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Painting. the ideas of his countrymen in general, both by precept does honour to his country. It was his son who was Spanise
and example, as Velasquez. As a Painter, indeed, of patronised by Philip IV., and, though professedly a Setzel a natur:) style, he has rarely been surpassed by the great- Painter of History, was so successful in still-life pieces
, est masters; while we may add, that his just distinction particularly fish, &c., that he obtained the name of Ľl of distance, his brilliancy of effect, and the beauty and Spagnolo delli pesci. harmony of his colours, entitle him to a still less quali- Alphonso Cano was born at Grenada in 1601, and Care. fied approbation in the ornamental branch of the Art. lived and painted chiefly at Seville, though there are few With regard to the peculiar gracefulness of his touclı, Churches or Convents in Madrid, Grenada, or Cordova, we need only quote the words of Raffael Mengs : “ the that do not possess some specimens of his pencil. He pencil,” he says, speaking of a Picture by Velasquez, studied in Italy; and it is not uncommon to hear his
seems to have no share in execution here, it seems as works in Sculpture compared to those of Michael Angelo, a simple exertion of the will.”
and his Pictures to those of Albano ; and from these exHis pupils. Martinez del Mayo, a Portrait Painter and Painter in pressions, though we may not be prepared to admit the
water colours, was one of his pupils, as was J. Carreno justness of the application, we may yet be enabled to
lines of Art. We must also add, that, like some of the
chief works are, the Pictures over the high altar in the School of There is preserved in the Cathedral at Cordova a Church of St. Thomas at Seville, the Paintings for the Seville. small picture of the Annunciation, painted upon Convent of the Carthusians at Xeres, and the Labours of
wood by one Pietro, a native of Seville, and bear- Hercules for the Retiro at Madrid. Barnabi d'Arzala,
these parts even at that day. The first person of note of works of Vandyke, and thenceforth would study no Louis de whom we have any account is Louis de Vargas, who was other master; he even went to England, in order to
living at Seville in the former part of the XVIth cen- place himself under his instruction. Some of his works
Raffael. We have honourable mention made, too, of the style of Moya and Vandyke.
a Painter in fresco. He went too, as others did in his such he is universally allowed to be, was born in the
One such Painter we find at Seville, in this period, money thus raised he went to Madrid, and intreHerrera. namely, Fr. Herrera, (the elder,) many of whose His- duced himself to Velasquez. Velasquez was at this
torical works are to be seen in the Churches at Seville. time a great man about the Court; but, far from And though, as has been already related, Velasquez being offended with his conduct, or feeling as a more disdained him as an instructor, the traveller in Spain vulgar mind might have done on such an occasion, he recognises in him a degree of skill and talent which received him at once with kindness and even fami
Painting. liarity; taking care to lay open to his inspection all the subject he invariably prepared himself for the task by Spanish choicest works in the Palace of the Escurial. In con- taking the Sacrament. At the Palace at Madrid
School. sequence of the advantages thus offered to him, we are six magnificent Pictures by Joanes, representing learn that Murillo staid there three years, and, from his the History of St. Stephen ; and many of his works studies and diligence so unremittingly pursued at the are to be seen in the Churches at Madrid, Segovia, Capital, started at once as a finished Painter. This Valencia, &c. His manner of Painting is not altokind act of Velasquez was a moral lesson to Murillo, gether free from restraint, but still there is so much of which he never suffered to be obliterated from his mind, energy, such skill in foreshortening, and such a flow and he, too, in his turn, when afterwards he had risen to and fulness in his draperies, as to make ample amends eminence, always showed a generous readiness of disposi- for this fault, and banish the imputation of poverty tion to every young artist who was presented to his notice. or servility from his style : his colouring, as might be He it was, indeed, who first formed the project of esta- expected, savours much of the Roman School. He had blishing an Academy of design at Seville, which he a son, Vincent Jean de Joanes, who must not be confinally succeeded in accomplishing, in spite of the great founded as a Painter with his father, to whom he was opposition with which he met. Murillo exhibited great greatly inferior in talent. talent, both in Historical composition and in the more Matarana and Yavarri were also respectable Painters homely figures of common life. As to style of design, of Historical subjects at that day, and chiefly in fresco. he is one of those whom the Italians call a naturalista, There were, too, three Historical Painters at Valencia that is, without any pretensions to Classical grace; but of the name of Zarinena. the truth and strength of character that pervade his The Venetian style and manner of Painting seems at Pictures, give him with the world in general a higher all times to have had great attractions for the Spanish recommendation; to this he added a force and richness artists; but there are few, if any, amongst their number of colour equal to the best productions of his mighty who were more successful in seizing its peculiarities prototype. The greatest and most perfect Painting by than Petro Orrente, of Montalegre, in Murcia. His Murillo is said to be the St. Antony of Padua, which is favourite master was Bassano, and it was after his placed in the Cathedral at Seville, and for which he fashion that he used to paint both Historical subjects received no less a sum than 10,000 rials from the and those of common life. Examples enough are to be Chapter. Some of his Pictures are to be met with in met with at Toledo, Madrid, Cordova, Badajoz, Valenthe Royal Palaces in Spain, and almost every collection cia, and in his native Country; those which gained him of note throughout Europe will afford some example of the most admiration are eight designs from the Book of this great master. It
be said that no artist, if we Genesis, in the possession of the family of De Huertas : except Rubens, ever had the reputation of painting so he lived in the latter part of the XVIth century. many Pictures as Murillo.
