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amply supplies, that all sects and denominations may live together in mutual toleration and peace, and be equally valuable members of the community in which they live. We have no doubt that the appeal so made, if properly and steadfastly pursued, abroad and at home, must exercise an immense and healthful power in the Christian world. And this is the legitimate mode for establishing a strong controlling influence in the affairs of other nations—by example first followed and sustained by reason and persuasion. Widely different is it from M. Kossuth's solidarity of the peoples, to be maintained and exercised by muskets and bayonets, by perpetual interference, on the part of every nation, with every other nation's affairs, and fostering and exciting foreign factions, by material aid. We hope that all such buccaneering homilies as he has preached, on the rights and duties of the peoples, absurd, unprincipled and mischievous as they are, will soon pass away from our land of sober sense and practical wisdom, and leave us to the guidance of our ancient maxim, so little approved or understood by the illustrious Hungarian--peace and friendly intercourse with all nations; entangling alliances and interventions with none.
Art. X.-MEDICAL SCHOOLS IN THE South. 1. Charleston Preparatory Medical School, by Doctors
Cain, Porcher, Miles, Flagg and Chisolm. 2. Charleston Summer Medical Institute, by Doctors
Myddleton and Fraser Michel, Doctors Hume, Robertson and Kinloch.
In no respect has the progress of the Southern States been more grateful or remarkable, during late years, than in the various fields of domestic education. Prior to the revolution, the sons of wealthy men, in Virginia and the Carolinas, were usually sent to Europe for this purpose, while the children of the poorer classes received but a nominal tuition, at the hands of a very sorry class of abecedarians at home. The revolutionary struggle closed the doors, in great degree, against the practice of the
wealthy, and our schools and colleges were thence to be sought mostly within the States. More densely settled, supposed to be more healthy, with their people engaged in pursuits which more naturally conduced mental attrition, the Northern States were tacitly allowed to occupy the relation to the South which had been formerly assigned to Oxford, Eton and Edinburgh; and the education of the Southern student, having liberal means, was sought for at Yale, Harvard, and other places, north of the Potomac. Virginia was the first of the Southern States to found her own schools -a fact due quite as much to her rank as a State, as to the position held by her great men. Still, the poorer classes of the people at home were subject to denial, or to such shifts and shortcomings as to render of small value the sort of learning which they could acquire from ordinary home sources. The schools of Virginia did not supersede, in the favour of the more southerly regions, those of New-England, as, from natural ties and sympathies, they might be supposed likely to do. Indeed, from the superior facilities afforded by the greater commercial intercourse between the Northern States and the South, it was more convenient to seek the educational regions of the former, than the nearer places of resort in Virginia ; and, down to a comparatively recent period, the alma mater for the Southern youth was still sought in New-England, and the mental nurture of our young was thus derived from a region which necessarily mingled a large infusion of bitter, if not poison, with the food which it bestowed. But the progress of natural events, which might be, and indeed was, predicted, necessarily wrought a rescue for us from this pernicious habit, and led, or is leading, our people to better sources of education, in a more thorough independence of their foreign and frequently hostile teachers. The progress of the abolition sentiment at the North-which grew into strength and power from the moment when the slave trade was denied to the philanthropic people of that section-naturally drove the Southern people from resorts which threatened their securities; and it happened, fortunately, that, keeping due pace with the growth of their necessity, the Southern towns had been growing rich and populous, while hundreds of native minds, in all the States of the South, had been exhibiting resources of
their own, for the purposes of education, such as left our people without excuse for seeking other teachers. The academies and colleges of Virginia were increased. North and South Carolina proceeded to build up, and to endow, their own. Georgia, Alabama and other States, exhibited an ambition, equally laudable and active, to compel the practice of home tuition ; and, at this day, scarcely any of these Southern sisters need to send their sons beyond their own precincts, in order to acquire the benefits of a polite and useful education. This, which is wholly true as regards a general education, is true also, but less entirely so, in respect to special branches of tuition, as the arts and sciences. But, even in these latter departments, the general progress has been very gratifying, and, in some of the Southern States, we can complain of no deficiencies. South-Carolina, in particular, fortunately situated to become the benign mother of younger States, in respect to learning, has been equally fortunate in the establishment of schools, purely professional, which are second to none in the country. Twenty-five years ago, when a medical college was first established in SouthCarolina, such was the stubborn indisposition to believe that anything good or great could originate at home, the scheme was met with absolute hostility from many, and a chilling indifference, an