India. We visited also the Bourse, some chateaus which you meet with or Exchange, which was crowded to in this line of navigation ; and I menexcess with merchants of all nations. tion this the more particularly, beThe only person we had to inquire cause their manners, may serve to for here was Mr Hope the banker, give you some idea of what is freand, notwithstanding that there was quentły met with in Holland, viz. a hardly standling-room in this great familiarity between the sexes which place, which is fitted up like the Ex- would be considered quite indelicate change of London, we were at once in England, but which seems to directed to the particular spot where be so completely a habit here, that he is always to be found at 'Change no attention was paid to the prehours.

sence of a stranger, even in this Among other business, a convenient small apartment. As Utrecht is an time was allotted for visiting the book- bout 30 miles from Amsterdam, and sellers' shops ;- but here, as at Rotter- as the treck-schuits travel about four dain and Leyden, I was also disap- miles an hour, I got to my journey's pointed in procuring the books which end at 3 P. M. and enjoyed the walks I inquired for. The stock of the in this pleasant neighbourhood, which booksellers here does not seem to be is a very great relief after leaving such extensive, especialiy in bound books, a place as Amsterdam. and, therefore, before you can see The navigation between these two what you want, they must untie cities is on the Vecht, and is perhaps many bundles, which altogether is more spacious and grand than any of very inconvenient. The booksellers the other canals. It appears to be and shopkeepers, in general, of Hol- about 80 feet in breadth, and varies land, have also a very bad practice for in depth from 18 feet to 8 feet. ' It is a stranger, in requiring a separate bar, therefore surprising to see the mangain for every article. It seems here ner in which the passengers were to be the practice of the country, and cooped up upon this spacious canal or unless one is upon his guard, he may river. The boats measuring only 8 pay a double price for every article he feet in breadth, while they are 60 purchases. We happened, however, feet in length, have a large fore-cabin, to be particularly introduced to M. with three small after-cabins such as Maaskamp, a bookseller of eminence, I have described. The hauling line, near the palace, who is acquainted of the thickness of jack cord, was no with Engliski manners, and what was less than 70 fathoms in length. got from him was at very reasonable It was at Utrecht that the famous prices.

peace of 1713 was concluded, and here In the evening the party, went to the pen with which the deed was the French theatre, as the Dutch one signed is still shown as a curiosiwas not open. The house is compara- ty, Utrecht contains about 32,000 tively large, though it comes far short, inhabitants, has a college, and is in capacity and elegance, to those of chiefly remarkable for the height the British capital. The company of of its steeple, which is said to be performers did not come up to expec- 380, feet in height, to which you tation, but I confess that I do not ascend by 460 steps. Its great bell much relish the French opera, having measures feet over the lips, and great difficulty in following the actor's weighs 25,900 pounds. The music in their several parts. The house was bells are also curious: the drum of by no means thronged, and we were their apparatus is of cast-iron, brighthappy when the performance was ly polished; it measures 3 feet 6 over; after which I made prepara- inches in diameter, studded with intions for setting off to Utrecht in the numerable hooks for working the morning.

bell-wires. The prospect froin the At seven I took my place in the treck- top of this steeple is very extensive. schuit, the cabin of which measured The sexton here was very particular only 6 feet 6 inches in length, and 4 in pointing out the mound of earth feet 6 inches in breadth. My travelling which General Marmont, while he companions were a very respectable commanded the troops of this district, looking young couple, who stopped, raised in compliment to Bonaparte. after we had left Amsterdam about 6 I conjecture from its appearance from or 8 miles, at one of the many hand- this place, that it may be about 60

