vation of

vation of Milem with out snow

tary, desti

to the

found cone


pass of

Meteor. the enormous deviations of the snow line on the moun- Tartary is deserving also of much consideration in an Meleor ology tains in question, from all the theoretical deductions inquiry of this nature, influencing, as all extensive plains ology. that had been previously made.

do, every circumstance of temperature. By observaGreat ele- (384.) 'The village and Temple of Milem were found tions made on the crest of the Nitee pass, Captain Great eleby this enterprising surveyor at the respective eleva- Webb found the Sutledge to flow in a plain elevated

Table Lan tions of 11,405 and 11,682 feet above Calcutta; extensive 14,924 feet above the level of the sea ; yet so far are

of Tar. fields of buck wheat and Tartaric barley occupying the the great plains known to the Hindús by the name of Also the ridge of

space between the two. A twelvemonth after these Undes, or Dondes, * from being buried in eternal snow, tute of per mountains observations were made, viz. on the 21st of June, 1818, as our ordinary theories would lead us to suppose, the petual

Captain Webb proceeded Southward from Jóshi-math, banks of the river afford the finest pastures for myriads show. South of and from the Dauli River, observed barometrically the of quadrupeds throughout the year.

The town of Dauli

altitude of a station on the ridge of mountains to the Daba, also, which Moorcroft asserted to be only a sumriver.

South of that river. Its altitude he found to be 11,680 mer residence, appears to be tenanted in all seasons.
feet above the level of Calcutta, yet the place was sur- In the neighbourhood of this place, and near Doompoo,
rounded by flourishing woods of hoary oak, long-leaved both considerably higher than the bed of the Sutledge,
pine, and arborescent rhododendron, and the whole Captain Webb was informed that the finest crops of a
surface clothed with a rich vegetation as high as the grain called Ooa were gathered, from which the natives
knee, extensive beds of strawberries in full flower, and make their bread.
plenty of currant-bushes in blossom all around, in clear (388.) Captain Gerard observes, in his surveys Captain
spots of rich black mould.

published in the Ist volume of the Transactions of Gerard Also the

On the following day Captain Webb reached the sum- the Royal Asiatic Society of London, that when proPilgointi

mit of the pass Pilgointi Churhaï, and found its eleva. ceeding by the Chárang pass, 17,348 feet high, to the snow-beds Churhai.

tion to be 12,642 feet above the same level, or more than valley of Nangalti, many snow-beds were crossed, commenc12,700 feet above the sea. A thick mist confined the pros- and that, at about the height of 16,300 feet, the

con- ing at pect, but no snow was to be seen contiguous to the spot. tinuous snow-beds commenced.” In another place,

16,300 lee The surface exhibited a black soil, unless where the however, he remarks that the mountains in the neighbare rock appeared, covered with strawberry plants, bourhood of Chárung are all of blue slate, naked to butter-cups, dandelions, and a profusion of other flowers. their tops, and exhibiting decay and barrenness in their Even a projecting part of a higher mountain was desti- most frightful forms. They tower in sharp, detached tute of snow, and, as far as the view extended, it groups to about 18,000 feet; no vegetation approachappeared enamelled with flowers. The goatherds of ing their bases, nor do their elevated summits offer any the country are accustomed to lead their flocks to pas- rest to snow.t Upon the left bank of the Táglá river, ture during the months of July and August upon a yet mountains of an elevation of 16,000 feet are found, on loftier ridge, estimated to be as much above the pass of which no snow appears. Upon the right bank, the Pilgointi, as this was above the preceding day's en- summits seem to be 18,000 feet, and with but little campment; that is, nearly a thousand feet, and which snow in streaks. The mountains also which enclose therefore removes the actual boundary of congelation the dell of the Táglá river, are between 19,000 and to a still higher elevation.

