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Architec. high, which brings the foot of their bases on a level with and consisted of a single row of twelve Doric columns, Paril
the pavement of the Eastern portico. The columns are with shafts quite plain, except very short flutes at top 21.167 feet high, including the bases and capitals, and and bottom. In the interior of the Temple were two the tops of the capitals are on a level with the top of the double rows of columns, in directions parallel to that of architrave of the Western front; their upper diameter the portico, which is contrary to the general practice of is 2.858 feet, and their shafts are fluted.
the Greeks. When this ruin was measured, a fragment The height of that which is called, by Stuart, the of one column alone retained its original position ; the Temple of Victory, and of the building on the opposite places of the others were ascertained by the holes in wing is 25.596 feet from the pavement to the top of the the pavement, which were intended to receive the plugs cornice. The columns are 19.196 feet high; and the connecting it with the lower part of the shaft; a si. upper diameter 2.729 feet, and the height of the en- tuation in which plugs are rarely found, though they tablature is 6.397 feet. The antæ pilasters of these two are frequently found at every joint of the stones in a buildings are 3.027 feet broad, and their shafts are column. This pavement, being below the level of that without diminution.
in the portico, seems to indicate that it belonged to a Under the present Propyleum have been found the sub- crypt or subterranean chamber. Plutarch speaks of structions of a more ancient entrance to the Acropolis. lower columns in the interior of this Temple, and, hence, But in front, where the inequalities of the rock must it is probable that there must have been a double range, have rendered it necessary to form additional works for one above the other. the purpose of carrying the roadway, no remains of any A little in front of the grand Propyleum was a Temple such works exist ; it is, therefore, probable that they have of Diana, consisting of a naos and pronaos, with no been removed at some succeeding time. In the North- other columns than two between the antæ. The Temple ern wall, under the right wing, are the appearances of was of a rectangular form ; its cella 24.5 feet long and what some persons have supposed to be a triple entrance. 16 feet wide, and the ascent to the pavement was by It is, however, probable that they are but the intervals five steps. The columns were of the Doric Order and between buttresses supporting the wall of the building fluted, and the triglyphs returned quite round the flanks. on this side ; for, besides being too narrow, the sides In other Grecian Temples the roof terminates in stilliof the buttresses are left in steps, and have not been cida, or dripping eaves, but in this, the cymatium, or made smooth, as the sides of gates would have been. A upper moulding of the pediment cornice, was continued low, continuous wall is carried out from the ends of the along the flanks, and a channel was hollowed in it, for steps in front of the Northern wing of the Propyleum, the purpose of collecting the rain from the roof; which nearly as far as the pedestal; but Mr. Stuart is wrong was then discharged by the lions' heads sculptured at in making a gateway through it, for no such thing intervals along that moulding. appears.
The external appearance of the dwelling-houses of Di This superb edifice was constructed by Mnesicles the ancient Greeks seems to have been very simple, between the years 437 and 432 before Christ, and the Republican spirit of that people not permitting any Greek during the time that Pericles possessed the Government of the Nobles to have their residences superior to those board of Athens.
of the generality of the citizens; and it being thought The Pro- The Propyleum of Eleusis is now totally destroyed, highly indecorous to attempt, in the habitations of inroleum of but from the account published in the Unedited Anti- dividuals, to rival the Temples of the Gods. Nothing
quities of Athens, it appears to have been, in some remains, in Greece, of this class of buildiugs at the
having a stable and servants' room situated, one to the After passing through the Propyleum, there was found left and the other to the right hand of it. After getting a peribolus, in the form of an irregular pentagon, en- through the passage, there was found an open quaclosing a Temple of Ceres. The entrance to this drangle, the Southern side of which consisted of the enclosure was by a smaller Propyleum, or vestibule, apartments just mentioned; on the right and left hand about 48 feet in length, and as much in width; in the were the thalami, or chambers. This quadrangle interior extremity of which were three portals formed stituted, generally, an interior peristylium, being surby the side walls and by two intermediate piers; and in rounded by columns within the walls, on the four sides. the middle of this vestibule, opposite the pilasters by A long passage on the exterior of the thalami, and on which the piers are terminated, were two Ionic columns, the Eastern and Western sides of the building, separated similar to those of the Temple on the Ilyssus, with plain them from other apartments, which, being destined for Attic bases, and an entablature only ornamented with the reception of strangers, were called xenodochia ; and dentels in the cornice.