3 R



feet in height and 200 feet in diame- ducteur as in France, and the paster at the base. There is a College sengers have no regular stages for at Utrecht, which seems to have been dining as in England, but keep an appendage to a more extensive smoking and snuffing, and eating church than the present. There were bread and cheese, and mutton-chops, here only 200 students last session, when they feel inclination. Gorkum and it, accordingly, does not seein to is remarked as having been the last possess much celebrity. While the town in Holland which gave up to Palace at Amsterdam was preparing the Orange family. Here there is a for Louis Bonaparte, he is said to have ferry half a mile broad, across the taken great pleasure in this place. It united streams of the Meuse and has often been remarked, that the Whaal into Flanders. Here the fermost desirable residence for merchants ry-boat is of a very singular construcin Holland is Rotterdam, and for a tion, taking on board this great mapalace, Utrecht, in point of situation, chine, with the horses and passenfar exceeds that of the Hague. The gers all in their places, and what was town contains a great market-place, quite new to me, the mast was fixseveral spacious streets, and one of ed to her gunwale, and this boat in great length which has a fine serpen- a very short time beat her passage :tine line. The town is about twenty gainst a contrary wind across the rifeet above the level of the river or Her appearance seemed somecanal. The entry to the lower stories thing very strange, indeed, from this of the houses on its sides is by arched position of the mast. Some parts of ways, whiclı renders it very conve- the country passed through to-day are nient, and here the boats lock up to so much under water in the wet seathe higher country. Round this, like son, that even the ducks roost and the other towns of Hollanı, there is a have nests prepared for them upon great ditch, but from the difference the shrubs and bushes about two or of level, a constant current can be three feet above the water; it seems, kept up, by which the waters are therefore, even too moist for the hamuch more sweet and pure than in bitation of the duck. Perhaps, howthe other town's of Holland.

ever, these were snares for wild ducks. I need hardly detain you longer In this part of my journey, my with my visit to Holland, for though travelling companion in the cabriolet Gorkum, Dort, and Gouda, are all was a native of Holland, who unplaces of considerable population, yet derstood a little English, and was there is a great deal of sameness in the master of the French language. In towns of Ilolland, and my short re- speaking of English politics, which sidence, and want of knowledge of the he seemed fond to introduce, I was language, do not permit me to enter not a little surprised at the view into the more particular manners and which he took of public men and civil polity of this industrious people. public measures in England, it was I shall, therefore, only notice general- so opposite from every thing I had ly, that I travelled from Utrecht to elsewhere heard in Holland. For Gorkum in the cabriolet of the dili- here the English ear is constantly gragence or post-waggon, one of those tified with the admiration of its counimmense machines which carries nine try, its institutions, and its people, people inside, sitting three and three, but my Dutch friend rather took an with two before in the cabriolet, hav- opposite view, particularly of the moing a cover for the feet and knees, and tives of England in particular meaa sort of canopy, something like a very sures, which were by no means facommon phaeton in England. Besides vourable to its character. After a nine passengers and the coachman, good deal of conversation, I was not a four horses carried along this ponder- little disappointed and ashamed, to ous machine with several large chests learn that the account of the foreignand other luggage, moving at a rate er had been drawn from the lips of not exceeding four miles an hour, one of my own countrymen, whom I over roads which in some places were happened to know only by character, laid with pretty rough stones, and in and than whose family, i know not others little better than a bed of sand. any other, which is so much indebted These vehicles seem to have no con- to the civil and commercial liberty of


the country, where talent and indus- ever undertook, whether I consider it try never fail to meet with their suit- with regard to the pleasure it affordable reward in fortune and honours. ed, in seeing so many new and inter

In my return to Helvoetsluys, I esting sights, or professionally ;-but took Williamstadt in my way, and on this subject I am well aware I need here I have purchased a most singular not enter with you.

S. looking little black poodle dog for you, who, I have no doubt, will in time recommend himself, by his sportive manners to your good graces. I

No. III. have already given him the name of “ Stadt.” I purchased him from a

The literary history of Germany soldier on the ramparts for a trifle.

differs in one remarkable circumstance Dort is a large and populous town, from that

of most of the other councelebrated as the seat of the Protesta tries of Europe. Its language was ant National Synod in 1618; it was cultivated, in the middle ages, to a also the birth place of the famous De very considerable extent; and it largeWit, the pensionary of Holland. ly participated in the literary improveThis town was visited in 1421 by a

ments of the thirteenth century. The most dreadful catastrophe, when the poetic fire which then blazed in the sea broke down the barrier dike, and south of Europe spread its light and 72 villages were overwhelmed, when warınth over Germany. Poets were 100,000 persons are said to have pe- maintained at the court of the Emrished. This still maintains the cha- perors, and the nobles practised the racter of a great commercial town, art of making verses. Intimately and is especially the great entrepot united with Italy, it was not slow to for the timber trade of Holland. borrow from this country most of the