20,000 feet in elevation, and but just tipped with Snows not (385.) The Temple of Kedar-nath before alluded to, perpetual according to a mean of five barometrical observations, at 12,000

(389.) A proof, likewise, of the disparity between Renarks feet on

is 11,897 feet above Calcutta, or 12,000 feet above the the altitudes of the perpetual snows on the North- altitudes Scuthern

level of the sea; but no snow remained in the vici- ern and Southern sides of the Himalaya moun- perpetua side, in lat. nity of the Temple later than the beginning of July; so

be gathered from the following remarks of Norther 30° 40'.

that under the latitude of 30° 40', at the last-mentioned Captain Gerard. Zamsírí, a mere halting-place for and Sou elevation, the snows were not perpetual on the South- travellers, on the banks of the Shélti, is 15,600 feet era side ern side of the Himalaya Mountains.

above the level of the sea, a height equal to that of the Himala: Remark- (386.) Another remarkable example is afforded by passes through the outer range of the snowy mounable exam. Captain Webb's observations on the crest of the Nitee tains, and yet, he says, there is nothing to remind the ple afforded Ghaut. On the 21st of August, at 3 P. M., four baro- traveller of the Himalaya. Gently sloping hills and

meters gave a mean elevation of the quicksilver equal tranquil rivulets, with banks of turf and pebbly beds,
to 16.27 inches, the temperature at the same time flocks of pigeons, and herds of deer, present the idea
being 47o. From a Journal kept by General Hard- of a much lower elevation. But Nature, continues
wicke at Dumdum, about fifty feet above the sea, the Captain Gerard, has adapted the vegetation to this
mean of five observations, of which that on the 21st extraordinary country; for did it extend no higher than
of August formed the middle term, gave for the baro- on the Southern face of the Himalaya, Tartary would
metric pressure 29.51 inches, and for the average tem- be uninhabitable both by man or beast. On ascending
perature 849.4. These comparative results, after allow- the Southern slope of the snowy range, the extreme
ing for the height of Dumdum, gave for the total ele- height of cultivation is found at 10,000 feet, and even

vation of the Nitee Ghaut above the sea, 16,814 feet. there the crops are frequently cut green. The highest Lower limit At this great elevation not a vestige of snow was to be habitation is 9500 feet, and 11,800 feet may be reckoned of congela. seen on the Ghaut, nor on the projecting shoulder of the upper limit of forests, and 12,000 that of bushes, tion on the mountain ridge, rising about 300 feet on the West- although, in a few sheltered situations, dwarf-birches, Northern side not less ern side of the pass; and we may hence conclude from than 17,000 it, that the height of the lower limit of congelation, on the * Signifying the Region of Wool. It is from this lofty region the feet, Norlhern side of the Himalaya range, cannot be less Cashmir manufacturers are chiefly supplied with the material from

wbich their celebrated shawls are made. than seventeen thousand feet.

+ It is possible that their great steepness may prevent the soow (387.) The great elevation of the Table Land of from resting on them.


tains may


& be

Meteor- and small bushes are found almost at 13,000 feet. lower than 509 or 45°; the sun developing its whole Meteor ology. But if we go to the Baspă river, the highest village power during the day, and a shower of rain but rarely olugy.

will be found at an elevation of 11,400 feet, cul- falling.
tivation reaching to the same altitude, and forests ex- (391.) Humboldt has likewise remarked, that if all Effects of
tending to 13,000 feet at least. Advancing further, the mountains covered with eternal snow, instead of grouping of
we find villages at the last-mentioned elevation, cul- being connected together in continued chains, or sup-

tivation 600 feet higher, fine birch-trees at 14,000 ported by table land of a greater or less extent, formed
feet, and támá bushes at 17,000 feet. Eastward, to- insulated cones of equal dimensions, it is probable that
wards Mánassaróvai, according to the accounts of the limits of the perpetual snow, under different meri-
the Tartars, crops and bushes thrive at a still greater dians, would preserve a constant elevation above an