these passages, from their situations between the aula, The Temple of Ceres was nearly a square on the or courts, were called mesaulæ. On the Northern side of plan, and the length of each side was equal to 180 feet, the peristylium was a covered space, opposite to the en exclusive of the portico, which was on the Western front, trance, called prostas, which served as a porch, and
Arhitec, had, on each side, an apartment, of which one was
was necessary to suspend the performance, and the Part I. ture. called thalamus, and the other antithalamus. At the spectators retired to a covered portico behind the scena.
extremity of the prostas was a passage leading to a Among the Ancients, the Theatrical representations took
dwelt. On one side of the vestibule was a dining room, to each of these a particular kind of decoration was bel
or triclinium, so called, probably, from its contaiuing a adapted. For Tragedy, the scene represented Palaces triple couch for the company at meals ; and, on the and Temples, of magnificent forms; for Comedy, streets other, a painted room, or room for pictures, called with private dwelling-houses; and for Satire, were pinacotheca. The peristyle last mentioned formed the painted all the circumstances of a rural prospect. And
centre of the men's apartments ; on the Eastern side of to exhibit these different subjects, when required, there id
it were the libraries, and on the Western side the exedre, were placed, in vertical positions, in front of the wall or places for study, conversation, and exercise. The of the scena, triangular prisms of wood, called periactoi, Northern side was occupied by the æci, or apartments for because they turned on axes: on each side of these the master of the family, and a vestibule in its centre led was a painting, representing some part of one of to a portico, which formed the exterior of the building the scenes which it was intended to exhibit, and when towards the North.
the parts relating to one subject were, by the revoluFrom the dwelling-houses of the Greeks we may pro- tion of the periactoi, brought into a plane surface, the s velitbe ceed to describe, in a few words, the disposition of the scene was complete. De la The parts of their Theatres. The form of these buildings on Gardens and promenades were made about the
the exterior was nearly semicircular; they were gene- Theatres, for the entertainment of the company before HETER
rally situated on one side of a hill, and the seats of the and after the performance.
Greek Theatre, which is given with this Work, is taken
broad flat surfaces, or landing places, concentric with see pl. viii.
the Acropolis. It is formed by a semicircular excavation
steps, was exactly equal to three-quarters of a circle, the spectators were cut, which, consequently, were supCheat and within this curved line was a level space, which the ported by the rock itself. A semicircular wall is carried
Greeks called the orchestra, on which the dances were round the upper part of the excavation, and is strength performed
ened by buttresses on the exterior of the Theatre. This Beyond the chord line which limited the orchestra, wall, which probably formed the back of the colonnade was a level stage, raised about 10 or 12 feet above the above the seats, is 248 feet in diameter, and 7.8 feet orchestra, on which the actors performed their parts; thick, and has rectangular recesses made in it, with this was called the logeion, and it was terminated vaulted tops. The lower part of the wall of the scena by the scena, or wall against which the scenes were remains in the gorge of the excavation, with part of the
exhibited. Its length was nearly equal to the internal staircases at each extremity. This contains some semitizera i diameter of the Theatre, and its depth was limited circular-headed arches; but both it and the semicircular ated by the circumference of the circle formed by complet- wall are of later date than the original Theatre, and pro
ing the curve of the lower step surrounding the or- bably were the work of Herodes Atticus. chestra.
The Odeon was a building similar to a Theatre, and The Odeon The height of the scena depended upon the magni- intended for the exhibition of Musical performances. of Pericles. he antude of the Theatre, and it is described by Vitruvius as Pausanias describes one, which was erected at Athens quadres equal to that of the colonnade on the top of the seats. by Pericles ; and the authors of the Antiquities of that Lind, Three doors were formed through it, of which the cen- city suppose that a semicircular excavation in the rock
one was for those performers who represented the of the Acropolis, below the South-Eastern angle. is the citizens, and the other two for such as personated stran- place in which it stood. It must have resembled a Theatre
gers; an arrangement which accorded with that pre- in form, but probably it had no scena, and in the gorge zing di scribed for the entrances of private houses.
of the building might be a portico or colonnade. Pau. The colonnade at the top of the steps was roofed over, sanias
says the roof was like the tent of Xerxes, which but the rest of the Theatre was without cover, except may imply that it was of a conical form. The colonnade
a great piece of cloth was occasionally drawn over, was adorned with the prows and sterns, and the timbers to protect the spectators from the heat of the sun, or of the roof were formed of the masts of the vessels which from a shower of rain. If a heavy rain took place, it had been taken from the Persians.
