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Surely, as I have already observed, comets were bountifully provided by Providence for the benefit of philosophers, to assist them in manufacturing theories." pp. 47-50..
After a most learned enumeration of the honours and appellations bestowed, by the grateful nations of antiquity, on the great Father of Navigation, whom the Chaldeans honoured under the appellation of Xisuthrus, the Egyptians as Osiris, the Indians as Menu, the Greeks and Romans as Ogyges,-the Thebans as Deucalion, and the Chinese as Fohi, -our author proceeds to unfold the reason why America did not come so early into the world as the other quarters of the globe."
Noah, we are told by sundry very credible historians, becoming sole surviving heir and proprietor of the earth, in fee simple, after the deluge, like a good father, portioned out his estate among his children. To Shem he gave Asia; to Ham, Africa; and to Japhet, Europe. Now it is a thou sand times to be lamented that he had but three sons, for had there been a fourth, he would doubtless have inherited America;
which of course would have been dragged forth from its obscurity on the occasion, and thus many a hard working historian and philosopher would have been spared a prodigious mass of weary conjecture respecting the first discovery and population of this country. Noah, however, having provided for his three sons, looked in all probability upon our country as mere wild unsettled land, and said nothing about it; and to this unpardonable taciturnity of the patriarch may we ascribe the misfortune, that America did not come into the world
as early as the other quarters of the globe."
D. 54, 55.de
even in the Dutch speculations of the eccentric Knickerbocker, to garnish a new edition of his much perused, much" abused, and certainly highly meritori ous work, which has at last, we perceive, called down the wrath of Mr Godwin, corked up in his phials for so many years, in a very thick unreadable-looking octavo, the look of which has, in truth, been enough for us. But what delights us most is to think how edified Mr Pinkerton must feel, when he discovers the notice taken en passant of his most satisfactory suppositions, and, above all, when he learns, that his ingenious and truly original device of a bridge of chains or pontoons over Behring's Straits, is not found to have been at all necessary to account for the population of the youngest quarter of the globe. While we are on this part of our author's performance, we must confess, however, that we have met with nothing in the course of our reading for a long time past, half so pithy, rational, and decisive, as the following argument of that bluff old Jesuit, Charlevoix, who, it appears, had studied a system of logic astonishingly different from that taught by the more learned and orthodox metaphysicians of modern times. The inhabitants of both hemispheres," says the dogmatical father, are certainly the descendants of the same parent. The common father of mankind received an express order from heaven to people the world, and accordingly it has been peopled. To bring this about, it was necessary to overcome all difficulties
in the way, and they have also been
overcome. a va blusw stowwel
The whole of book fourth, chapter first, we would, with all becoming humility and submission, recommend to the consideration of Mr Malthus, as being well calculated to afford him some new light regarding the principles of population, and more particularly on that most puzzling problem, the present distribution of men on the face of the earth. We have not forgotten that this learned and reverend author is more famous for having concerned himself about feeding and procreation, than about the postdiluvian wanderings of old Noah's paidoff crews; but, at the same time, we have no manner of doubt, that as the bee extracts honey from every flower, so Mr Malthus might find somewhat,
With regret we prætermit much interesting matter relative to the voyages of that renowned argonaut Hudson, and his good ship the Goede Vrouw, also to the new right got up in modern times, and found in some late editions of Puffendorff, Grotius, and Vattel, called the right of discovery-to the bickerings and feuds of Tough Breeches and Ten Breechesand sundry other particulars illustrative of the internal administration of government during the most smoking period of the Dutch dynasty. As our limits are narrowing apace, we must content ourselves with one short extract, which, we hope, will be read with advantage by some of the statecobblers among ourselves. "js"
"But as Peter Stuyvesant had a singular inclination to govern his province with out the assistance of his subjects, he felt highly incensed, on his return, to find the factious appearance they had assumed during his absence. His first measure, therefore, was to restore perfect order, by prostrating the dignity of the sovereign people.
thyself to the vocation for which heaven has fitted thee-But," elevating his voice until it made the welkin ring, if ever 1 catch thee, or any of thy tribe, meddling again with affairs of government, by St Nicolas, but I'll have every mother's bastard of ye flea'd alive, and your hides stretched for drum-heads, that ye may thenceforth make a noise to some purpose?""