isothermal line traced at the level of the sea; and (390.) From the preceding observations it is ap- did such cones exigt, the altitude of the perpetual parent, that excepting the determination of the spot snows might enable us even to estimate the measure of from which the Gauri river emerges from the snow, and the summer heat in the plains below. But as the iso. Where isothe observations made at the Chárang pass, no direct thermal lines have convex summits in the interior of a thermal barometrical observations have yet been made at the large continent, and as the temperature of the summer

lines at the

surface have actual elevation of the perpetual snows on this mag- in such a region exceeds that which otherwise the con

convex nificent range. The determinations that have been ditions of latitude would afford, the perpetual snows summits, made connected with the elevated points and plains on must attain a corresponding excess of elevation. Be- perpetual which the perpetual snows are never found, afford only sides this effect of the radiation of the summer heat of snows are indirect evidence on the subject, but yet are sufficient the plains, there are also other causes operating in the

higher. to awaken the most ardent curiosity respecting the de- higher regions of the air, which, together with the víations which this region presents, from all our pre- peculiar conformation of mountains, unequally raise or

viously received notions respecting the positions of the lower the limit of constant snow above the same isoPepet za! perpetual snows in the latitudes referred to. Humboldt thermal band. Humboldt sometimes met with heats 930s de has truly remarked, that of all the phenomena con- in the middle of the Andes, equivalent to those of the pand such nected with the distribution of heat, no one is more plains, and which he found to be more insupportable,

complicated, or more dependent on the influences of because the air of valleys of that kind is but seldom beide particular localities, than that of the perpetual snows; agitated by the winds.

and it is not too much to say, in the present condition (392.) Finally, it is to be observed respecting the Final re

of our knowledge, that we are unable to account satis- mountains of India, that they occupy a position in a marks on Driscalip factorily for the extraordinary anomalies we have considerable degree central, and in consequence have Himalaya

alluded to. That the great elevation of the plane of the what has been denominated a continental climate; that eralinis perpetual snows, in the regions referred to, is an effect is, summers exceedingly hot

, and winters very cold. of a very copious radiation of heat from the elevated Iu a climate of this nature it is also found, that comsada plains of Tartary, is certain ; but, unless we are able paratively but little snow falls, when the air is cooled

to assign a numerical value to this radiating power, below 10° of temperature. The snows are, therefore, we are deprived of every means of tracing its effects on not necessarily thicker, where the winters are more the higher regions of the air. We know, indeed, too rigorous, or where the atmosphere passes rapidly to its little of the nature of terrestrial radiation, to attempt to extreme degree of cold. If, says Humboldt, the curves form an estimate of its influence, when developed on of equal annual temperature, when traced on the plains, so great a scale as in the plateaus referred to. We have a concave summit in Asia, the lines of equal sumknow but little of the effects of declivities in modifying mer, on the contrary, are raised considerably; and the circumstances of temperature; or of the influence where this is the case, anomalies like the present must that the very nakedness of the soil may exercise on the exist. And when we consider that the enormous range air which reposes on it; nor ean we attempt to measure of mountain and table land, the influences of which on the play of the currents which descend from the neigh- the atmosphere we have been endeavouring to trace, exbouring summits, or to trace the effects of the humidity ceeds 800 leagues in length, and 400 leagues in of the forests which lie scattered at their base. Added to breadth, disclosing in the whole extent of its surface, a this, we know that the summers are exceedingly short, quantity exceeding 3,266,500 square British miles, we commencing about the middle of June, and ending about cannot but expect that a mass, so extraordinary from its the middle of August, scarcely ever extending to the magnitude and position, should disclose phenomena close of that month; a circumstance which adds new connected with climate, the numerical effects of which conditions of difficulty to the whole inquiry. So early cannot be estimated in the present condition of Meteoras the 10th of August, we are told by Mr. Moorcroft, ological science. the thermometer in the morning fell to the freezing (393.) The chains of Caucasus and of the Pyrenees Snows of point, and his tent was covered two inches thick with occupy. nearly the same average latitude, and a com- Caucasus snow; and on the 28th, near the Nitee pass, the mer- parison of the perpetual snows in the two ranges choses of the cury stood at 28°, ice being formed 24 inches thick. discloses a very interesting fact. Mount Kasbek, in