Contemporary with Orrente was the Augustan friar, s papils. of the pupils of Murillo whose Pictures are often Leonardo, a Painter of History, Portraits, and Battle
confounded with his, it will be sufficient to mention pieces. He received a commission from the General of the names of Antolinez, Villa Vicencio, Tobar, Menesco, his Order to decorate with Paintings his Convent at Osorio, &c. Sebastian Gomez is, perhaps, still more Madrid; and he was employed also in many works at successful in his imitations,
Toledo, Cordova, Valencia, &c. Another follower of the style of Vandyke and Rubens Francis Riballa was born in 1551, and chancing Ribalta. was Nino de Guevara, who also lived in the XVIIth during his state of pupilage to fall in love with the century; if, indeed, it is fair to introduce any such daughter of his master at Valencia, and being refused person as a parallel to the name of Murillo. We the honour of her hand, he betook himself to Rome; may close our account of the School of Seville with probably as much for a diversion of his thoughts, as for the names of P. Camprobin and J. Arellano, Flower the purpose of making himself considerable by his Painters; Joseph Antolinez, (scholar of Ricci,) a talents. There he employed himself in copying the Painter of Landscape, and Henri des las Marinas, as standard Pictures of Raffael, the Caracci, and more his title imports, a Painter of Sea-pieces.
particularly those of Sebastian del Piombo; and at his ool of Nicholas Factor (le béat,) the Painter of Madonne, return, so gratified was his master by the talent he disacia. is the first name on the catalogue, in point of time, played, and so satisfied that he would make his way in
at Valencia; he lived early in the XVIth century. the world, that he freely gave him his daughter in Of still more note, in regard to the degree of skill marriage. His colouring is rude, but in Drawing and which he attained, was the Pere Nicholas Borras, who composition he is excelled by few; and so much are his filled the walls, cloisters, altars, &c. of the Convent Pictures esteemed at Valencia, that the citizens of that of St. Jerome di Gaudie at Valencia with his Paint place very unwillingly part with any of his works. ings. He seems to have been indebted for his great- He painted also for many of the Churches at Madrid, est proficiency in the Art to his acquaintance with Valencia, Segovia, &c. Castaneda and Bausa were his His pupils.; " the celebrated Vincent Joanes, a person of whom it is best scholars. His son, too, Johan Ribalta, equalled his our duty next to take notice. Joanes, who is the glory father, though he exerted his talent in a different of the School of Valencia, was born in 1523. He branch of the Art, confining himself almost wholly to studied in Italy for some time, according to the fashion Portrait Painting. Hyacinthus Jerome de Espinosa also of the day, and there he learned to imitate, and not is said to have been a pupil of Ribalta, born in 1600; he unsuccessfully, the manner of Raffael; so much so that painted Sacred History in good style; but there are three some have supposed him to have been his pupil; the other Painters of this name and family, who were date of his birth however renders this impossible. The also Historical Painters. Stephen March, or March des S. Marcha piety of his feelings deserves to be recorded, as well as Batailles, so called from the usual subjects of his his skill; for the same fact is related of him as of Louis pencil, acquired great fame from the bustle and spirit Vargas, namely, that before entering upon a sacred of his designs, as well as from their colouring, which
Painting resembled that of the Venetian mode. He had a residence there, he formed for himself a more truly Freseb
pupil, named Sotomayor, of considerable merit in the Classical and learned style than any other Painter School same line.