He accordingly watched his opportu nity, and one evening when the enlightened mob was gathered together, listening to a patriotic speech from an inspired cobler, the intrepid Peter all at once appeared among them, with a countenance sufficient to petrify a millstone. The whole meeting was thrown into consternation-the orator seemed to have received a paralytic stroke in the very middle of a sublime sentence, and stood aghast with open mouth and trembling knees, while the words horror! tyranny! liberty rights! taxes! death! destruction! and a deluge of other patriotic phrases, came roaring from his throat before he had power to close his lips. The shrewd Peter took no notice of the skulking throng around him, but, advancing to the brawling bully-ruffian, and draw ing out a huge silver watch, which might have served in times of yore as a townclock, and which is still retained by his descendants as a family curiosity, requested the orator to mend it, and set it going. The orator humbly confessed it was utterly out of his power, as he was unacquainted with the nature of its construction." Nay, but, said Peter. try your ingenuity, man: you see all the springs and wheels, and how easily the clumsiest hand may stop it, and pull it to pieces; and why should it not be equally easy to regulate as to stop it?' The orater declared that his trade was wholly different that he was a poor cobbler, and had never meddled with a watch in his life
that there were men skilled in the art, whose business it was to attend to those matters; but for his part, he should only mar the workmanship, and put the whole in confusion Why, harkee, master of mine,' aried Peter, turning suddenly upon him, with a countenance that almost petrified the patcher of shoes into a perfect lapstone, dost thou pretend to meddle with the movements of government to regulate, and correct, and patch, and cobble, 2 complicated machine, the principles of which are above thy comprehension, and its simplest operations too subtle for thy understanding, when thou canst not correct a trifling error in a common piece of mechanism, the whole mystery of which is open to thy inspection ?-Hence with thee to the leather and stone, which are emblems of thy head; cobble thy shoes, and confine
Here, however unwillingly, we must stop, and we shall only add, that, although there has existed, both in this country and America, a feeling of mutual exasperation, which has been carefully cherished and embittered by the factious of both countries, and which has led to recrimination, detraction, and calumny, beyond what could have been credited in an age so enlightened as the present; yet we are delighted to think, that, with the return of peace, more liberal and generous sentiments have begun to manifest themselves, and that the rational and the intelligent on both sides of the Atlantic are now exerting themselves to diffuse a spirit of reciprocal forbearance and good will, and to prove to the people that their substantial interests are much more closely connected than interested, factious, and venal scribblers had formerly taught them to believe. There cannot, indeed, be a prouder testimony to the spirit of national liberality, by which this great country is distinguished, than the unexampled rapidity of the sale of these American productions; and it is with no slight satisfaction that we can lay claim to have been among the first journalists in this island who were sensible of
great merit, and who, without hesitation, predicted their success. If we had had room, we should have added to our present Number, from the second volume of the Sketch Book, some of those fine Christmas scenes which naturally at this time attract us, and which are so beautifully illustrative of old English manners. We shall, however, find room for them in our next, and they will not then be too late. The Christmas pye, we rejoice to believe, lingers on throughout January. At present, we must be satisfied with merely wishing our readers every happiness and blessing of the season!