Pyrenees, The fact, also, of the ripening of grain at so great an the first of these chains, is scarcely half a degree although elevation, seems to favour Mr. Daniell's opinion of more South than the Pyrenees, and yet the per- nearly in the superior energy of the solar rays in the higher petual snows are supported on its Northern slope, ac- same latie regious of the air. We know, indeed, that on the cording to the barometric measurements of Englehardt Southern side of the Himalaya chain, at an altitude and Parrot, at an elevation of 10,552 feet, whereas of eleven or twelve thousand feet, the temperature in the range of the Pyrenees, as we shall presently Taries during the hottest part of the day from 60° to see, Ramond estimated this limit so low as 7674 feet; 75° in the shade and during the night descends not and if we adopt the higher elevation given by HumVOL. V.


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Snows on

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boldt, we shall still find a difference of 250 or 300 Meteor

Van Buch, the altitude of the snow-line between the Meteor ology fathoms in the small range of half a degree of latitude.

ology. parallels of 451° and 461", amounts to 9080 feet; The cause of this anomaly is to be attributed to the and that in Appenzel it must be 100 fathoms lower Cause of

peculiar position of this mountain chain ; partly from than in the Valais and in Savoy, and cannot exceed great ele

its being situated in a narrow isthmus between two 8402 feet. vation of

1 seas, but principally from the effects produced on its Saussure made an ingenious estimate of the refrisnows of Caucasus. temperature by the very extensive plain which ranges gerating influence of the great snow-fields which exist

from its base through Moscow to the Icy Sea. And that in the Alps, in sinking the line of the perpetual snows,
an increase in the altitude of the perpetual snows may and found it capable of depressing their range 600 feet
be reasonably inferred from the latter cause, may be below its level, even on the lesser mountains of the Saussure's
gathered from the great elevation of the isothermal Alps. Both Ramond and Saussure have remarked the ingenious
curves in this continent. Humboldt remarks, that at chilling influence of these snow-fields in producing con-

estimate of

their refriMoscow, in latitude 55° 45', and on the isothermal trary flexures in the snow-lines of the Alps, as in the gerating in line of 40°.1, the temperature of the hottest month rises case of the Pyrenees. These flexures may in some fuence. to 700.5; whereas at Paris, in latitude 48° 50', on the cases be very numerous and varied. Thus, in a group isothermal line of 51o.1, the warmth of the hottest of elevated peaks, as in fig. 8, if vertical planes be supmonth amounts in general but to 65°.3.

posed to pass from the peak A to the summits denoted Altitude of

(394.) The altitude.of the perpetual snows on the by B, C, D, and E, through the curve of the perpetual perpetual mountains of the Pyrenees, is differently reported by snows, a series of sections may be presented of an ex

different authors. By Humboldt their elevation is stated ceedingly diversified character, arising from the unPyrenees. at 1400 fathoms, but according to Ramond, their ge- equal radiating powers of the surfaces below. And

neral range commences at 7674 feet, and presents a these inequalities will be found not only to exist on the
snowy band of 500 or 600 fathoms in breadth. These innumerable surfaces of a great mountain range like the
mountains are very abrupt, and numerous snow-fields Alps, or the Andes, as rendered visible by the snows
exist, some of which are of considerable extent; and with which they are covered, but inequalities somewhat
Ramond has deduced from them a most interesting analogous must exist in the atmosphere above those
fact, that the snow-line along the breadth of the moun- mountains whose summits do not reach the range of
tains constitutes a curve whose convexity is turned perpetual snow. A hot valley will have a tendency to
towards the Earth, and whose apex is probably at a raise it,* whereas a snow-field will exercise an oppo-

