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Florence, called the Rape of the Sabines, affords further craftsmen. A few artists may be selected from this Modern. illustration of what we have said respecting the style of large class, possessing qualities which raise them some Art of this time; as a specimen of invention it is full little above their coutemporaries, but in these the great of fire and expression, but the composition partakes principle which should pervade all Sculpture is lost too much of the corkscrew form, and is extravagant; it sight of, and the picturesque is everywhere substituted is impossible, however, not to admire the courage as for simplicity: indeed the alti and bassi rilievi of the well as ability of the artist who ventured to execute so best of the artists of this time are but bad pictures done daring a work. Other statues and several bassi rilievi in marble, on no part of which can the eye rest with exhibit in like manner the power of mind and hand, satisfaction. The works of Bernini are too well known but at the same time the defects of style, of Giovanni di to require particular notice; we shall content ourselves,
Bologna. Unfortunately the imitators of his “manner" therefore, with mentioning a few of the most celebrated, fano
were numerous. The beantiful and simple figure of S. to illustrate our observations on the merits and defects oderno. Cecilia in the Church of the Convent dedicated to that of this artist. Two of his best, and they were two of
Saint in Rome, would place its author Stefano Maderno his earliest productions, are in the Cascino of the Villa in the very highest rank, if he had not forfeited his Borghese, at Rome; viz. the Apollo and Daphne, Plate VII. claim to the distinction by the production of later works and David, (said to be a portrait of himself,) pre
in which all the finer qualities of Art are lost sight of. paring to throw the stone at Goliath. These figures ile VII This statue was executed when he was very young; display great feeling for the respective subjects, and
probably before his taste had become corrupted, and its equal skill in the execution, and only want good taste excellence arises from its simplicity and general truth to entitle them to a very high rank in Sculpture. The to Nature. It is said, that when the coffin, in which the statue of S. Bibiana, the fountain in the Piazza Navona, Virgin Saint was deposited after her martyrdom, was the four Doctors of the Church supporting the chair of discovered, her body was found undecayed, and lying St. Peter, are all characteristic works of this artist. In in the position in which Stefano Maderno, by order St. Peter's, also, are the monuments of Urban VIII. of Clement VIII., has here represented it.* This and of Alexander VII., which surpass all his other will account for the superiority of this work over others productions in bad taste. A group, intended to reof the same artist; prevented by the circumstances present the ecstasy of S. Teresa, in the Church of La from introducing any of the prevailing bad taste of the Vittoria, in Rome, has merits of execution, but it is time, he has, by making Nature his model, produced a difficult, amidst the flutter and confusion of the drapery, work which excites the sympathy and engages the suf- to discover either the figure of the Saint, or the subject frages of all who see it.
of the work. Bernini lived during nine Pontificates : One of the most extraordinary artists of the XVIIth no artist ever had greater patronage, and few greater century, and one whose practice tended more than talents, had they been properly applied; but the variety of
any thing not only to check but to subvert all good his pursuits, and his inordinate love of picturesque effect, mbini. taste in Sculpture, was Bernini. He was born at ruined the progress of Sculpture, and we are compelled
Naples, and at a very early age gave indications of to admit that it would have been better for that Art if talent in the Fine Arts; a head in marble is still Bernini had never lived. In proof of the versatility of preserved which he is said to have executed at nine his talents, mention is made of a theatrical enter. or ten years of age. It is quite surprising, that, with tainment which had been given in Rome by him, for so many fine works of antiquity before them, the ad- which he built the theatre, painted the scenes, cast the mirers of Art should have so extensively patronised a
