w CX, (of the reflecting plane,) VCT, de, or of b a, till they touch the reflecting surface, and through the
(of the plane that contains the object to be reflecteil,) and HCR point of contact e, or a, draw e h parallel to R H, and equal to ed;
(of the plane for constructing the reflection) cross each other. and ag, another parallel

, equal to a b. These will be the reflections
Obs. 18. Upon the position of this line of intersection with respect respectively of ed and ab.
to the spectator, and also upon the position of the reflecting plane Obs. 26. For the reflection of lines perpendicular to the picture,
depends chiefly the correct delineation of reflections. For

as db; find 7 the seat of b, (Prob. I. Def. 8,) and make 19 (Obs.
This line of intersection, 7 parallel, (Obs. 20.) or
as also the reflecting perpendicular, (Obs. 24,) or

24) equal to lb. 9 will refleet to the furthest extremity of 6 d. la
to the pic-

the same manner, find h, the reflection of the nearest extremity.

plane may be either inclined, (Obs. 28,)

Draw g h, for the reflection of b d required.
Obs. 19. If the reflecting plane be parallel to the picture, the Obs: 27. For the reflection of any other lines in the plane baed,
images reflected will be merely a perspective representation of draw an occasional base or parallel ta e d and V T through the given
that side of the objects to be reflected which is unseen by, or lines, and let their vanishing points, be noted on V T, the vanishing
behind the spectator. We shall therefore in the two following line of their plane. Next, find their dividing points, and bring each
problems confine our attention to the other two positions of the line to its proper full length on the base. Prolong the base to meet
refleeting plane; as perpendicular to, anel as inclined to the picture. the line e a of intersection, and draw through the point of contact a

Obs. 20. Problem IV. Given a reflecting plane perpendicular corresponding base or parallel to eh and RH, on the plane vanish
to the picture, (as, for example, the surface of smooth water.) to find ing in R H. For example, make C H 30° equal to CV 30°.
the reflection of any given hine.


. 82, 88.) Thus may the reflection of the hexagon be obtained
!. Let the intersection of the reflecting plane and of the plane con- or of any other diagram.
taining the object to be reflected be parallei, (Obs. 18,) as co, (plate Observe here, that the angle bal made by the plane ab de with
x. fig. 5,) to the picture, and let the reflection be required of a line the reflecting plane is madle towards the spectator. (Obs. 22.) Aa


Prob. IV.

latersection paralle!

tersection clined

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Sotes na other example is added of a plane inclined from the spectator which of intersection with the plane of measure. A straight line through Notes on
Yarating contains another diagram. For constructing the diagram consult H and D, for example, will be the vanishing line of the rectangle Painting
Art. 93, and the Ist Book of Euclid, Prop. 47.

a 1 06.
Obs. 28. The concluding (livision of this problem refers to plunes Obs. 35. For the reflection of the remaining planes N a and
of which the intersection with the reflecting plane is inclined to the Pa inclined from the spectator. (Obs. 22.) Let the plane N a make

with the reflecting plane an angle of 65° represented by Nb M,
3. Let ur (plate ii. fig. 3) vanishing at P, and, consequently, in Here it is evident that N 6 must coincide with E C. The 25°
clined to the picture, be the common intersection, and let PC be marked at M being added to 65° will complete the right angle.
the vanishing line of the reflecting plane. Let here a similar pro. (25 + 65 = 90.) To find the reflexion of N b; note the difference
cess be pursued as with the intersection perpendicular to the picture, between 25 and 65, or the point marked 40° on the other side of
(Obs. 24,) only let the given angle of ineidence, and, consequently, R. This point is the vanishing point of b n, the reflection of
of reflection, be made at P. It will be found that the plane gr 6 N.
contains any reflected image of the plave br; hr of ar; and ŷ'r Again, let the plane P a be reflected, making an angle of 21
of dr: The plane ir eu is a portion of the reflecting surface per degrees with the reflecting plane; namely, vanishing at a point
pendicular to the picture.

graduated 16°, between which number and 25° (marked at M) ob, V.