middle distance between the opposite sides of the site effect. The flexures of the perpetual snows, also, in Flexure in range. This flexure in the perpetual snows arises from the atmosphere of a level country like Russia, must be Perpetual the plane a twofold cause. The warm air ascending the sides of of a much less variable kind than in the mountainous snow's mos

uniform ov the mountains has a tendency to elevate the plane of regions of Norway or Swisserland. The plane of the

the Ocean tual snows. the perpetual snows; whereas the chilling influence of perpetual snows is most uniform over the Ocean.

the great fields of snow, causes its middle portion to (396.) The Carpathian mountains, also, present some Carpathia:
descend; so that instead of preserving its continued interesting anomalies connected with the snow-line, mountains
concavity, as A B fig. 7, it presents a convex section, as Occupying a position between the parallels of 48° 55'
CD. The observations of Ramond were principally and 49° 15', and extending through a degree and a half
directed to Mont Perdu, and he remarks, that snow of longitude, they exercise, in conjunction with the
exists from the great glacier to its summit; but that neighbouring plains, a considerable influence on Me-
the thickness gradually diminishes, and becomes very teorological phenomena. Although situated to the Althoug
inconsiderable towards the top, on account of its North of the Alps, the perpetual snows are found at a North of

trenched form not admitting of any great accumu- much higher elevation than on the mountains of Swis- Alps, the Difference lation. On the Northern side, the snows obtain, serland. Mont Pilatus, for example, in the latter much high in snows of by degrees, an extraordinary consistency; but on the Country, although only 6927 feet above the sea, is than on Northern

Southern, the soil can be readily distinguished ; a fact, covered with perpetual snow; whereas not one of the mountains era sides of however, which Ramond is disposed to attribute less to peaks of the Carpathian range is found to be so, though

of Swisse

land. Pyrenees. the action of the solar heat, than to the extreme precipi- the great Lomnitzerspitze attains an altitude of 8464 tancy of that part of the mountain pass.

feet. From different considerations, Wahlenbergt supSnows of (395.) Saussure, in his most interesting journey, poses that if this mountain had an elevation of 8526

fixes the limit of perpetual snow in the Alps at S313 feet, it would just reach the snow-line. Snow lies,
feet, or 9:273 feet, or at a mean elevation of 8793 feet. indeed, during the whole year, in some of the gullies
We know, also, that very considerable differences exist and chasms of these mountains, and there is a kind of
in the altitudes of the perpetual snows on the Northern glacier at Eisthalerspitze, arising from this cause. This
and Southern sides of the Alps. Of Mont Blanc, it anomaly in the elevation of the snow-line is to be attri-
may be remarked, that the mantle of snow which covers buted to the hot winds from the plains of Hungary,
its top exceeds in elevation 4000 feet, and occupies which being by far the most extensive in Europe, and
horizontally an extent of 9000 feet; the total height situated considerably to the Souih, the heat in summer
of the ice and snow, estimated from the source of the is very great. A contirmation of this anomaly is afforded
Arveron, at the bottom of the glacier of Montanvert, in the vegetation of the Carpathian range. Corn and
to the summit of the mountain, being not less than
12,000 feet in perpendicular height. According to May not large towas have a tendency to raise the plane of

snows above its proper elevation, from the currents of warm air * This interesting geological feature exercises an important in- almost constantly ascending from thein ? Howard remarks, that fluence on the problem of the perpetual snows, nor is the observation London is always warmer than the weighbouring country at a mean to be confined to the mountains of the Pyrenees. The Alps, like rate by more than a degree and a half. them, are steepest to the South, but the mountains of Scandinavia + Wahlenberg on the Carpathian Mountains, Göttingæ impensis have their most precipitous sides on the North.