n the thaigas
as a su
In the Supplement to Stuart's Athens is given the torus is in the form of an inverted echinus. The capital Park present state of the few Greek Theatres the destruction of is separated from the shaft by a groove surrounding
which is not so complete as to prevent any trace of their the column, and consists of elegant foliage, disposed Remains of plan from being discovered. Of those situated in about a cylindrical block, which seems to be a continu. Greek The
Europe, besides the Theatre of Bacchus beforemen- ation of the shaft of the column; a small row of plain Europe.
tioned, we select the following. At Cheronea are the leaves, resembling those of the lotus, surrounds it at remains of some, the seats of which appear to have bottom, and above these is a taller row, composed of been partly cut in the rock, and in which the diazo- clusters of leaves resembling those of the nettle. From mata are visible. In one at Argos, the lower range of the middle leaf in front rise two stems, each of which seats coincides with the circumference of the semicircle, afterwards divides into two others; of these one pair but from the appearance of the ground, it is probable diverges to the right and left, and curls under the angies that the two upper ranges were flanked by two walls of the abacus, the other forms double rolutes in front of perpendicular to the scena, and touching the back of the the capital. The groove which separates the shaft from diazomatæ above the first range. Two flights of steps the capital of the column, seems to leave the lower are observable, considerably distant from each other, for course of foliage unsupported, and gives the column an the purpose of ascending from the lower to the upper unfinished appearance; but if, as is probable, the groove ranges of seats; and there were, probably, two others was intended to contain a metallic moulding or row of close to the external walls. On the banks of the Al- ornaments encircling the column, that objection is repheus, at Megalopolis, has been a Theatre, which was moved: we may observe, however, that though the erected on one side of an artificial mound.
column is, undoubtedly, in itself, highly elegant, yet the Ruins of several Theatres are still to be seen in va. cutting of the capitals by the wall of the building must rious parts of Asia Minor, and those which are in the have always produced a disagreeable effect when the best state of preservation are at Stratonicea, Miletus, columns were viewed in flank. and Laodicea; representations of which are given in The architrave is divided horizontally into three the IId Volume of the Ionian Aniiquities. In the faciæ, and the frize is sculptured with figures representwalls are several semicircular-headed arches, formed by ing the story of Bacchus and the Tyrrhenian pirates ; voussoirs, but not the smallest information can be ob- in the cornice is a row of dentels resting upon the frize, tained of the date of their construction; and, no doubt, and the entablature is crowned with a row of plain they were erected at the time during which the Romans knobs instead of a cymatium. This kind of ornament had possession of that part of the World. In one of above the cornice seems to have been very common in the Theatres at Scythopolis, in Syria, Mr. Bankes has the ancient Temples, if we may judge from the many discovered a complete example of the echeic chambers medals on which it is represented, though scarcely any under the seats, with a gallery of communication, afford- example of it occurs, except in this building. ing access to each chamber, for the purpose of arranging The frize and architrave are each formed of one block and modulating the vases.
of marble, cut in the form of a ring; these are crowned When an individual among the Greeks gave a thea- by the roof, which is a solid piece of marble, approachgic Monu. trical or musical entertainment, in which the performers ing to a conical form on the exterior, and the interior is
contended with each other for the prize of superior skill, excavated in the form of a segment of a sphere. The Lysicrates.
it seems to have been customary to erect a monument whole roof, or tholus, rests upon the cylindrical wall,
practise the exercises which were to qualify them The columus may be said to be of the Corinthian for the defence of the community to which they Order; their shafts are fluted, and the longitudinal belonged. Little more of them is now to be known fillets that separate the channels, end at top in points of than what may be obtained from a general description
The base of each column consists of two tori given by Vitruvius, (v. 11.) which we have already with a scotia between them, and is connected with the extracted in our Miscellaneous Division, under Gymnapedestal by a congé, or inverted cavetto; the upper sium, and which need not, therefore, be repeated here.