Obs. 29. PROBLEM V. Given a reflecting plane inclined to the there must be that difference. (Art. 111.) To find the reflection.
picture, (as, for example, a plane mirror or other polished plane Deduct, on the opposite side of M, 21 degrees, (25 – 21 = 4,)
surface,) to find the reflection of any gwen line.

and b p vanishing at the point marked 4° will be the reflection
It will be necessary to consider this problem also in its reference representing, by M b p, an angle equal to the angle of incidence,
to the different positions of the common intersection. (Obs. 18.) or 21 degrees.
1. When the latter is inclined ; 2. when it is parallel to the picture. Obs. 36. The lengths of the reflections b n and b p are deter.
The third case of a perpendicular intersection belongs exclusively mined as in Obs. 33, by representations of perpendiculars drawn to
to the preceding problem, since all vanishing lines that pass through W through N and P.
the centre of the picture must belong to planes perpendicular to the Obs. 37. Respecting the vanishing lines of the four planes Na
picture. (Art. 65. Also see below, Obs. 32 and 3-1.)

and its reflection na; Pa and its reflection pa; they are drawn ersection 1. When the common intersection, as ab, (plate xii. fig 3,) is through H in the same manner as those in Obs. 33. Only observe lined to

inclined to the picture. Let H he its vanishing point; HM the that the vanishing line of N a (drawn likewise through H) must be e piane.

vanishing line of the reflecting plane cde; and MW the vanishing parallel to EC, (Obs. 35,) and consequently will not cross MW, the
line of the plane of measure. (Art. 146, 182.) It is required to find vanishing line of measure. The plane Na is, in fact, perpendicu-
the reflections (represented on the plane cd e) of the line L 6, and lar to any plane vanishing in H R. (Art. 153.)
its plane La; of ob and its plane Oa; of Kb and its plane Ka; Olss. 38. Corollary. The above construction, supposing the
of N band its plane N a; and of Pb and its plane Pa.

points 0 KLN P to be points in a curve, would suffice for deli-
Obs. 30. To begin with the reflections of the plane L a perpen. neating the reflection of the curve by a line through the correspond-
dicular to the reflecting plane. Let Lb be produced to its vanishing ing points oklnp. The reflection, for example, of any arch of a
point W, the vanishing point of all perpendiculars to any plane bridge, might be obtained by adapting to Prob. I. an operation
vanishing in H M. (Art. 196.) The angle Lb S or M6 W re. similar to ihat just stated, and by making the reflecting plane or
presents the angle made by the plane L a with the reflecting plane, ode, represent a sinooth surface of water perpendicular to the picture,
viz, an angle of 90° as measured on the vanishing line of the plane and with H R for its vanishing line.
of measure, viz. 25° on one side of R, and 65° on the other side, Obs. 39. The other remaining division of this problem regards Intersection
25 + 65 = 90. For determining the length of b / raise first the the position of the common intersection as parallel (Obs. 29) to the parallel to

The perspecdirect distance at R, (Art. 130,) then draw an occasional base EC picture.

tive plane.
(through b parallel to M W) of the plane of measure. On this 2. Let co(plate x. fig. 5) be the common intersection ; (Obs. 17 ;)
base mark off by means of the dividing point (Art. 85, 98) of A the centre of the picture ; and W X the vanishing line of a
7W (to be found between W and M) a portion, as N b, equal to reflecting plane which is inclined to the picture. It is required to
the original of L b, as seen at the distance of b. From 6C take find the reflection (as in Prob. IV. Obs. 20 and 21) of a line (as cy)
off a portion equal to 6 N. A line from the same dividing point perpendicular to the reflecting plane; or parallel, as yz; or in-
will cut b Win l; and b / will be the reflection of b L.

clined, as x c.
Obs. 31. In the vanishing line of the plane Lla, observe that Obs. 40. The reflection of cy is obtained in the same manner as
two points are found : H, the vanishing point of the common in- that of b L. (Obs. 30. plate xii

. fig. 3.) Since A (plate x. fig. 5)
tersection with the reflecting plane; and W, the vanishing point is given as the centre of the picture, the line c y will vanish in the
of intersection with the plane of measure. Join HW. It will be vanishing point of all perpendiculars to the plane that vanishes in
the vanishing line of the plane Lla, (Art. 31,) which contains. WX; and its reflection of (as a continuation of cy) will vanish in
on one side of a b the objects to be reflected, and on the other their the same point wiih

reflected images.