statues, constructed the engines, wrote the comedy, Sculptor who set all the principles of true taste com- and composed the music, We could easily extend our pletely at defiance, and whose influence was so great observations on this extraordinary man, but our object, that no Art was protected which was not conformable that of illustrating the History of Sculpture, is suffito that which he had established. Under him the distinc- ciently answered by noticing a few of the leading Sculptive bounds of the different classes of Art were trampled tors, and making some observations at the same time down ; Sculptors were busied in imitating the works of on the peculiarities which mark their practice, and the the pencil, and Architects in seeking to introduce into improvement or decline of the Art. their compositions the curved line of beauty. It would, Contemporary with Bernini was Alessandro Algardi, Algardi. indeed, be difficult to conceive two styles more directly of Bologna, whose principal work, a large basso rilievo, opposed to each other than that which characterised the in marble, of Attila driven froin Rome by the appaSculpture of this Age, and that of the great artists of rition of St. Peter and St. Paul, is well known. This antiquity. In the one, simplicity was the pervading prin- work is above 30 feet high, and 18 feet wide, and ciple and expression united with fine form; in the other forms an altar-piece in St. Peter's Church. The obthe eye is offended by strained actions, uncommon servations which apply to the works of Bernini are arrangement in composition, and draperies flying and equally applicable to those of Algardi, who, if he did frittered away. Undercutting, perforations, and all the not servilely copy the faults of the first-named Sculpother mere mechanical difficulties of the Art were also tor, was equally distant with him from the purity of resorted to, to catch the attention and create surprise; the antique; in the basso rilievo alluded to, an atthus the means were mistaken for the end, and the tempt is made to obtain distance and picturesqne artists were content to rest their claim to distinction effect by a variety of planes, and difference in the deon the poor foundation of their ingenuity as handi- grees of relief of the figures. The consequence is * Venuli says, nella positura medesima che si vede la sua
inevitable in Sculpture: it is a mass of confusion. slatua scolpita. The inscription under the statue is, En tibi
Considerable intelligence is shown in parts of the sanctissima virginis Ceciliæ imaginem quam ipse integram in sepul composition, as well as in the execution of the work, ehro jacentem vidi, eandem tibi prorsus eodem corporis situ hoc mare but a principle of bad taste pervades the whole, which more expressi.
is not compensated by any other qualities. In short,
Sculpture, the Art instead of rising was now fast falling to de- mation on the general History of Art, but from their Moderne
cay; the very facility of execution, which should have most celebrated names we gladly select such as Puget
whicli the generality of artists bowed to its influence; when efforts were made in that Art not unworthy our Il Fiam- this was Fr. de Quesnoy, commonly called Il Fiam- attention even at the present day. In the year 1243, the mingo. mingo, a native of Brussels, who, although his taste Cathedral of Wells was finished under the care and su.
was far from correct, has left a few works which perintendence of Bishop Joceline. This was about the
children, have passages of great merit, and claim the the revival of the Arts, was exercising his profession in Mocchi. attention of all admirers of Art. Francesco Mocchi his own Country. The circumstance is remarkable,
executed two statues in the Duomo of Orvieto, re- and the late lamented Professor of Sculpture in our Plate VII.
presenting the Annunciation; they are not grouped Royal Academy adduces strong arguments for be-
celebrity, was much employed in England in the beauThis was the state of Art in the XVIIIth century; and tiful Chape! built in Westminster Abbey; but it is the taste which pervaded Italy was the prevailing taste in thought that much of the Sculpture of this period was other Countries in which Sculpture was practised, the by native artists. It will be sufficient to refer the artists of Italy being almost exclusively employed to exe- curious reader to some of the statues that decorate the cute whatever works were required ; or if native artists above Chapel, which are well worthy attention for the were anywhere thought worthy of confidence, they were beautiful and simple arrangement of their draperies.
for the most part scholars or followers of some distin- From the reign of Henry VIII. to that of Charles I. Sculpture in guished or fashionable Italian practitioner. That this was Sculpture seems to have been much neglected; indeed France. the case in France will be evident on examining most of works of Art were wantonly and purposely destroyed;
the Sculpture produced there from the time of Francis I.; but from the wrecks that remain it appears that from the epoch from which the practice of the Art, and of its the year 1200 down to Henry VII., we have works in assuming any importance in that Country, is generally Sculpture, not only executed in England, but certainly dated; and at which time Italian artists, Lionardo da in many very important instances by Englishmen.