record, scarcely excepting Raffael himself. Still, it was Mathieu Gilarte a Painter of History, was a pupil not a cold or tame and lifeless grace which his figures of one of the Ribalta School, who served to keep alive exhibited, but a full nervousness of expression, that the memory of that great artist : his Pictures are in showed the deepest knowledge not only of the external most of the Convents of Murcia, Toledo, and Madrid; and anatomical movements, but also of the inward he was born in 1648. We must not omit the name emotions of the human heart. We have in England, of Augustus Gasal, who was formed in the School of in the collection of the Marquess of Stafford, some of Carlo Maratta at Rome, and whose heavy manner he his most perfect pieces, namely, The Seven Sacraments : followed: his Paintings are to be found chiefly in the engravings of his other more celebrated pieces, such as Convents and Churches of Valencia, where he died at The Deluge, The Philistines smitten by the Plague, The the beginning of the XVIIIth century. Don Vincent death of Germanicus, and The discovery of Moses, are Victoria (the Canon) was a scholar of the same, and in the hands of all amateurs, and give a better idea of many of his Pictures, both in Italy and in Spain, pass his style than any words can express. N. Poussin had under the name of that master.
no actual scholars under his charge, but there are few
Painters of France of his day who were not indebted to
him for advice; and still fewer of any day who have not
profited by his example: we may safely say, indeed, The art of staining glass with a variety of permanent that his manner gave the turn and fashion in France to colours was, as we have before mentioned, the invention all the artists that came after him; in short, the Pousof a Frenchman, William of Marseilles; but except in sinesque style is as truly the characteristic of the French works of this description, which, however beautiful in School as the Raffaelesque is of the Roman. themselves, are of a totally distinct nature from the We may mention Jacques Stella of Lyons, a friend of Stelle usual studies of a School of Painting, little or no pro- Poussin, as one who closely and successfully imitated gress appears to have been made in France before the his manner of composition; he was patronised by Carday of Francis I. We find, indeed, the name of Jean dinal de Richelieu. Many of the first People of the Cousin, who was born at Soucy near Sens in 1462, the Court seemed to have imbibed a taste for Art from the author of certain Treatises on Art, and a few samples of example set them by Francis I., and there was no want whose practical talents are preserved by the engraver. of patronage to a young artist who displayed at this We have also the name of F. Clouet or Janet, a Portrait period any symptoms of talent. Painter, and, in the Historical department, those of Francis Perrier, a native of Burgundy, born in 1390, Pemier. Dubreuil and Freminet, who were flourishing towards went to Italy, and placed himself for a while under the middle of the XVIth century. But with the reign Lanfranc; but his unfortunate instability of disposition of Francis I. was introduced a new and more brilliant became his ruin, and he painted but very few Pictures, æra of Art. That monarch commenced his patronage being at this day known in the world chiefly as an by inviting Italian artists of high reputation to reside at engraver. Francis Blanchard, of Paris, is recorded F.B.anita! his Court, Rosso, Nicolo del Abate, and Primaticcio ; their as a Painter of History about this period, and a very style was captivating, and became fashionable; and thus, respectable if not a great one.
He too studied in Italy, through a rage for Italian study and Italian taste, was and followed the manner chiefly of the Venetian School
. developed the latent germ of native genius in France. To these we may add Jean le Maire, a Painter of per
The first Painter of eminence who was thus brought for- spectives, and Jean Mosnier, a glass Painter. They also Vouet.
ward was Simon Vouet, the son of a Painter at Paris, went through their course of study in Italy; for it
In the School of this artist were formed it appears that he left the School of Vouet, at Paris, in His pupils. Valentino, Le Brun, Le Sueur, Dufresnoy, Mignard, order to study in Italy, where he became a great
Testolin, La Hyre, and many others, who in their day admirer of M. Čaravaggio, and after his fashion painted Jacques
did honour to their Country. Jacques Blanchard was his figures in a strong, forcible style upon a dark of Blanchard. a contemporary of Vouet, but far inferior to him in rather black background. His Concert, Judith with the
originality and talent: he, nevertheless, gained a great head of Holofernes, and some few other of his Pictures,
J. Bapt. Mola, or Mola da Francia, for he too was a Male
Frenchman born,was another of those who abandoned the Nicolas A still greater artist next appeared, namely, Nicolas School of Vouet for those of Italy: he may be remarked, Poussin.
Poussin, who was born at Andely in Normandy in however, as having adopted a style directly opposite to 1595. The greatest part of his life was passed at the last-named artist, becoming a follower of the graceful Rome; and by his unceasing application, during his and soft Albano; many of his Pictures are, indeed, often
Painting. passed under the name of that great master. Jacques Colombell, of Sotteville, was his only scholar who attained French
Callot, also, whose little military pieces, the Temptation any great name.