Vandenhoek et Ruprecht 1814,

of perpe

the Alps


fruit trees Jourish at a greater elevation on the out- (399.) According to Wahlenberg, the altitude of Meteor eves

skirts of these mountains, than in Swisserland, and the Sulitelma is 5675 feet, and that of the perpetual snows ology.
region of beeches is much richer in plants than the same on its sides 3837 feet. In ihe latitude of 70°, Von
region in the range of the Swiss Alps.

Buch assigns to them an elevation of 3517 feet; but
Fez exam. (397.) of the Scandinavian peninsula it may be re- between Alten, to which this elevation belongs, and
ples of per marked, that Sweden, according to Von Buch, presents Hammerfest upon the Island of Qualoe, in the neigh-
3 ia

few examples of mountains upon whieh the snow rests bourhood of the great Ocean, the snow-line sinks to Swedes, but in summer; but Norway, consisting of a range of 2345 feet; affording the remarkable example of a deཚོ་རྒྱུ ན་ ཀུ

mountains extending from one of its extremičies to the pression of 1172 feet in an interval but little exceeding Remarkable stage

other, presents many examples of the perpetual snows. a degree; whereas between Fillefieldt and Alten, occu- depression
Esmark was the first to direct the attention of the Phi- pying ten degrees of latitude, the perpetual shows sink of snowoline.
losophic world to their range and elevation ; but it is but 2025 feet.
the later labours of Von Buch, Hagelstam, and Schouw, (400.) We have entered in the succeeding Table the
that have fixed their limits with accuracy.

later observations of Hagelstam and Schouw* on this
(398.) According to Hertzberg the altitude of the subject, and we shall, therefore, merely observe, that,
snow-line on Folgefonden is 5115 feet; and, although according to the latter, the snow-line is lower on the Snows
in the entire extent of this mountain range there occur Western than on the Eastern side of the Scandinavian lower on
no separate eminences, the whole forming one immense chain, by 1000 feet in latitude 67°, and 490 in 60°.the West-
mass of snow without division or valley, there never- This is, perhaps, not exactly what might have been ex- ern than con
theless occur many diversities in the altitude of the pected from the greater mean coldness of the Eastern side of the
perpetual snows, which it may be proper to advert to. side, nor does Professor Schouw explicitly assign the Scandina-

The Melderskin and Solen-Nuden present examples of cause. Dr. Brewster, however, thinks it to arise from vian chain. Friztion in sudden depressions of the snow-line. The absolute the greater range of temperature existing on the side 2 trade of elevation of the former mountain is 4860 feet, and of most distant from the Ocean subjecting it to a high

the latter 4796 feet, and the summits of both are temperature in summer, which is the principal cause
covered with everlasting snow. Flakes of snow lie in the reduction of the snow-line, notwithstanding the
even upon Age-Nuden, although its altitude is only greater intensity of the winter frost.
4587 feet. Von Buch attributes these changes to the (397.) The following Table contains a recapitulation
influence of the neighbouring sea.

The almost con- of the whole of the preceding results.
stant fog, says he, which shrouds the outermost islands,
the canopy of clouds covering the sky, and the thick * The observations of Schouw are contained in his Specimen
rains which exclude the influence of the sun from the Geographic Physicæ Comparativæ, a Work which promises to be of
ground, occasion the temperature of the summer

the greatest importance to Science.
months, during which alone the snow never melts, to

+ Dr. Brewster suspects a misprint in the Memoir where tha

latter number is called 1400, which is not the difference of the
be much less than in regions further removed from the heights as printed in the text, unless 4349, thu height of the snow-
sea. As we pass, however, from the snow-field of line on the Eastern side, is a mistake as very possibly it may be,
Folgefonden, the perpetual snows ascend, and after for 5340.
allowing for all the circumstances connected with it,

With respect to the difference in the altitudes of the snow-line

on the Eastern and Western sides of the mountains of Scandinavia, Von Buch is disposed to regard the mean altitude of it is worthy of remark, that similar ditlerences are observed with the snow-line, in the latitude of 61°, at 5542 teet. respect to tie final limit of trees.