Northern Expedition.-Lieutenant Parry, who so ably conducted the voyage to the Polar Sea, has been raised to the rank of Captain in the Navy. The details of the voyage, so far as have transpired, may be comprised in a few words. The Hecla and Griper arrived at the entrance of Lancaster Sound on the 1st of August 1819, proceeded directly over Captain Ross's chart of land, and reached the parallel of 749 or 75°, or 114° or 115° west, about 550 miles farther than Captain Ross asserted the Polar Sea to be navigable. In 90° they fell in with islands which continued successively till they reached the extreme westerly point of one nearly in 115°. Winter overtook them here, and they turned back several degrees, and wintered in a snug harbour in five fathoms water. On the breaking up of the ice this season attempts were made to proceed westerly; but immense barriers of ice, from the Polar Sea to the northward, precluded all hope of succeeding in the parallel of 74°, and before they could return to the eastward, and renew the attempt in a lower latitude, the navigable season, which is confined to August and a few days in September, offered no reasonable chance of succeeding this year. The existence of a Polar Sea to the westward of Hearne's River is now incontestibly established, and the existence of a north-west passage demonstrated, though perhaps not available for commercial purposes. In 90° the compasses were nearly useless. What Captain Ross laid down in his map as the Croker Mountains, was found to be an open channel 40 miles broad. The cold during the winter was excessive, the thermometer descending to 55 below Zero. Beer, wine, and spirits became ice; the beer was destroyed, but the wine and spirits were tolerably good when thawed. The vessels are entitled to the L. 5000 reward for having gone to a longitude beyond 110° west of Greenwich.
On the north side of Barrow's Sound, the voyagers discovered a broad channel, up which they could not descry any land, though the weather was clear and favourable. To the land bounded on the west by this unexplored channel, and on the south by the Sound, the name of New Devon was given. Nearly opposite the channel, i. e. on the south side of the Sound, they met with another broad inlet, (nearly as broad it seemed as the Sound itself,) on which the name of Regent's Inlet was bestowed. The expedition sailed up this inlet a considerable way. The land opposite to New Devon was denominated New Somerset. Other places discovered received
names in honour of Major Rennell, Captain Sabine, and others.
Among the curious discoveries made was an American musk ox, on Melville Island, the principal of the groupe of islands in a cove of which this enterprising navigator wintered in 1819. This animal has a large head and shaggy mane, resembling the lion. It was the only one of the species seen during the stay of the expedition at that island. A white hare was the only small animal which was met with. It was found upon another island. Partridges were seen in great numbers, and the newly discovered islands also abounded with florescent plants of different unknown species. The huts, of which some vestiges remain, are presumed to have belonged to some Esquimaux, whom chance or enterprise may have carried into these inhospitable regions. Numerous dresses, canoes, &c. &c. have also been brought over from Baffin's Bay, which are constructed with astonishing natural genius, industry, and neatness.
We mentioned the only serious casualty which befel during the wintering of the crews in those high latitudes. Nevertheless the cold was so intense, that the utmost care was necessary to prevent fatal consequences. An idea of this may be formed from the fact, that a servant of Captain Sabine's, on some alarm of fire, ran into the air without covering his hand-it was immediately frost-bitten, and the poor fellow lost three of his fingers.
The ships were roofed over during the winter, and the crews did not, as reported, erect huts on shore. Melville's Island was however explored by hunting parties, and Captain Parry crossed it, and was absent for three weeks together. It is reckoned about 150 miles long, and from 30 to 40 broad. It is also supposed that the whole sea north of the American continent is broken into islands.
A singular phenomenon was observed relative to the magnet, which held a variation of 120° west, and only of about 150miles farther, of 120° east, plainly proving, that in the course the ship took it had got round the Magnetic Pole. The ice in the harbour where Captain Parry wintered increased to about seven feet; but he found the ice westward to be upwards of 40 feet, which effectually stopped him, as he had no chance of cutting his way through such an immense body, for 500 miles, into Behring's Straits.