In travelling down the northern side arts which embellish life. The Æneid of Holland deeps to Helvoet, the wea

was translated into German at the end ther was extremely wet, and I was

of the twelfth century; and the transobliged to coop myself up in a closelator apologizes to his countrymen, phaeton, with my little dog, when I with great naivété, for telling such was driven along upon the top of the improbable stories, by saying, that he dikes, almost at full speed. The only had found them in the Latin and Itathing remarkable which I met with lian. * From this period, most of the by the way, was a milk girl returning other nations of Europe have confrom the field, with large brazen jars stantly cultivated their own lanof milk, and riding on horseback with guage, with continually increasing her legs across like a man, having on

The Germans, on the conher head a very large straw hat, ad- trary, neglected their native tongue to justed so as to defend her from the such a degree, that, towards the midweather, and answering all the pur- dle of the last century, they were alposes of an umbrella.

most destitute of any other model for On reaching Helvoet, I found that composition than the translation of some of my friends, who had taken a the Bible, in what the Catholics despisdifferent route from Utrecht, by Gou- ed as Lutherisch-deutsche.f Some of da and Rotterdam, had arrived only a the early blossoms of their literature, few hours before me, and our little such as the Nibelungen and Baarleni ship being in readiness, we sailed next and Josephat, have recently been remorning for England, and after rather vived, and, as might have been exa cross passage, we happily got sight pected, they must be accompanied by of Flamborough Head Lighthouse on glossaries and dictionaries, to enable the evening of Saturday the 23d of the present generation to comprehend August, at almost the very minute them. Other countries had unquiet which our far-sighted and sagacious times as well as Germany, and in Captain had assigned to our making them poetry flourished during civil the land the day before. Next morn- commotion. In Germany, also, the ing we had the pleasure to go ashore efforts to restore the divine art were at Scarborough, leaving our good ship to proceed on her course, having thus * Schmidts Geschichte der Deutschen, completed one of the most interesting Vol. III. p. 132. journeys, upon the whole, which I † Nicolai, Reise durch Deutschland.


The pro

made during war. Other circum- in one moment, the business of every stances, therefore, than the political author to adapt the language to the situation of Germany, occasioned the highest beauties of poetry and to the decay of its literature; and Justus capacity of the people.” Mæser, with a small portion of whose gress which has since this period been wisdom we have already enriched our made in German literature is even pages, ascribes it to the too great learn- more extraordinary than its former ing of his countrymen. He says, neglect. Education had, however, “That the true cause why German li- been constantly attended to; and the terature sunk so much and so con- first authors who wrote for the Gerstantly after the period of the Minne mans in their own language found a Singers, was the great learning of nation capable of appreciating their most of the leading men. They were labours, and thirsting after that inteldeeply impressed with the beauties of lectual enjoyment which a perversity Greek, Latin, and Italian literature; of taste had before denied to all but and, instead of endeavouring to im- the learned. prove, they despised, and taught their We have frequently seen it observa scholars to despise, the language and ed, that no sovereign knew better literature of their native land. They how to encourage genius than Fredelong persisted in forcing in their cold rick the Great of Prussia. And as climate the myrtles and palms of this improvement in German literawarmer regions, and neglected their ture took place under his government, hardy, more stately, and more useful it may be imagined that it was owing native oaks and pines. They ex- to his patronage ;-we may therefore pected also that the stinted things, be allowed to state that it was not. forced into existence with so much We have before alluded to his opitrouble, should be admired by those nions concerning the German lanwho were accustomed to see these guage, which he held to be unfit for plants in all their native glory.poetry. The historian above quoted From an unfavourable opinion of his observes, “ That it was during the native tongue, Leibnitz wrote his reign of Frederick the Great, but not scientific works in Latin, and employ- owing to him, that this new day of ed the French language for his gayer science and arts dawned on Germany and more elegant trifles. He rescued So also sang Schiller. We are unable many of the records of his country to do justice, by a metrical translation, from oblivion, but he never seems to to his ode, Die deutsche Muse, and have regarded its language as worth therefore content ourselves with quotcultivation. Other philosophers en- ing one verse of the original. If our tertained similar opinions ;--the last readers do not understand it, the fault and most able expounder of them was is theirs rather than ours. Frederick the Great; and under their influence the German language was

Von dem grössten deutschen Sohne,

Von des grossen Friederich throne, much neglected for five centuries.