Claude. might mention, too, Ferdinand Elle, who as a native of have little claim to this great man, since his native Malines rather belongs to the Flemish School, yet con- province was not yet annexed to France: it does not stantly resided at Paris, and is but little known else- appear indeed that he ever set his foot within the limits where. He painted Portraits chiefly. He left a son of the French Monarchy, and his style was formed where behind him in the same line, usually known under the his
life was almost wholly passed, namely, at Rome. name of Ferdinand the younger.
The name of Dufresnoy is known rather from his Dufresnoy, Up to the time of which we now speak, the Painters Poem on the Art of Painting, than from the specimens in France seem generally to have exercised all the of his pencil, and therefore may be passed over in several branches of the Art of design; this appears this brief History of the Art; but the next name occurevident upon considering the very various specimens ring on the catalogue, is that of one of the most dis
sent by them as their contributions to the earlier exhi- tinguished French artists, namely, Sebastian Bourdon. Bourdon. opal Aca- bitions of the Royal Academy of Paris. Many diffi- He was one of those instances of precocious talent any of
culties, it seems, here, as in other Capitals, stood in the whose life, contrary to vulgar prejudices, was prolonged
Frenchmen during their period of study at Rome. its due merit, by the favour and partiality of the Court
Academy, and who uniformly supported its interests names have a more extensive reputation than that of against those who were adverse to its formation, was Le Brun. He had some talent, certainly; but he will Le Bruno born in the year 1617; and his name is commonly men- be quoted always by the judicious connoisseur, as tioned by the French writers with more than ordinary affording a sample of the worst style of Historical Paintdelight, as affording the best specimen of what pure, ing that ever forced itself upon the public notice ; Le native French talent has been able to effect. It is true, Brun peint a nos yeux le fier et le terrible, says the Poet, indeed, that he never studied in Italy, but at the same nor can we characterise his style better than by these time it is evident to the most casual observer of his two words: and yet it is not that sort of fierceness and works, that he must have formed himself chiefly by terror which interests us in looking at a Picture, it is one attention to the works of Italian Painters; and though continual bustle, that distracts the attention, and offers there are few who have been provided with a greater no rallying point for the Imagination or the feelings. stock of invention and natural feeling, yet, again, there Repose is a quality utterly banished from his works ; are few who exhibit in their compositions such strong and though he represents, in some of his Pictures, the lineaments of imitative Classical study. His colouring Passions of the Soul, and even wrote a Treatise upon is not forcible, but still possesses a certain degree of the subject, it is only in their vulgar and most staring harmony, which soothes the eye of connoisseurs, and forms that they are ever depicted by him on the canvass. makes them forget his faults. ''Harmony, indeed, and No one is farther removed from the Poetic dignity of milder affections of the soul seem alone to be natural to the Art, which alone enables it to interest and ennoble Le Sueur; but still he was sufficiently powerful to excite, the mind. He gives the most perfect sample of that by the manner of his design, a strong interest in the deficiency of sedateness and grandeur of style, which mind of the spectator, and may be fairly classed among the Classical Winckelmanu describes, by borrowing from the best of those whom a Roman would place at the the Ancients the term parenthyrsis. head of the Transalpine School. He died at the Verdier, Houasse, and Audran, were the scholars and His pupils. age of thirty-four, but left even in this short life many assistants of Le Brun, whose style they imitated with works to attest his ability and skill: of these we may but too much servility: indeed, it may be said, that in mention the Life of St. Bruno, St. Paul preaching at consequence of the splendour of a name honoured as Ephesus, The Martyrdom of St. Laurence, Our Saviour his was by Court favour, his style not only became the with Mary and Martha, Our Saviour carried to the Se- fashion of his own day, but has stamped a character on pulchre, and Alexander receiving the cup from the hands the French School, which it retains in great measure of his Physicians; most of which have been made known even to this time; and in spite of the ingenuity of moto the public by the labour of the engraver. Nicolas dern declamation and the judgment developed by modern
Painting. connoisseurs, the annual exhibitions at the Louvre excellent : it was her brother, Louis Cheron, who was French hon
savour more strongly of the fierceness and audacity driven to England at the time of the Revocation of the sectie. Pri of Le Brun, than of the chaste energy of Poussin. Edict of Nantes; his works are often to be met with,
fo Mignard. Peter Mignard and Nicolas Mignard, two brothers, and never fail to attract our attention by their
die born at Troyes, and both distinguished Painters of Por- Classical and pure style of design: we have many trait and History, flourished during the earlier part of of his designs in one of the large-sized editions of the
at the XVIIth century. Peter, however, who studied for Bible used in Parish Churches. many years in Italy, was the inore celebrated of the Another French artist, who found employment in hor two: he succeeded Le Brun in his place of Chief Painter England at that time, was Nicolas de Largillière, who I to the King of France, and some splendid specimens even at the early age of eighteen surprised the King, Larsenal of his talent are still to be seen in the Royal Palace at Charles II., by the vigour and freedom of his pencil: T Versailles; where the connoisseur will observe, that if he did not live in England, however, but went back to he fail in force and dignity of expression, there is yet a his native Country, where he attained the favour and softness and harmony of composition, and freshness of applause of his brother Academicians, though he cannot colouring, demanding our admiration.