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The Andes.

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Cordilleras of Mexico.

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Himalaya Mountains

in Asia.

{{Caucasus ..

451 to 46


1° 28's. 15802 Humboldt. Cotopaxi

041 S. 15924 Ditto. Affected by volcanic fires. Corazon ...........

0 32 S. 15719 Ditto. Antisana...

031 S. 15943 Ditto. Affected by the radiation of a vast plain. Rucupichincha...

0 10 S. 15700


? 15732 Ditto.
General result for the Equator.. 0 0 15748 Ditto.

18 59 N. 14977 Ditto.
18 59 15163 Sonncachmidt. Deduced from observations by the barometric formula of La


19 10 14069 Humboldt. Doubtful.
19 10 15060 | D'Alzate. Deduced from observations by the barometric formula of La

From whole of observations
made in Mexico....

190 15028 or Humboldt.

14708 (Gauri river

30 25 11543 Capt. Webb. Uncertain whether to be regarded as exact limit of perpetual Nitee Ghaut...

? 17000 Ditto.

This is the estimated altitude on the Northern side, below which

the perpetual snows do not reach. Chárang pass....:

? 16300 Capt. Gerard.
Mountains enclosing Dell of

Táglá River

? 19000 Ditto. Just ripped with snow.


20000 421

10552 Englehardt, Measured on the Northern slope of the mountains.

and Parrot. Pyrenees


8400 Humboldt. Ditto


7674 Ramond. Alps..


Saussure. to

9273 Ditto ....

451 to 461 9080 Von Buch. Appenzell..


8402 Ditto. Somewhat doubtful.
Carpathian range

48 55' 8526 Wahlenberg. No mountain in this range actually reaches the perpetual snows,

though the Lomnitzerspitze has an elevation of 8464 feet, and
49 15'

from the circumstances of temperature attending it, Wahlen-
berg infers the altitude of the perpetual snows to be bui

little above it.
Mountains of Sweden


6000 | Hagelstam. Mountains of Norway

59 10 60 5800

Ditto ...

59 to 60 5200 Schouw.


5115 Hertzberg. Ditto.


5000 | Hagelstam. Melderskin.

4860 Ditto. T'he snow-line is in reality lower than these numbers denote, ou Solen - Nuden

4796 Ditto.

account of their representing the altisudes of the mountains Age-Nuden

4587 Ditto.

themselves. The depression of the snow-line is remarkable.

Flakes of snow lie only on the latter mountain.
Mountains of Norway

60 to 61 4747 Schouw.
Mountains of Sweden


5800 Hagelstam. Mountains of Norway


5542 Von Buch. Fillefieldt in Norway.


5600 Hagelstam. Langfieldt in Norway

61 to 62 5410 Ditto. Mountains of Norway

61 to 62

5083 Schouw. Above the Doorefieldt..

62 to 63 5300 Hagelstam. Mountains of Norway

62 to 63 5142 Schouw. Mountains of Sweden

63 to 64 5200 Hagelstam. Tothe West offjällrygginNorway 63 to 64 4800 Ditto. Mountains of Norway

63 to 64 4925

Mountains of Sweden


4800 Hagelstam. Ditto


4400 Ditto. Sulitelma


3837 Wahlenberg. Mountains of Norway


3600 Schouw. Nordland in Norway

67 to 68 3900 Hagelstam. On the mountains. Ditto ....

67 to 68


On the coast,
Alten in Norway

69 to 70 3600

Mountains of Norway.


3517 Von Buch. Ditto ......


3300 Schouw. Hammerfest ..


2345 Von Buch. Mountains of Norway.


2200 Schouw. North Cape

71 10

2400 Hagelstam.

European Mountains.

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