In Vinci, Primaticcio, Benvenuto Cellini, Rustici, and others Charles's time we meet with the names of Christmas Charles I. were invited into that Country. The French Sculptors and Stone, Englishmen. The principal works in Sculpwho arose out of this encouragement of Art, exerted ture after this period were by foreigners, and we find themselves, it is true, with industry and success, and that Cibber, Scheemacker, Roubiliac, and others of their several have left distinguished names and valuable spe- School, had all the employment in Art. Their produccimens of their abilities. A History of the French tions are well known, and a particular account of them School of Sculpture* will not afford any additional infor
particularly the Tomb of Marshal Saxe, at Strasburg, executed in The French (though a great improvement has taken place) 1776. The Sculpture of other European Countries, Spain, Germany, were soon led away by a desire to display nice and curious execution; &c., affords no information on the History of the Art, and we there. the Sculptors above named were their purest artists. For the ne plus fore omit them. ultra of bad taste we need only mention Pigal's extraordinary works,
* Fide Flaxman's Lectures on Sculpture.
would be both unnecessary and out of place. This was restorers of Sculpture, as they may justly be called, on Modern. the state of Art in England till the middle of the last the Art of their day is acknowledged, and though century, when, under the protection and auspices of distinct Schools have arisen out of those which they George III., Sculpture and the sister Arts rose into formed, to them must be attributed the merit of having notice, and were practised hy native artists with honour at least directed the attention of artists and the admirers to themselves and to their Country.
of Art to that which is really excellent. The Count Cicognara, in his valuable Work on Sculp. The mechanical process of Sculpture is now so Mechanism ture, considers that the epoch of a revolution in taste generally known, that it seems hardly necessary to
of Sculpin Italy was the reign of Charles III. of Naples; of notice it here, but as it may be considered to form a Popes Clement XIII., Benedict XIV., and of Leopold, part of our subject, we shall conclude by a short exGrand Duke of Tuscany. Besides these Princes, Cardi- planation of the manner of proceeding. The Sculptor nal Albani, justly called the Hadrian of his Age, attached having invented or conceived his subject, proceeds from the literati and best artists of the day to him, and his a small sketch, drawn on paper or, modelled in clay or Palace was the resort of genius, taste, and learning. wax, to build up his statue or group, for which purpose He formed a collection of the finest remains of antiquity, a general nucleus or skeleton is first formed of wood well calculated to remodel the taste, and excite the or iron; to this, small crosses are generally attached, in emulation of the artists of the time. To this princely order to make the clay adhere to it; the figure is then taste of the Cardinal the World is indebted also for built up in clay, of which different sorts are used, accordthe learned labours of a distinguished antiquary, for ing to the fancy of artists; the figures, even if they are inunder the immediate protection of the Prelate, tended to be draped, should always be first carefully Winckelman wrote his History of the Arts of Design. modelled naked, and the drapery should be added after. The Clementine Museum at the Vatican received im- wards. In modelling alto or basso rilievo, a plane or portant additions under Pius VI., after whom it was ground (generally of clay) is prepared, upon which the called Pio-Clementino; and the greatest activity pre- Sculptor draws his proposed design ; the clay is then vailed at his accession throughout the Roman States placed upon this, the outline of the figures being careto secure whatever fine works in Sculpture were dis- fully preserved by attending to the drawing already covered, forming a remarkable contrast to the careless- made upon the surface. The model being completed, ness which existed on these subjects a few years and kept moist, a mould of plaster of Paris is made before. Amongst the Sculptors of that period were upon it, which when dry (or set) is removed, and the Cavaceppi, Penna, and a few others; the influence of model is destroyed; the mould being oiled, is then the Bernini School had ceased, and as the false prin- filled up with fresh plaster, which is prevented from ciples of its practice were discovered, the want of a just adhering too firmly by the oily substance with which style was felt, and, in point of fact, Sculpture in the it has been saturated; the mould is then broken hands of the above artists will be found to have made off, and a cast of the model is produced entire. The considerable approach to purity, and to have acquired next process is copying it in marble ; for this purmuch of its lost character.