be said to have been honoured by the patronage of Lenains. The two Lenains, Louis and Antony, were excellent the Court.
Portrait Painters, and they have left behind them also Hyacinthe Rigaud, a native of Perpignan, gained Rigaad Pain
haps, few men who have attained greater reputation in Philip de Philip de Champagne belongs, by birth at least, to the this line: he was generally assisted in his labours by Champagne Flemish School, but he passed the greater part of his his relative and scholar, De Fontency, who perhaps Defesaken
life at Paris; and his Portraits, or compositions con- painted with more truth and fidelity, if with less of
odt Bourguig- Jacques Courtois or Bourguignon, (as he is usually The Pictures of Watteau, whose name next occurs Wattem
called,) is well known from his spirited Battle pieces ; he in the list, are bouquet-like in point of the exquisite
tures, in Italy. He left behind him a successful imitator, us still more by the lively comic grace of his figures, Parrocel. in his countryman, Joseph Parrocel, who, upon his and the spirit of his design.
return from his studies in Italy, obtained employment Le Pautre, La Fage, Le Maire, Le Moine, Cazes,
secondary rank, were flourishing about the end of the Coypel.
A. Coypel was one of the best Historical Painters of XVIIth century, and beginning of the XVIIIth, at a Paris towards the end of the XVIIth century; in his time when the Court had shown a most indulgent spirit Pictures we first trace the appearance of French faces of patronage for the Art, and almost every great officer and French manners in the personages represented on his of State, every farmer-general of the finances, every precanvass; a fault wlich afterwards became very common late of the church, or even every banker of eminence
, amongst the secondary Painters of the French school : became anxious to signalize his wealth or his taste by
, Athaliah, Jephthah, Solomon, Susannah, Venus, &c., becoming a purchaser of Pictures, and an amateur of are all so many French men and French women in the beaux arts. disguise, as may be seen in the engravings after his Some of the best works executed at this time at Paris works. There were four artists, however, of some were the architectural pieces of Servandoni, a native of note belonging to the family of Coypel ; nor were the Florence, and pupil of P. Panini : and of those of the stocks of Hallè, Boulogne, and Detroit, much less pro- native Painters, we may mention the Brazen Scrpent by lific in Painters, though their fame is not very much P. Subleyras, a Picture which displays talent of a high sehemu extended beyond the limits of France.
order. Some other valuable Paintings by this artist are De Lafosse. De Lafosse deserves our notice for the neatness of now to be seen in the Louvre.
his colouring; some of his chief works were his Paint- Of merit scarcely inferior are the Historical composiings at the Palaces of Versailles and the Trianon, and tions of Fr. de Troy; his Salmacis and Hermaphro- De Tasy
he was also much employed in England by the family ditus, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, &c. Those Pesne of the Duke of Montague. His nephew, Ant. Pesne,was of Restout, also, (in spite of an almost tedious mar Restoran
a respectable Portrait Painter, who established himself nerism, displaying itself in a certain precision and
Fr. Boucher, a scholar of Le Moine, gained also a Jouvenet.
Jean Jouvenet is celebrated for his Picture of the great name at Paris; and there are few artists whose Descent from the Cross, which is said to be one of the works have been more largely made known than his hare best compositions of the French School : many other been by the assiduity of the engravers ; but his reputation of his works have been engraved, and it must be con- was chiefly obtained by the facility with which he refessed, that he is not devoid of originality or greatness presented the graces of the female sex, and by scenes in of manner: he died in 1717.
which their unveiled charms might be exhibited to adSophie At the same time flourished Sophie Cheron, who vantage ; he sought, in fact, to allure purchasers by esCheron. attained a high and deserved reputation in her day: citing their passions, because he was unable to produce
her style of design was tasteful, and her colouring any admiration by his taste or skill. He had maos