At Epidaurus, traces may be seen of a vast system of that front, and each extremity is ornamented with a Part I. edifices, containing Temples, Baths, Xysti, and Theatres Corinthian pilaster. About the middle of each of the
for the accommodation of persons visiting the Temple lateral walls was formed a projection towards the exteRemains of of Æsculapius for the recovery of their health. Similar rior, of about the same dimensions as the portico be
edifices exist in ruins at Ephesus, Laodicea, Alexandria, forementioned, and, like it, intended probably for an Troas, and at many other places in Asia ; and at Præ- entrance; and nearly midway between each of these neste, in Italy.
projections and the two end walls of the enclosure, was A very ancient edifice, probably a Palæstra, formerly formed a semicircular recess, 33 feet in diameter, which existed at Thoricus, on the South-Eastern coast of Attica. perhaps was intended as an exedra, or retired place for It was of a rectangular form, 104.67 feet long, and 48 conversation. feet wide, and consisted of a space enclosed by co- There are traces, quite round the interior of the lumns, but without walls; the columns stood on a quadrangle, of a peristyle or colonnade, consisting of a general basement formed in steps on each side, and double row of columns at about 23 feet from the walls ; were of the Doric Order, fluted at top and bottom and near the middle of the quadrangle are some old only, but no part of the entablature remains. The foundations, but it is impossible to determine to what number of columns in front of the building was they have belonged. seven, from which it is inferred that the building could At Pæstum, in Italy, are the remains of a peristyle Peristyle at not have been a Temple; since then there must have which, as has been said, was formerly considered to be Pæstum. been a column opposite the doorway, contrary to the part of a pseudodipteral Temple, but the destination of practice of the Ancients, and to every notion of conve- which is now thought to have been very different. The nience; the number in flank was fourteen. The height columns stood upon a rectangular basement, 177 feet of the columns is 17.441 feet, and the lower diameter long and 75 feet wide, with each side formed in steps 3.317 feet.
like those surrounding a Temple. In front were nine In the Island of Delos also appears to have been a Doric columns, a circumstance which, one would think, Palæstra, which, from the name of Philip of Macedon might have led to a suspicion that the building could not inscribed on the architrave, was probably erected in the have been a Temple, since one of the columns must time of that Monarch, though its form and the occasion have been opposite the entrance. The peristyle has of its erection are both unknown. The columns are eighteen columns in each flank, and there is a row of of the Doric Order, and their style is lighter than that columns along the middle of the interior, and parallel of any other known example of the Order. The height to the flanks, probably for the support of a general of the column is 19,305 feet, and the lower diameter is roof, which, as there was no cella, would require such 2.958 feet; consequently, the height is equal to 6.5 support from the impossibility of getting materials long times the diameter, and the heiglit of the entablature is enough to extend across the breadth of the edifice. A 4.912 feet, or of that of the column.
work thus constructed may, with great probability, be The face of the architrave is in a vertical plane, which, supposed to have been intended for the performance of if produced, would fall about the middle of the length of gymnastic exercises, for the delivery of Philosophical the column in front; the faces of the metopes are in the lectures, or it may have served as a market-place. same plane, and those of the triglyphs project about two The height of the columns is 20.965 feet, and the inches in front, as is the case in the frize of the Temple dianieter at bottom is 4.709 feet; but the sides of the of Apollo, in the same Island. The echinus in the capital shaft are remarkably curved ; at one-third of the height has nearly the form of an inverted frustum of a cone. the diminution is op of the lower diameter; at two-thirds
This must be considered as the latest example of the diminution is Ig, and at the top of the shaft is what may be called the Grecian Doric ; that Order, Where the antæ of a Temple would be, there are here soon after this time, ceased to be employed in Greece, two pilasters which present some peculiarities. They are and instead of it was substituted the Corinthian.
20 feet high, including the capital, the height of which is The remains of a building coming under the denomi- 3 feet; the breadths at top and bottom are nearly equal nation of a Palæstra are still to be seen at Athens. The to the upper and lower diameters of the colunins, and authors of the Antiquities of Athens call it the Stoa, the sides are curved in a similar manner. A plain and they suppose it to be that which Pausanias calls fillet separates the shaft from the capital, which has the Poikile, and from which the followers of Zeno had the form of a cavetto, projecting at top and resembling that name of Stoics ; but from the indications of a Roman which crowns Egyptian buildings; it is covered by a style observed in it, the conductors of the recent edition square abacus, and has a small ornament suspended of that Work, think it may have been one of the build- from each angle. ings erected by Hadrian.