Obs. 41. The reflection of yz may also be obtained as before,
Obs 32. For the reflexes of the planes 0 a and K a inclined (Obs. 20,) by first ascertaining the reflections of cy and 07, (Obs.
towards the spectator, (Obs. 22,) let the plane 0 a make an angle 39,) and then joining by a line, as f k, the reflections f and k, of its
represented by Sb Oor M6 D of 47° (viz. 25 + 22 = 47) with extremities y and z.
the reflecting plane. It is required to find the reflexion of O b. Obs. 42. The reflection x c (Obs. 39) inclined to the picture and
For this purpose count the same number, 47, of degrees along the to the reflecting plane may also be obtained as before, (Obs. 21,) by
vanishing line of measure on the side of M opposite to M D. Add prolonging it to its vanishing point A; and ascertaining its angle
47° to 25°, the number marked at M. (Art. 111.) The result will as graduated on B A, the vanishing line of the plane of measure.
be the vanishing point marked 72 (or 47 + 25 = 72) of the line (Art. 82, 148.) Then on the other side of W X reckon from C, the
of reflexion bo.

centre of that vanishing line, towards B an equal number of degrees
Again, let the plane Ka make with the reflecting plane an angle, to those marked between A and C. If B be the point so found, join
represented by Kb S, of 69 degrees, namely 25 + 44 = 69, 'To Bc, which produced to n will give c n for the reflection of cr.
25 degrees marked at M add 41° marked at the vanishing point Obs. 43. From want of space we here use a diagram from plate
of Kl. For the vanishing point of the reflection let 69 be added x. fig. 5, in illustration of these remarks, (Obs. 39,) instead of one
to 25. 69 + 25 = 94. Out of this number, ninety are disposed more geometrically correct. It must be plain to the geometrical
of in the parallel CE. The remaining four degrees must there- reader that y f, vanishing at some point in B A produced, cannot be
fore be reckoned along M W on the same side of R with the parallel to B. A. Our student, however, will not find it difficult,
vanishing point of Kó. Subtract 4o borrowed from that side. nor we trust unprofitable, to reconstruct the diagram for him-
Consequently 90 – 4, or 86°, will be the number graduated on self.
RW produced for the vanishing point of b k, the reflection of Obs. 44. An example for Prob. V. will be found (plate x. fig. 1,
6 K.

No. 6) in v g hop, which forms the reflection of the pyramid u gho:
Obs. 33. The lengths of the reflections 6 o and b k may be de- (Art. 213.:) provided that the base y gh of the pyramid coincides
termined by drawing lines 0 W and K W, representing perpendi. with the reflecting plane which vanishes in a line drawn through U
culars to the reflecting plane. (Obs. 30.) O W will cut bo in o, parallel to gh.
and K W will cut bk in k, and thus determine the lengths.

Other examples may be drawn also from plate x. (See fig. 1,
Obs. 34. Respecting the vanishing lines of the four planes 0 a Nos. 5, 7, and 8). If dabc (No. 5) be supposed the base of a
and its reflection o a; K a and its reflection k a: observe that they four-sidled pyramid placed on a polished surface that vanishes in
pass through the two vanishing points analogous to those men- HL, this will be an example for Prob. IV. and a eb will be the
tioned in Obs. 31, namely, through H, the vanishing point of com- reflection of the pyramid. Also if a similar division be made of the
inon intersection, and through the other vanishing point in MW) dodecahedron No. 7, (Art. 213,) its upper half with the apex a will

Notes on

be reflected by its lower half with the corresponding apex b: spure Obs. 5). But variations in reflexes are caused not only by the one Painting posing the base of the upper half to vanish in PD for the vanishing local colour of the reflecting surface, but also of the body receiving posing

line of the reflecting plane. Again, let the dodecahedron (Art. 213) the reflex. These two local colours mingle and form a third. Thus No. 8 be similarly bisected; and let the plane of its bisection (viz. suppose the spherical interior BXR A be of a yellow colour, and the reflecting plane) vanish in P D. The representation of its the object Z V blue, and let X be the point where a reflex sent from lower half will, in like manner, represent the reflection of its upper Z V strikes upou B XRA, the point X in this case will become half.