Many whales and seals were seen, but no natives, nor any traces of human beings. The ships were out 18 months, having 4 A
German Literature.-The following is a List of the most distinguished Pocket-books and Almanacks published in Germany, 1820:--Frauentaschenbuch, edited by De la Motte Fouque. Taschenbuch zum geselligen Vergnügen, by Frederick Kind. Taschenbuch zum geselligen Vergnügen, by J. F. Gleditsch. Frauenzimmer Almanach zum Nutzen und Vergnügen, by F. Rochlitz. Cornelia Taschenbuch für Deutsche Frauen Taschenbuch für Damen, published at Tubingen, by Cotta. Taschenbuch für Liebe und Freundschaft, by St Schütze. Penelope, by Theodore Hell. Urania, the editors of this work offer a prize of, we believe, 30 ducats, for the best poem offered to them. A poem called Saladdin, the work of a very young author, obtained the prize this year. Minerva. Aglaja. Vergissmeinnicht, by Clauren. Kotzebue's Almanach dramatisicher Spiele. Alpenrosen. Rheinisches Taschenbuch. Schwäbisches Taschenbuch. Die Vorzeit. Tu
gend Almanach. Almanach des Dames. We forbear translating these names, because we hope the original will soon be as well known in our country as the title of the last, which may be considered as the parent of all the others.
celebrated Bossuet, and internally enriched by numerous marginal notes in his own hand, as verified at the Royal Library. In this valuable mass are to be found rare editions of the Bible, one 1479, together with many black letter specimens; a beautiful MS. on the finest vellum; Saurin, 6 vols. on extra grand paper, with choice impressions of the plates; Le Jay's Polyglot, large paper, &c. &c. To these may be added a copy of Durandi Rationale, 1473, with numerous other early editions and illuminated MSS. Among the miscellanies are an edition of Bossuet, large paper, of which only thirteen copies were struck off; two sets of Montfaucon and Supplement, together with the "Monarchie Française," large paper; the "Encyclopedie Methodique," nearly complete; a superb copy of the "Physique Sacré," bound in morocco; and a choice collection of the writings of Calmet, Fleury, Mabillon, Duchesne, Grotius, Vossius, Wolfius, &c. &c. And from the Italian and French imperial presses are some unique articles, being presentation copies from the authors to Cardinal Fesch.
Cardinal Fesch's Library.-The immense and rare library of Cardinal Fesch (uncle of the Emperor Napoleon) has been purchased by Messrs Sherwood of Paternoster Row, and Mr Booker of Bond Street; the latter of whom is at present occupied at Faris in selecting such portion of the books as is best calculated to gratify English collectors. The sale of this library is most severely felt by the French literati, who complain that the British nation will ultimately strip their country of all that is most precious in art and literature. Mr Booker's selections of varieties will occupy between fifty and sixty cases, comprising a singular and extensive assortment of early printed works, consisting of curiosities in bibliography, and also a fine display of works appertaining to Germany and the North, together with the choicest specimens of divinity, among which are duplicates of many of the Fathers, particularly two copies of St Augustin's works, one bearing on its covers the arms of the
France.-Hydraulic Ram.-M. Godin, of Paris, has invented an hydraulic ram, of a construction so simple, that it may be easily worked by any village labourer. This invention applies to the watering of meadows, to the draining of marshes, spots, and drawing water out of the earth, and raising it to considerable elevations. To those who wish to construct the machine on the spot, M. G. transmits instructions accompanied with engravings, and also a small model in relievo, if desired.
Antique Statues.-A cultivator or farmer in the commune of Donnemarie, Seine and Marne, lately found, while at work in his field, two antique statues of bronze about six inches in height, one representing a Mercury entirely naked, with the winged Pegasus on his head, and the other, Fortune, in drapery, with her usual attributes. He has also found a cock and she goat, both of bronze, and two copper miniature medals, one representing the Empress Severina, wife of Aurelian, and the other the head of the Emperor Probus.
Suicides. Of 199 suicides, or attempts at suicide, lately in Paris and its environs, within three months, 137 were of men and 62 of women. Of married persons were 102, and of those in celibacy 97; as to the motives, they have been fixed at bad conduct. The lottery and gaming, 28; from the fear of reproach, 6; from domestic chagrines, maladies, disgust of living, 65; from disappointments, &c. in love, 17; from wretchedness of circumstances, 47; motives unknown, 36; 146 actual suicides; 53 attempts.