The peristyle was crowned by an entablature, of It is a rectangular enclosure, 376 feet long and 252 which the face of the architrave, if produced, would fall feet broad; and in the middle of one of the shorter sides a little within the foot of the column; and a large is an entrance gate, elevated on a stereobata, to the moulding, now destroyed, separated this member from top of which there is an ascent by six steps. This por- the frize. The exterior of the frize is in a vertical plane, tico, which is 34 feet long and 21 feet broad, has four which falls a little within the hypotrachelion, and there Corinthian columns in front, and is covered by a pedi- are no triglyphs. The cornice is entirely lost. ment roof. The whole extent of this side of the enclo- It is right to observe here, that, in modern Architec. sure is also ornamented with Corinthian columns de- ture, the name of Portico is given only to the columns tached from the wall, and standing on pedestals as high and roof placed before a doorway; but the Romans as the top of the stereobata ; and the entablature of the applied the term, generally, to any system of columns wall is broken vertically, so as to project from the wall supporting a roof. Thus the colonnade surrounding a over each column. The two lateral walls of the qua- building on the exterior, or any court in the interior, drangle are extended about 16 feet beyond the line of was called, indifferently, peristyle or porticus.
ratio of the length to the breadth, by adopting a rule Parit
nearly as simple as that of Vitruvius ; for we find in the The Principles of Grecian Architecture. Temples of Theseus and of Minerva Parthenon, at
Athens, and in those of Juno Lucina and of Concord, The reason
It seems to have been the intention of the ancient at Agrigentum, the number of intercolumniations in of adopting Architects that the lengths, breadths, and heights of flank is double the number of columns in front, or which proportions
Temples, as well as the dimensions of all their members, is the same thing, the number of columns in flank is in the formation of
should constantly bear certain proportions to each other; one more than double the number in front; and in Temples. so that all such buildings might be constructed accord- these examples, the lengths of the Temples are to their
ing to a system founded on the established relations breadths nearly in the ratio of 2.3 to 1. The propor-
ture. It has been alleged that the magnitude of any tered The relations between the several members of the one member being given, the form of the whole buildGrecian Orders will be presently exhibited from the ing, and the distribution of all its parts were determined existing examples of those Orders ; we purpose here from it by invariable rules; but this must be understood only to show what relations, if any, subsisted in the ge- with some limitation, for the whole practice of the neral elements of the Temples themselves.
Greeks shows that, in their Architectural works, they In the IVth Chapter of the IVth Book, Vitruvius, used their discretion, and indulged in considerable li
. tion between speaking of rectangular Temples surrounded by columns, berty. It may, however, be safely affirmed, that when the length and breadth
states that the length of the Temple should be double a Greek 'Temple of any given Order was to be built, of Temples.
its breadth; and, as he mentions afterward the pro- it was only necessary to decide upon three arbitrary portions of the cella and pronaos, his meaning pro. points ; viz. the diameter of the column, the number of bably is, that that proportion should subsist between the columns in front, and the species of intercolumniation; two sides of a parallelogram which pass through the then every part of the edifice might be determined by centres of the surrounding columns, or which circum- established proportions, with a few modifications describe the bottoms of all their shafts.
pending upon local or other circumstances. But though there is an approximation to this propor- Vitruvius seems to consider that a particular number tion in all the Greek examples, it cannot be said that it of columns was necessary in front of each of the differholds good precisely in any one of them. In the Temple ent species of Temples; viz. six for peripteral
, eight of Jupiter, at Selinus, the length is to the breadth in for pseudodipteral, and ten for hypæthral Temples; but the ratio of 2.05 to 1; in the Temple of Theseus, these this rule has not been adhered to in practice; the latter terms are to one another as 2.3 to l; and from a mean kind of Temples, for example, have sometimes ten, of the six best examples of the Doric Order in Greece sometimes eight, and, occasionally, only six columns in and Sicily, the proportion between the length and breadth front. On contemplating the forms of the Greek Temis as 2.21 to 1.
ples, we cannot avoid perceiving that they possess a Distribution In order to give to the flank and front of a Temple great and noble simplicity of character ; every member
the proportions he requires, measuring on lines passing appears to have its use, and the horizontal lines of the front and
through the centres of the columns of the peristyle, stereobata and entablature, being unbroken, permit the flank. Vitruvius directs that the number of intercolumniations length and breadth of the edifice to be appreciated at
on each flank should be double the number on each once by the eye.
blatures belonging to the principal examples of the But in the later examples of the Doric Order, the Grecian Doric Order, and will be useful in enabling us Greek Architects seem to have intended to increase the to ascertain the characteristic proportions of that Order
of the columns in
oi thel cian D column