Obs. 52. All reflected colours, and colours of reflexes, are less Note (C.)

vivid than coloured surfaces which receive light from self-luminous

bodies ; in the same degree as the force of reflected rays must be
Ligh! and Shade.—Obs. 45. If from any point of a reflex two weaker than of original or primitive rays. (Cap. 87.)
straight lines be drawn to the boundary of the enlightened surface Obs. 53. A reflex from a dimn or obscure body upon another of a
causing that reflex, and if a third line be drawn as a base to complete colourless obscure is scarcely perceptible ; while on the contrary, a
the triangle, the degree of light at the reflex will be greater in pro. reflex from the latter upon the former communicates very sensibly
portion as the angles at the base approach nearer to an equality. both light and colour. (Ibid.)

Let L (plate vii. fig. 7) be the sun's light passing through an Obs. 54. Shadow produces similar appearances. A coloured rå
opening in the dome AKRXB: let Z V be a line drawn ou an fex upon a shadowed surface is brighter and more distinguishable
enlightened surface : and suppose the light on K to be transmitted in proportion to the depth of shadow. (ibid.)
between equal angles, or angles nearly equal. In this situation it
is evident (on account of the two triangles on the same base ZV)

Note (D.)
that the reflex K will have a greater inequality between its angles
K Z V and K V Z at the base, than the reflex R has between its ing was adopted, which, though well calculated to give the Painter

“ From the foundation of the Venetian school a mode of proceed. angles R Z V and R V 2. Consequently, the point R will receive more light than the point K: and the reflex at X with the angles hand, and a more chaste and lively colouring than is to be found in

a greater promptness of execution, a more commanding dexterity of at Z and V, equal to each other, will be most luminous. Also the

the artists of the Roman or Florentine schools, was also the means point R being nearer the enlightened body than K will be brighter.

of introducing a want of correctness, and a neglect of purity in their (Da Vinci, cap. 80.)

outline. Their method was to paint every thing without the prepa. Obs. 46. Reflexes when double are brighter than when single. Let L, for example, (fig. 6,) be a luminous body, LP and LU

ration of a drawing; whereas the Roman and Florentine Painters

never introduced a figure of which they had not studied and prepared direct reflexes ; P and U parts illumined by L:D and G parts of the same bodies illumined by the reflexes ; LPG a simple reflex; LPD painted immediately from Nature ; and possessed of a correct eye,

a model or cartoon. Following the system of his countrymen, Titian and LUD a double reflex ; the simple reflex G is formed by attuned to the harmony of effect, he acquired a style of colouring the enlightened body P T, and the double reflex D by the two enlightened bodies ST and T U. Hence additional brightness at Ditation, he was little sensible of the select beauty of form, or the

perfectly conformable to truth. Satisfied with this identity of imiscarcely visible; being found between the incident light

, and that adaptation of that characteristic expression, so essential to the higher

order of Historic Painting. In his works of that description, if we of the reflex PD, U D. Da Vinci, cap. 83. (The leller G, at the extremity of the parallel 10 A U through P, has been inadvertently

look for the fidelity of the Historian, he will be found, like other

artists of his Country, little scrupulous in point of accuracy. He omitted in the plate.) Obs. 47. of various reflexes the most powerful comes from the propriety of the costume, nor the accessories best suited to the sub

neither presents us with the precise locality of the scene, the striet least distance. (Cap. 78. 124.) Obs. 48. The darkness of the ground receiving a reflex (whether ject, attributes so estimable in the works of those Painters who con

sulted the best models of antiquity. that darkness be made by the local colour of the ground, or from