pose two stones of the same size, each having a scale The honour, however, of giving a new direction to in front, are prepared; the inodel is placed upon one Taste, and of establishing this Art on true principles, of these, the block of marble on the other; a movable is certainly due to Flaxman and Canova; and the instrument or beam is applied to the scale of the model, works of Banks may also be cited as valuable spe. and a needle branching from it, and capable of being cimens of improvement. In the Theseus of Canova, extended and withdrawn at pleasure by means of screws one of his best and earliest works, we recognise the and ball and socket joints, is made to touch the parti. long lost purity of form, and a decided devotion to the cular part of the model intended to be copied ;* this is simplicity of the antique; in the designs of Flaxman, carefully removed to the corresponding number on the in like manner, simplicity, grace, and expression re- scale on which the rude block is fixed, and the marble sume their influence in the place of long-established is cut away till the needle reaches as far into the block affectation and distortion. The simple taste of which the as it had been fixed at upon the model; this process is earlier works of Canova gave promise, it must be al- repeated till the whole is copied, the joints on which lowed, is occasionally less conspicuous in some of the the needle works being so constructed that it can be later productions of this master: exceptions will also carried round to any part of the work. The statue be made to Flaxman, in whose works execution will being thus rudely blocked out, or pointed, as it is techbe found a very secondary object compared with de- nically termed, is delivered over to a carver, who copies sign; but the works of these distinguished artists the minute parts of the work, and by degrees, with are before the World, and their merits have been too chisels and files, brings it to a surface, ready to receive often discussed to render it necessary here to en- the finishing strokes of the Sculptor. large upon them; besides, a critical examination of them would be quite out of place, our object, that of * The construction of these instruments for pointing is not tracing the History of Sculpture down to our own always the same, but the principle upon which they act is exactly times, being fulfilled. The influence of these second similar.
PA I N TIN G.
HISTORY OF THE ART.
on the wall, by the light of a lanıp, or of the shepherds Schal
Abcats. Origin of
To renew that inquiry of the over-curious, as to the projected by the sunshine upon the sand. Such, too, Painting. country wherein the Art of Painting was first invented, are the claims usually put forward on the part of the
is nearly as absurd as to raise a question with regard Egyptians to the invention of the Art of design ; that
that, indeed, which alone gives it a title to the name of
colours, which of course could not be applied without In a like view must we regard the stories of the some degree of heat; or it may be, that he merely invented love-sick girl tracing the shadow of her suitor's profile the style of delineating by means of burning the surface
Isan? Was D first
unting. of wood with hot irons, producing something similar the application of this same principle of the monochro- School to that which we now know under the name of poker matic style to a number of colours so combined
Ancients. drawings. Polygnotus lived about the XIVth century together, that afterwards introduced the most perfect before our Saviour.
and beautiful of all the artificial processes with which The next step in Art was made, as we are told, by the Art of design is acquainted. All the exquisite stic style, the Greeks, who invented what is called the Monochro- delight that is to be derived from variety of light,
matic style or the use of a single colour, or that shade, and tint, flowed from the developement of this
sity or strength of the respective shades of colour, not lines, he was a great improver who first ventured to hy by a variety of colours. It may seem singular at represent them with their heads looking upwards or ut first sight, that the use of many colours should have pre- downwards, or sideways, (the catagrapha of the ancient
ceded the simple use of one .colour only: but when we writers ;) in short, who represented them in any way
diversifies blue, is one of the easiest and most obvious of the efforts ventured to make a fresh innovation in established
attitudes. of imitation, but to distinguish them by degree of shade practices, by marking out the muscles and veins of the alone, or, which is the same thing, by the intensity of the human body, and the folds of garments. colour, when one only is employed, requires no small We next hear of Phidias, a person most cele- Phidias. degree of knowledge and skill: it is, in fact, the power brated indeed as a Sculptor, but who also exercised of giving relief to one body beyond another, and repre- the sister Art of Painting : he flourished about the IVth senting on one even plane surface the appearance of a century before the era of Christ. He is stated by variety of objects or parts which stand out or recede Pliny to have painted a Medusd's head at Athens with one from the other.
