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I have still one observation more to mention; whicb is intended farther to confirm the supposition, that the two did not leave the other disciples, nor set out for Emınaus, till after the report made by Mary Magdalene, and the other women with her, “ that they had seen the Lord :" and also to explain more distinctly those words of the two disciples to Jesus. Luke xxiv. 22, 23, “ Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre. And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had also seen a vision of angels, which said, that he was alive.”
I think that these words refer to, and include, the second report of Mary Magdalene, and the women with ber, which is recorded in John, xx. 18, “ Mary Magdalene, came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.”
What I would now propose to consideration, is this : neither Mary Magdalene, nor any other of the women, saw any angel when they first went up to the sepulchre. They did not see any angel till some time afterwards, that is, not till after they had been down with the apostles, and returned back to the sepulchre. Nor did Jolm and Peter see any angel when they went up to verify the truth of what the women had said to them. The appearance of the angels was not till after Mary Magdalene was returned to the sepulchre from the apostles; therefore the two disciples, in the words above quoted from Luke, xxiv, 22, 23, refer to the second report or testimony of Mary Magdalene, and the women with her.
Let us observe the history, as it lies in St. John's gospel, xx. 1, 2, “ The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulcbre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them: They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulcbre, and we koow not where they have laid bim.” She says not a word of the appearance of angels, or any information received from them. Therefore no such thing had happened.
It follows, ver. 3—10, “ Peter therefore went forth, and that otber disciple, and came to the sepulcbre. So they ran both together, and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying. Yet went he the Remarks upon Dr. Ward's Dissertations, p. 286, &c. to whom therefore I refer you : for there the same point is handled more at large.
not in. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed, [that is, finding nothing in the sepulchre but the clothes, he believed that the body was taken away as Mary Magdalene had said:] For as yet they knew not the scripture: That he must rise again froin the dead. Then the disciples went away again to their own home.” Therefore neither did these apostles see any angels at the sepulchre, or near it. For no such thing is here mentioned or hinted. . It is also confirmed by St. Luke's account of the same visit or journey to the sepulcbre, ch. xxiv. 12, “ Then arose Peter, and came unto the sepulchre, and stooping down), le beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.” He seeth not any angels; nor does he receive any information from angels. He only sces, and views the sepulchre, and observes, that the body was gone, and the clothes were left lying by themselves. Nor could be forbear to wonder greatly.
We are next to attend to what follows the quotation before made from John xx. where at ver. 11, 12, “ But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white, sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.”
When the two disciples, John and Peter, returned to their home in Jerusalem, Mary still stayed behind.
“ But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping." And well she might, considering how ignominiously her Lord bad been put to death a few days ago; and now the body was missing and gone; and, as she thought, removed and carried away, but whither, and by wbom, she could not tell. In this distress, and now first upon this occasion, there is an appearance of angels.
« But Mary stood without weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre; and seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain." No such being's had been seen before by any of the women, or the disciples, who had looked into the sepulchre, and been in it, and searched it, once and again. “ And they say untu her: Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord. And I know not where they have laid him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto ber: Woman, why weepest thou? Whom seekest thou ? She supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will tahe bim away. Jesus saith unto her : Mary. She turneth herself, and saith : Rabboni, which is to say, Master. Jesus saith unto her : Touch me not: for I am not yet ascended to my Father. But go to my brethren, and say unto them: 1 ascend to my Father, and your Father, and to my God, and your God. Mary Magdalene came, and told the disciples, ihat she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things unto her.”
Since therefore there was no appearance of angels to the women, when they first came to the sepulcbre, those words, Luke xxiv. 23, “ And certain women, when they found not his body, came, saying that they also had seen a vision of angels, wbich said, that he was alive.” These words, I say, must relate to the second report of Mary Magdalene, and the other women, recorded by St. John, in the verse just cited, cb. xx. 18.
I am not aware, that any considerable difficulties can be raised against this account. I think, we may safely follow the order of things related by St. John, who had seen and read the other gospels.
St. Luke, xxiv. 1411, puts together the whole testimony of the women. But we know from St. John, that their testimony consisted of two reports; brought down to the apostles at different times, and at a considerable distance of time from each other, one made, before John and Peter went to the sepulcbre, the second report afterwards, as we have seen.