Raffaelle and Titian, says Sir Joshua Reynolds, (in his eleventh its being in shade) causes a sensible difference in the brightness of the reflex. If the reflex be cast ou a light or bright ground it will Discourse,) seem to have looked at Nature for different purposes; not appear to impart much light, but when cast on a dark and shady they both had the power of extending their view to the whole ; but ground, will be more distinctly visible in proportion to the depth of

one looked only for the general effect as produced by fore, the other shade receiving it. (Cap. 82. 86.)

as produced by colour. We cannot, he adds, entirely refuse to Titian Colour.-Obs. 49. When a reflex from a coloured surface falls

the merit of attending to the general form of his object as well as on another surface of the same colour, the latter becomes more vivid.

colour ; but his deficiency lay, a deficiency at least when he is com. Thus in the folds of drapery the local colour is deeper and more vivid pared with Raffaelle, in not possessing the power, like him, of corwhere light is reflected by one part of a fold upon any other part.

recting the form of his model by any general idea of beauty in his The reflexes, in like manner, of the human skin, are of a deeper and

own mind. In his colouring, he was large and general, as in his redder carnation, when in the vicinity of other carnations. (Cap. 81. design he was minute and partial : in the one he was a genius, in

the other not much above a copier. 125.) The same appearances are given by reflexes from one object

“As Titian," continues Mr. Northcote, "contented himself with a upon any other separate object of the same colour. Suppose L

faithful representation of Nature, his forms were fine when he found (plate vii . fig. 7) a light, Z V a body directly illuminated by it; X

them in his model. If, like Raffaelle, he had been inspin-d by a another body, out of the reach of L, and only receiving light from Z V, which is supposed of a red colour. In this case the light com

genuine love of the beautiful, it might have led him to have courted

it in selected Nature, or in her more attractive charms as found in municated from Z V, deriving its hue from the local colour of the body, will tinge with red the opposite body X: so that if X were of

the polished graces of the antique. The purity of his design thus a red colour before, its reduess will now be heightened and rendered

united to the enchanting magic of his colouring, would have stamped much brighter than the red of ZV; but supposing X to have been

him the most accomplished master the Art has produced." Northeute, yellow before, then a colour will result which partakes of both. (Cap. Life of Tiliun, vol. ii. p. 60. 117. 125.)

Note (E.) Obx. 56. Where different coloured reflexes having the same degree of light are cast upon any colourless surface, the latter will “In Titian's pictures the tones are so subtly melted, as to leave receive its deepest tinge from the nearest reflex, and will receive no intimation of the colours which were on his palette, and it is. likewise various additional tints from the others proportioned to perhaps in that respect that his system of colouring differs so essentheir nearness. The object, therefore, reflecting its colour with the tially from that of Rubens, who was accustomed to place his colours greatest vigour upon an opposite body is that which has no colour one near the other with a slight blending of the tints. He observed near it, but of its own kind; and on the contrary of all reflexes, that that in Nature every object offered a particular surface or character, produced by the greatest number of ubjects of different colours will transparent, opaque, rude, or polished; and that these objects differeu be the most dim and confused. (Cap. 86. 124.) This phenomenon in the strength of their tints and in the depth of their shadows la may be thus illustrated. Let P (plate vii. fig. 6) be a yellow this diversity he discovered the generality and perfection of his Art. colour reflected upon the point D of the spherical interior B G DA, In imitating Nature, he took, as Mengs observes, the principle for and let the blue colour U have its reflex upon the same point D. the whole. His fleshy tones, composed in Nature chiefly of dem By the mixture of these two colours in D the reflex will be converted tints, he represented totally by demitints, while he divested altogeiher into a green, if the ground be white. (Cap. 85.) For a white surface of demitints those parts in which few were discernible in Nature. is better disposed than any other for the reception of a coloured re- By these means he arrived at an indescribable perfection of colou flex. (Cap. 123.)

ing." ibid. p. 65.


Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꭱ Ꭺ Ꮮ Ꭰ Ꭱ Y.

Heraldry. HERALDRY, which, from its connection with Paint- incredible that, employed as they were in every variety History.