Italy Education.-It appears from a report made on the 1st of June, by M.
Scovazzo, director, that a school, on the plan of mutual instruction, has been established, with every prospect of success, at Palermo, in Sicily. It was opened for 250 children; the progress has been rapid, and the jury of monitors proves very useful. Such is the ardour for this mode of instruction, that holidays have been suppressed, and there are no interruptions but the Sunday and certain grand festival days. general enthusiasm prevails for the new method. There has also been a similar school for about three months, at Messina. Others are to be opened at Trapani, Mazara, Agrigento, Syracuse, Termini, &c. and no obstacles whatever occur to the dissemination of this method throughout Sicily. Even the Jesuits have adopted it in their college of Alcamo, and before the expiration of two years, there will not be a village without a school of mutual instruc
Denmark-Royal Library. The royal library of Copenhagen contains between 300,000 and 400,000 volumes of printed works, and a prodigious number of interesting MSS. At the sale of the fine library of Count Otto Thot, amounting to 116,395 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets, mánuscripts, and incunabula, the royal library obtained an accession of 50,000 volumes; and the Count, by his will, had bequeathed to it 4154 MSS. with his valuable collection of 6159 works that had been printed before the year 1530. In 1789, the Danish government bought up the library of Luxdorf, rich in classical works and in MSS. and it was annexed to the royal library. It afterwards received valuable acquisitions at the sale of the libraries of Oeder, Holmskiold, Rottboll, Ancher, and others, in 1789, 90, 91, 93, 94, and 98. In 1796, an accession was made of the immense library of Suhm, the historian. He had collected, in the course of 50 years, 100,000 volumes, which he left to the disposition of the public. A little before his death, he presented them to the royal library; it was not so large, but was a better selection and of higher value than that of Thot. In 1787, previous to these numerous acquisitions, the royal library contained a very great number of books and MSS.
European Languages.-M. D'Arndt has published at Frankfort a treatise on the
origin and various affinities of the languages of Europe. It appears as a supplement to the comparative dictionary of all languages, that was commenced under the auspices of the Empress Catharine, a work in which this author was a zealous coadju
A PROSPECTUS has been circulated for printing an uniform edition of the whole Works of the Right Rev. Jeremy Taylor,
Its explications shew that many nations, now remotely separated, were once intimately allied, and they throw a great light on many obscure points of ancient history. The first volume comprises all the languages of Europe and Asia, and some of Africa. The second contains notices relative to the origin of languages and people, extracts from ancient historians who have handled the same subject, and a very curious approximation of fifteen words in two hundred languages.
Hydrophobia-Dr L. Spalding, a learned physician of New York, in a pamphlet which he has lately published, announces the circumstance of a plant, commonly called Scull-cap, (the Scutellaria lateriflora of Linnæus,) as being a preventive of, and cure for, the hydrophobia, and that it has been in use as such more than fifty years. It is described as having never failed of a sanative effect. It is recommended as fitter for use when dried and reduced to powder, than when fresh. The testimony of several American physicians is superadded to that of Dr Spalding. The name of the person who first used it is not known, but Messrs Deveer, father and son, are entitled to the praise of having first introduced it into general practice.
Medicine. In the state of New York, there is a Medical Society, that in general presides over the faculty, and has a corresponding member in every town of the state. The annual meeting is at Albany, the seat of government, where three censors are appointed for each of the four grand medical divisions of the union.
The College of Medicine and Surgery of the state of New York has delivered this year 37 diplomas of doctors of physic.
Turkey. For some time there has been printing at Constantinople, in the patriar chal press, a grand dictionary of the Greek language, ancient and modern, the first volume of which has already appeared. It will consist of more than six large volumes in folio. All the Archbishops and many of the Archons of the Phanal, &c. are subcribers.
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
D.D. Lord Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore, in 14 volumes octavo; to which will be prefixed a life of the Author, and a critical examination of his writings, by