When St. Luke says, xxiv, 12, “ Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre,” he does not intend to say, that happened not till after all was done, which is related in the former eleven verses. Our version indeed is, " then arose Peter," seeming to intimate, that he did not go to the sepulchre till after the message delivered by the women to the apostles, by the direction of the angels. But there is nothing of that kind in the original. The words are: '0 δε Πετρος αναστας εδραμεν επι το σημειον: that is, “ And Peter arising, went to the sepulchre.” Or, ‘moreover, beside the * report and testimony of the women, 6 Peter also arose, and ran unto the sepulchre," &c.'
I shall now make a paraphrase of those words of the two disciples to Jesus in the way to Emmaus. Luke xxiv. 22 -24, Yea, and certain women also of our company made • us astonished, wbich were early at the sepulchre. And • when they found not his body they came, saying, That • they bad also seen a vision of angels.” [And they said they • also had seen the Lord themselves.] But in a matter of so great importance, and so very unlikely, we all thought it best to pay little regard to their testimony.
• Aud cer• tain of them which were with us, went to the sepulchre, • and found it even so as the women had said. But him
they saw not.” However it must be acknowledged, that • beside the women, two of the disciples, and those of the • best understanding, and the most eminent among us, have • also been at the sepulcbre. The occasion of it was this. • Some of the women, who were very early at the sepulchre, • came down to us in great baste, saying, “ They bave taken • the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where • they have laid him," John xx. 2. Whereupon two, and • those the most eminent of the disciples, went themselves • to the sepulchre, and found it even as the women had · said, that is, that the body was gone, and nothing left be• side the clothes, in which it had been covered. But him • they saw not; (as the women have since said, that they • have seen him.)
• Whereupon, our Lord, as if out of patience at their stu* pidity and inconsideration," says to them: 0 fools, and • slow of heart, to believe all that the prophets have spoken,” &c. ver. 25.
These two do not mention the visit made to the sepulchre by Peter and John, last, because it was not made till after the women had a vision of angels,” but, as the more considerable thing. The women's testimony they slighted, “ Their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not,” Luke xxiv. 11. For these two disciples they had some regard, but not so much as they should. And therefore our Lord says to them: “O fools, and slow of heart," and what there follows.
• I think, I have rightly inserted that in my paraphrase of that place. Dr. Doddridge seems to have been aware that so much was implied. Therefore, in his notes upon ver. 23, he says: • And what is added in the next verse, with • relation to Peter and John, who are the men here spoken of, (“ but him they • did not see,") may perhaps imply, that the women pretended also to have • seen Jesis himself. And in his paraphrase of ver. 24, he says: . but him . they did not see: though the women apprehended, he had actually appeared • to them himself, and declared, that he was risen, and would show himself to • his disciples.'
From all which it appears to me evident, that the two disciples did not set out for Emmaus, till after the report made to the apostles by Mary Magdalene, " that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her;" as related, John xx. 18.
This observation I have deferred till now, that I might not disturb and interrupt the preceding argument.
I have now performed all that I intended. For I never proposed to go any farther, than the appearances of our Lord to the disciples, and others, on the day of bis resurrection.
Shall I now recollect, and sum up what has been said under this fifth and last article of our inquiry ?
Early on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of Jaines, and Salome, and other women, who had come up with our Lord to Jerusalem from Galilee, and had often attended upon him, went up to the sepulchre, bringing the spices, which they had prepared. As they were going, they said among themselves, " Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre ? For it was very great." But, wben they came nigh to the sepulchre, they perceived that the stone was rolled away: That obstacle therefore to their performing the intended office of respect, in embalming the body, of which they had been apprehensive, was removed. Which afforded them, for the present, a good deal of satisfaction. But when they had entered in, they found not the body of the Lord Jesus. This filled ihem with the utmost surprise and concern. Whereupon, with the consent and approbation of all the rest of ibe women, Mary Magdalene, and some others of them, ran down immediately, in all haste, to the apostles at Jerusalem, telling them, that they had been at the sepulchre, that they found the stone rolled away from the door of it; they therefore entered in, but found not the body of Jesus: “ They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, [said they,] and we know not where they bave laid bim." Peter and Jobn therefore ran to the sepulcbre, entered into it, and found every thing exactly agreeing to the report of the women. The body of Jesus was gone, but the clothes, with which he had been covered, remained, every part of them, and lying in great order. So that they could not but wonder greatly at what had happened. But as it was not safe or prudent for them to stay there, they soon went away again to iheir own home. But Mary Magdalene, aud the other women, who had come back to the sepulchre from the apostles, stayed behind. And soon after those disciples