wonderful skill. Of other artists of this date we may We have an account given us by Cheselden, of a mention the name of Mycon, also an Athenian born, Mycon. young man originally born blind, and afterwards re- and, like Phidias, a Sculptor as well as Painter. He is ceiving his sight from the operation of couching, at celebrated for his preparation of a famous black pigment a time when his judgment was sufficiently advanced out of some part of the vine, (trigynon,) and seems to to give an account of his observations ; namely, at have turned much of his attention to the matériel of the the age of thirteen years. He says, “we thought Art; he is said also to have been the first person that he soon knew what Pictures represented, which were made use of Attic ochre as a colouring substance in his shown to him, but we found afterwards we were mis- Pictures. taken; for about two months after he was couched, Apollodorus of Athens also possessed skill in both Apollodorus he discovered at once they represented solid bodies, these lines of Art. It is recorded of him, that he was when to that time he considered them only as parti- so fastidious as to destroy his finished works, and was coloured planes, or surfaces diversified with variety of in the practice of breaking them up, (whatsoever might paint ; but even then he was no less surprised, expect- have been the pains and cost expended,) if they did not ing the Pictures would feel like the things they repre- correspond in the end to the conception which he had sented, and was amazed when he found those parts, formed in his mind. The expression of Pliny with rewhich by their light and shadow appeared now round gard to him, that he was the first whose Painting fixed and uneven, felt only flat like the rest ; and asked which and absorbed the attention of the spectator, leads us was the lying sense, feeling or seeing ?" (Smith's to form a high idea of the improvements which he Optics, 1, 5, p. 43.) This story makes us acquainted with effected in this Art; and this idea is strengthened by the progress of the human "mind in these particulars. the fact of his being noted as first showing the method The distinctions of colour were natural, they seemed, of discriminating with delicacy the various gradation of from the first, familiar to the patient's comprehension, or shades in Painting. He seems also to have noticed that at least were acknowledged as soon as perceived: but the colours of objects were to be preserved even in that an apparent variety of prominence and recess should those parts which were darkened in shade, and hence result from adopting a variety of shade, was by no means he obtained among his countrymen the name of the an idea so soon to be acquired. His mind had not made Shade-Painter. It must be added, that this merit, the necessary observations on the appearance of objects in asserted of Apollodorus by Plutarch, is attributed by Nature to enable him to comprehend this fact; and hence Quinctilian to Parrhasius. it seemed to him quite easy to distinguish the object by Parrhasius was a native of Ephesus who flourished Parrhasius. different colours, but he required an explanation with about the same time, and a person who certainly greatly respect to their distinction by means of light and shade. added to the advancement of the Art. He is univerIt is difficult for us in these days to recur even in imagi- sally praised for the attention which he paid to the nation to the thoughts and ideas of an unenlightened symmetry of the human figure in Drawing, for his atmind; but we may learn much from this story. Thus, ittempts to give an improved expression to the counteis clear that the Painters in chiaro-oscuro showed greater nance, to form the curls of hair with grace, and careskill than the Painters in various simple colours : it fully to finish the extremities of the hands and feet. But was indeed, perhaps, the most important discovery yet of all the great names among the Painters of antiquity, made by the artist; and we may-add, that it was only none, perhaps, are more celebrated than that of Zeuris, Zeuxis.