ING, may be introduced in this portion of our Work, of appropriation, they should have been absent from

may be defined “ The Art of blazoning and assign- the decorations of the Egyptian hero; while the early
ing Coat Armour;" or, more diffusely, “The theory civilization of Egypt will lead us to expect a propor-
of classifying, adapting, and explaining certain con- tional superiority in the ornamental Arts.
ventional distinctions impressed on shields and mili- Among the earliest opinions respecting Heraldry, Jewish
tary accoutrements.” The definition of this artificial we may here notice the celebrated tradition of the Heraldry.
Science is not a little important in the investigation of Rabbins, respecting the Standards of the Hebrew Tribes.
its History. Inaccuracy in this respect has led to the That the Tribes of Judah, Ephraim, Dan, and Reuben,
inost discordant opinions regarding its origin. Not were distinguished by peculiar ensigns is positively as-
to mention the famous Book of St. Albans, which serted in the Pentateuch." The Rabbinical writers
gravely informs us that the Angels are “in cote armoris inform us that these were banners respectively charged
of knowledge," and the Pedigree of the Saxon Kings with the figures of a lion, an ox, an eagle grasping a
in the College of Arms, London, which exemplifies the serpent, and a man. But this opinion has been re-
bearings of Noah and Japhet,* the enthusiastic but jected for the soundest reasons. There are no traces
authoritative Gwillim removes the origin of his favour- of any such distinctions either in the Bible or in any
ite Art only one generation lower, making it proceed authoritative History. The tendency of the Jews to
from “Osyris, surnamed Jupiter the Just, son to Cham, idolatry, and their late converse with animal objects of
the cursed son of Noah, called of the Gentiles Janus ;"+ adoration in Egypt, render it extremely improbable
whilst Mr. Hallam, following many respectable autho- that any thing of the kind should have been permitted.
rities, places the invention of armorial blazonry in the The whole policy of the Jewish Law is so strongly op-
XIIth century. I Scarcely any two professed writers on posed to the very principles of Heraldic decoration,
the subject are agreed on the precise point whence to that the History of that People is certainly the very
date their Histories. But this variation is not in reality last wherein we might hope to collect materials for the
any argument of obscurity in the matter. Each author illustration of the present subject. We think that there
has assumed an epoch in the History of Heraldry as is much probability in the conjecture of many commen-
its original; but, with the exception of those epochs, tators, that the Standards of those Tribes bore simply
the progress of the Art has been an imperceptible their several names ; especially as the Maccabees are
transition from the simplest principles to its present supposed to have borne in their banner the letters from
intricate and scientific construction. We shall not, which they derived their name, ' 3 3 , the initials of
therefore, attempt to assign any exact period to its in- ,719 Sabxa yra yp, “Who among the gods is like
vention, but prefer tracing the Science of Arms from the unto thee, O Lord ?”
first rude emblems of warlike adventurers and inde- Among the Greeks, however, with whom no similar Greek
pendent settlements to the knightly cognizances of the obstacles subsisted, Heraldry had early attained a consi- Heraldry.
Court and the Tourney.

derable perfection; to them, according to Herodotus,

the Art was derived from the Carians.t We use the HISTORY OF THE SYSTEM.

term Heraldry advisedly. The Art, it is true, had no I. Personal Heraldry.

connection with those public functionaries from whom

it afterwards received its name, and who were as well yptian We cannot with Gwillim extract from Diodorus known and as distinctly recognised in the Heroic times raldry. Siculus the arms of Osiris, Hercules, Macedo, and as in the days of Chivalry. It was not till the esta