Gieng sie [German art] Schutzlos, At present, however, there is pro

ungeehrt. bably no European nation making Rühmend darfs der Deutsche sagen, such rapid strides in literary improve- Höher darf das Herz ihm schlagen, ment as the Germans. The poetic Selbst, erschuf er sich den Werth.t art, after being lost in Germany for ages, has been revived in our time At the present time, when artists, apwith greater splendour than it ever parently more intent on gold than on before possessel. “ In the midst," glory, are eager, for the sake of patronsays a modern German historian, "of the din of the Silesian war, a few for

• Geschichte des Preussischen Staats, tunate menof genius excited the public

Vol. I. p. 117. mind as powerfully, but more perma- is a translation of this little ode in our

+ Schiller's Gedichte, 2d Part. There nently than Opitz at the end of the Nuinber for December 1818. We give the thirty years' war. A new direction, stanza quoted above. which began in Saxony, was given to literary pursuits, and spread itself with From Him our chief of men who shone,

E'en from Great Frederic's liberal throne, the rapidity of lightning. It became, No honours came, no fostering ray!

The German, thence, may proudly tell, Mæser, Vermischte Schriften. Ueber While higher heaves his heart's full swell, die deutsche Sprache und Literature. Himself shaped out his glorious way.


age, to degrade the arts to courtiers, we and garrulity of age. Their activity hold this fact of German poetry grow- sometimes degenerates into uncouth ing up so rapidly without patronage, contorsions and juggling motions; it as well worthy of attention. Never assumes the appearance of convulsive did any art flourish more in the same disease or maniacal strength, wasting space of time ; while comparatively its powers, " scooping the ocean dry, few advances have been made either or gathering the foam of its wave.' in sculpture or painting, although In our former articles bearing the tiboth have long been largely patroniz- tle of German Reviews, we have given ed by most of the numerous sove- some specimens of the absurdities of reigns of Germany.

our neighbours, but we are sensible The reign of Frelerick was the pe- these are not accurate types of the riod of the revival of German litera- general mind; they are rather exuture. The superstitious reverence for berances of that activity which it has the ancient languages was then thrown been the purpose of these introductory aside, and other regions of thought and observations to point out to the notice fancy were explored. Since then, the of the reader. literary activity of the Germans has From this activity we are obliged been prodigious, and seems even to to confess, that it is in a great meahave been accelerated since their coun

our fault that we have not try was delivered from the French. found in the numerous German peVery recent political restrictions may riodical publications we pry into, any have somewhat damped their ardour, thing since June which we thought but the proudest talents of the whole worthy to be laid before our readers. nation are now directed to literary It may serve partly to account for this, improvement. The people are con- . if we observe, that the Germans have scious of new born mental freedom, yet a vast deal to unlearn on the suband highly delighted with their own ject of metaphysics, and a vast deal to exertions; they riot joyously in their learn on the subject of political ecoown warm feelings, and seem doubly nomy,—and that many of their writgratified when they find their produc- ings on these subjects are necessarily tions are noticed and admired by the unfit for us to notice. At present a rest of the world. We are not, how- Dr Schöppenhauer, a pupil, we believe, ever, of those who imagine that the of Goethe's, for there is no science of Germans have made many valuable which he is not master, seems one of discoveries, or have opened up many the most distinguished metaphysinew sources of delight. On the con- cians. He has recently published a trary, they appear as if they were work, * the object of which is, if we now first cultivating their language in understand the remarks of the regood earnest, and improving, in the viewer, to represent the whole of our proper way, the national mind. What ideas as the result solely of our will. they have hitherto done is not so much At the same time, he pretends to be a a subject for congratulation as what disciple of Kant, and his work may be they may be expected to perform, now considered as an attempt to melt into they are emancipated froin their lite- one great absurdity the lesser absurrary idolatry. Their efforts as yet dities of Kant and Diderot. The pubhave nearly been confined to copying lic taste in our country at present the spirit of the productions of other seems strongly set against even its own European nations, and they have ra- more intelligible metaphysics, which ther changed their models than be- warns us not to farther meddle with come themselves creating. They have the unintelligible writings on this hastily climbed on the shoulders of subject of the Germans. more advanced nations to the summit If we search in regular treatises or nearly of literature, and seem so over- systematic books for the activity we joyed at their sudden success, that have mentioned, it will hardly be vithey have forgotten the means by sible. But there is a class of periodiwhich they reached the top. They over- cal productions somewhat different rate also their own merits. We admit from any of our country, the reposithat their literature has much of the tory for the firstlings of all the genius freshness and fire, but it has also much of Germany --in which this activity of the wildness and extravagance, of is peculiarly evident. These are al. youth,—that it has somewhat of the maturity, but more of the weakness * Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung.

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