incredulous stare, amounting to denial, from most persons. The young and ardent advocates of the measure were not, however, to be discouraged. They belonged to that mouvement nature, to be found in all communities not absolutely exhausted, by which God appoints that a race shall be sustained and carried forward, by successive bounds, to its highest attainable summits of performance ; and they worked on, and triumphed over every obstacle, until, now, the reputation of the Medical College of South-Carolina, and of the medical men of the State, need shrink from no comparison which rivalry or doubt may offer. Such names as Geddings, Dickson, Holbrook, Moultrie, and others, take rank in the national calendar, and assert places and a position, for their owners, which meet nowhere with challenge or denial. Their individual endowments and labours were seconded by the circumstances of the community in which they lived. Charleston is one of the oldest of the cities of the South-the very oldest among
the larger cities, and, from the beginning, circumstances had rendered it certain that she must assert a high claim to civilization. Favoured especially by the British crown, founded by British nobility, settled mostly by younger sons of good families, who brought with them the better education of the old country, and were stimulated by its most honourable incentives, the community, at an early period, indicated tendencies of thought, polish, study and refinement, which elevated the general tone of the citizens, and created a moral atmosphere, which became, in time, especially favourable for the encouragement of professional study. In the medical profession particularly, from the earliest times, the city of Charleston obtained a singular eminence. Milligan, Chalmers. Lining, Garden, Ramsay, Elliott, McBride, Shecut, these were local authors, with a national, and, in some instances, a European reputation, to whom we are indebted for writings, still of value, at once medical and general. In their hands, science and art were happily fostered, and never at the expense of nature. They were observers, as well as students. They did not live more among books than among men; not more in society than in the fields. Some of them were botanists of the highest rank, and most of them are authorities, to this day, in the particular fields in which they studied. Their mantles have not fallen upon unworthy successors. The professors of medicine, in SouthCarolina, are among our most earnest students. While all the other professions seem to be stationary, or failing in the race, the young physicians of the State are steadily advancing along and up the heights, with a very sensible and striking progress. The “Charleston Medical Journal and Review” would be a credit to the profession in any country. Its editors, to an exact knowledge of the art, as taught in the particular school to which they belong, unite great industry and critical sagacity; and they fairly represent the class among us.
Their zeal, pride of profession, closeness of application, and thoroughness of research, has never been surpassed, and has rarely been equalled, in our country. They are infinitely in advance of all our other professions.
It is, perhaps, a natural consequence of this zeal, activity and thoroughness, that the plan of summer schools of medicine should be established among us. The Medi
cal College of South-Carolina had shown its necessity and importance by its results. Auxiliary schools could help the training of those who would seek their final education in its walls. The summer season is one, usually, of great leisure in the South-too frequently a season of license, as well as leisure. The loss of time during this season is prodigious. Why should it be lost? It is the plea of indolence only, that ascribes an effect to our climate in summer, by which the mental powers are measurably paralyzed. This is a mere pretext, and very much an absurdity. The climate, no doubt, predisposes to relaxation; but the resolve which will compel work will inevitably defeat this predisposition, and the habit of work and study is the simple secret by which work and study become easy
climate. It was a good idea, a mindimproving, health-giving idea, that of these
of these summer schools. Your lazy man is always in danger of dyspepsia. Your indolent man must feed and drink, and will groan with indigestion. Your languid voluptuary will have these and other diseases. All of these classes are pursued by a host of furies, worse than those who haunted the footsteps of Orestes. The secret of escape is brain sweat and body sweat, to employ a strong phrase of one of the old English dramatists. A Southern climate is one of the healthiest in the world, to those who sweat freely. It is your ennuyée, your lounger, your miserable lazy dog, black or white, whom chills shake and fevers shatter. Fever never overtakes the active man. The climate of the South, in summer, is very far from unfavourable to the prosecution of one's studies, if these are systematically pursued. Those who say otherwise are those who labour in jerks, and attempt study in occasional spasms. He who goes to his tasks of thought, as merchant and mechanic go to their employments, regularly, at a certain hour of the day, and addresses himself to his duties with a decided will, that never suffers him to make excuses to himself, will find no difficulty in doing quite as much in the South, in midsummer, as in any part of the world, at any season. We repeat, that the idea of medical schools for the summer is a very happy one, and calculated to be of immense benefit to the Southern people-economizing a period of time which is too commonly thrown away, and stimulating the unwavering pursuit of professional know