Anubis; nevertheless, we think it highly probable that blishment of Colleges of Arms (institutions subsequent
significant devices on shields and military implements to the latest periods assigned for the origin of Heraldry)
were in early use among the Egyptians. The practice that such a connection entirely subsisted. But the Art
of adorning the shield with some expressive device of adorning military habiliments with expressive de-
must be almost as ancient as the weapon itself; this vices was in high advancement among the Greeks. If
the nature of Man warrants us to conclude; but there the bearings of the Seven Chiefs who besieged Thebes,
are some circumstances which might give the Egyp- so gorgeously blazoned by Æschylus and Euripides, be
tians an inclination to extend and improve a practice traditional, the enthusiastic Heralds of the XVIIth
founded in human propensity. The recent discoveries and earlier centuries would scarcely exaggerate the an-
in Hieroglyphics, while they have proved the existence of tiquity of their Art. But, without settling the question
a Hieroglyphical alphabet, have also, in part, confirmed of the existence of a Trojan war, which our sceptical
the popular opinion, and shown that many of the Age has mooted, we can scarcely deny to the Poems of
Egyptian characters were truly symbolical. The high Homer and Hesiod a very considerable antiquity; and
antiquity of those symbols is admitted ; and it is quite the shields of Achilles and Hercules, so elaborately

described by those Poets, prove that, in their time at
* That of Noah is azure, a rainbow proper ; of Japhet, azure, an
ark proper. But there seems to have been some disagreement least, the Art had made important progress

. The
among these primitive Heralds, for the Book of St. Albans gravely principles of ornament, however, adopted in these
informs us, that “ Jafet made first target, and therein he made a
ball, in token of all the worlde."

* Numb. ch. ii. pass.

+ Clio, clxxi. + Display of Heraldry, ch. i.

Scutis, quibus ad Trojam pugnatum est, continebantur imagines. ilistory of Middle Ages, vol. i. p. 146.

Plin. lib. XXXY, c. 3. 559


4 G

Heraldry, shields, are much less inethodical and appropriate than would not anticipate a precarious victory. Indeed the History,

those which apply to the shields of the Antithebans ; a emblems of all his companions in arms had reference circumstance which may lead us to conjecture that the to future glories. But, in some instances, heroes more latter are the invention of the later Poets, who lived in prudently appealed to Memory rather than Hope, and an improved condition of the Art. The transition from where this was the practice, a maiden shield betokened these to the present refined theory of Heraldry is so an undistinguished warrior. Thus the youthful Heeasy, that it will not be impertinent to state them. lenor is designated by Virgil parmâ inglorius alba ;* According to Æschylus, Tydeus bore in his shield a and this sentiment is in strict accordance with the full moon, surrounded with stars ; Capaneus, a naked usages and opinions of Chivalry.f The plain shield of man holding a lighted torch, with the motto IIPHEN Camillaf was an emblem of purity; nor was this at all TOAIN; Eteocles, an armed man ascending a ladder at variance with the ideas received at a more advanced placed against a tower, with the motto OYA' AN APAE period of the Art. But the instance which, above all M'EKBAAOI IYPTOMATON; Hippomedon, Typhon, others, seems to approximate the characters of ancient vomiting smoke and fire, surrounded by serpents ; Par- and modern Heraldry is to be found in the devices thenopæus, a sphinx, holding a man; and Polynices, granted by Alexander to his followers, with an espeJustice leading an armed man, with this motto: cial provision that the same should not be borne by any ΚΑΤΑΞΩ Τ' ΑΝΔΡΑ ΤΟΝΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΝ

other person throughout his Empire. ΕΞΕΙ ΠΑΤΡΩΙΑΝ ΔΩΜΑΤΩΝ Τ' ΕΠΙΣΤΡΟΦΑΣ. .

Nor was the Crest unknown to antiquity, and it Ancient Euripides assigns somewhat different appointments to arose as naturally as the impress of the shield. A plain cits's. his heroes. According to his enumeration, Parthenopæus ridge of rough horsehair, which has been proved by exhibited his mother Atalanta chasing the Ætolian boar; experience an excellent defence against sabre cuts, was Hippomedon, the figure of Argus; Tydeus, the figure the first appendage to the helmet. This was afterwards of Prometheus, holding in his right hand a torch; doubled, tripled, and even quadrupled ;$ whence the Polyneices, the horses of Glaucus; Capaneus, a giant Tpupaleia, quasi tpepaleia, as Grammarians say, although bearing a city on his shoulders; and Adrastus, a hydra this etymology may be disputed. Something was neof 100 heads, carrying the Thebans off their walls. cessary to unite this covering to the surface of the helThe shield of Amphiaraus, according to both authors, met, and fancy and art soon contrived to make this had no device.*

Without urging the argument from supplement ornamental and emblematical. Gems and tradition, and supposing the Poets had no authority Statues furnish us abundantly with the forms of anifor their devices, beyond what fancy, aided by the cus- mals, &c. used in this manner. Turnus is described by toms of their own time, suggested, (a supposition cer- Virgil as bearing for his Crest a Chimæra ;|| and Corvitainly somewhat exceeding what might be fairly allowed) nus, in the Poem of Silius, exhibits on his helmet a we have here a proof of a very considerable advance in Crow. We may here observe more fully that the arHeraldry so early as 450 years before the Christian morial bearings of the Ancients were occasionally here- Bezediat Æra. A principal difference between this and the more ditary. This Crow was ostentans ales praaritæ insignia bearinga modern system appears to be, that, in the former, colour pugne; the Story of Io appeared on the shield of her is an unimportant circumstance, in the latter, essential. descendant Turnus ;** the Swan's plume on the helmet The devices on ancient shields were, indeed, most com

of Cupavo indicated his descent from Cycnus:ft and the monly, expressed in relief on the metal; although Hydra on the shield of Aventinus declared him the Virgilt mentions the picti scuta Labici, concerning progeny of Hercules.f1 The family device was frequently whom our want of information is to be much regretted, impressed on the hilt of the sword.$$ There is a much as the learned Poet most probably wrote from authentic litigated passage of Suetonius which seems to have tradition. Another material distinction is the absence been very properly adduced by those who support the in ancient Heraldry of everything like ordinaries, antiquity of Heraldry. Vetera familiarum insignia, which form so extensive a department of the new. But says the Historian, speaking of Caligula, nobilissimo with respect to the hereditary property of Arms, this cuique ademit; Torquato torquem ; Cincinnato crinem: has not always been observed even since the acknow- Cn. Pompeio, stirpis antiquæ, Magni cognomen.III Nisledged existence of Heraldry, as may be seen in the bet strangely explains away this direct and positive case of the last two Earls of Chester, the two Quincies, language. It imports no more," he observes, “than Earls of Winchester, and the two Lacies, Earls of Lin- that Caligula, being displeased with the grandeur of coln; no positively hereditary bearings have been found these families, commanded to take from their Images or in England before llenry III.'s time; while in some

Statues, as from that of Torquatus, the collar or chain instances, something like hereditary devices may be that he took from one of the Gauls

, and from that of found among the Ancients, as we shall presently ob- Cincinnatus the tuft of hair which that brave Roman serve. And the assumption of Arms for a peculiar

# Æn. ix. 548. object is not confined to ancient Heraldry, since Stephen, + " A young knight would not, during his first enterprises, assume King of England, changed the leopards into Sagittaries, his family Arms, but he wore plain armour, and a shield without ang on account of his landing when the Sun was in that Sign. device, till he bad won renown." -Mills, History of Chiralry, ch. ii. We have remarked here that the shield of Amphi

Puráque interrila parmd.-£n. si. 711. araus was blank.

αμφί δε καλή Æschylus and Euripides concur in

ΤΕΤΡΑΦΑΛΟΣ φοίνικι λόφω επιλέμτετο σεληξ. representing this as the effect of his modesty, which

Apoll. Rhodh ai. 321.

li Æn. vii. 785.
* “ Amphiaraus, (as Pindarus the Theban Poet affirmeth,) in | Silius Ital. y. 78.
his expedition to Thebes, bare in his shield a painted dragon.” * En, vi. 789.
Gwillim, sec. 1. ch. i. This author is more loquacious than correct. tt Ibid. x. 187.
Perhaps he alludes to Pyth, vü. 66, where this emblem is assigned 11 Ibid. vii. 657.

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ŠŠ Ov. Met. vü. 422. Senec, Hippol. f En. vii. 796.

Mi Suet. Cal. xxxv.

to Aleman.

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