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nished the heavens: his hand has formed the crooked serpent:" that is, the winding constellation in the heavens, which we call the milky-way, or the galaxy. The spirit, or the hand of God, which are both one, has formed ali those things.
Micah ii. 7,“ | thou that art named the house of Jacob, is the spirit of the Lord straitened ?” A part of Mr. Lowth's note upon which words is thus: Is God's hand or power • shortened ?? Comp. Is. lix. 1, “Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save."
Zach. iv. 6, “ Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts.” Here Mr. Lowth's note is to this purpose.
Zerubbabel and Joshua, with the Jews • under their conduct, shall finish the temple, and re-estab• lish the Jewish state, not by force of arms, or of human • power, but by the secret assistance of my providence.
Luke i. 35, " And the angel answered, and said unto her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall over-shadow thee.” The latter words explain the former. And the Holy Ghost is said to be the same as the power of God. Where likewise it follows: “ Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God."
Matt. xii. 28, “ But if I cast out dæmons by the Spirit of God, then is the kingdom of God come unto you.” Luke xi. 20, “ But if I with the finger of God cast out dæmons, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you."
So that the finger of God, or the Spirit of God, is the same as the
power of God, or God himself. As St. Peter says, Acts ii. 22, “ Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles, and wonders, and signs, which God did by bim, in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know."
To which two texts of St. Matthew and St. Luke, just alleged, may be added, as very similar, if not exactly parallel, some others. 2 Cor. iii. 3, “ Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the spirit of the living God: not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart.” Undoubtedly alluding to what is said of the two tables containing the ten commandinents. Exod. xxxi. 18, and Deut. ix, 10, that they were written by the finger of God, or miraculously by God himself. So also Ps. viii. 3, “ When I consider the heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained.” See Patrick upon Ex. xxxi. 18.
c. Again, Matt. xii. 28, “ If I cast out devils by the spirit of God, then ' the kingdom of God is come unto you.” Here the spirit of God does not
signify the Holy Ghost, or the third person of the Holy Trinity, but the • power of God; as appears from the parallel passage in St. Luke xi. 20, where • instead of the spirit of God, we read the finger of God. By this power the
man Christ was enabled to cast out devils. For he speaks of himself here in his • human, not in his divine nature, according to the notion which the pharisees • had of him; as is plain from his styling himself the Son of man, in the sequel of his discourse to them. Abraham Le Moine's Treatise on Miracles, p. 50.
Thirdly, by the Spirit, or the Spirit of God, or the Holy Ghost, is oftentimes meant an extraordinary gift from God of power, wisdom, knowledge and understanding,
Sometimes hereby is intended courage, or wisdom, or some one particular advantage only. At other times hereby is intended a plentiful effusion of a variety of spiritual gifts.
For which reason it will be needful to allege, under this article, many texts both from the Old and the New Testament.
Ex. xxxi. 1–7, “ And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, See I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship, to devise cunning work in gold, and in silver, and in brass.-- And behold, I have given with him Aholiab, and in the hearts of all that are wise-hearted, I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee." See also ch. xxxv. 30–35, and xxxiv. 1, 2.
Numb. xi. 16, 17, “ And the Lord said unto Moses, Gather to ine seventy men of the elders of the people: and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them.” No one understands hereby that God intended to take from Moses a spiritual being, or part of a spiritual being: but that he deterinined to bestow upon those elders qualifications of wisdom and understanding, resembling those in Moses, by which he was so eminent and distinguished.
Afterwards it is said, ver. 25, 26, “ And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spake unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and gave it unto the seventy elders. And it came to pass, that when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, and did not cease :” meaning for some while, « But there remained two of the men in the
camp: and the spirit rested upon them; and they prophesied in
Deut. xxxiv. 9, “ And Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom: for Moses had laid his hands upon bim."
Judges iii. 10, “ And the spirit of the Lord came upon him, [Othniel,] and he judged Israel, and went out to warAnd his hand prevailed against Chushan-rishathaim.”
Judges vi. 34, “ But the spirit of the Lord came upon Gideon.” Ch. xi. 29, “ Then the spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah.”
Ch. xiv. 5, 6, “ Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, to Timnath : and behold a young lion roared against him: and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him: and he rent him as he would have rent a kid : and he had nothing in his hand." See likewise ch. xv. 14.
2 Sam. xxii, 1-3, “ Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet Psalmist of Israel, said, The spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me: he that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.”
2 Chron. xx. 14, 15, " Then upon Jahaziel, the son of Zechariah, the son of Benaiah,-a Levite of the sons of Asaph, came the spirit of the Lord, in the midst of the congregation. And he said : Hearken ye, all Judah, and ye inbabitants of Jerusalem"-Another instance of what Maimonides calls divine influence, whereby a man is enabled to prophesy, or give counsel from God in a difficult circumstance, as that was with the people of Judah.
So Ezek. xi. 4, 5, “ Therefore prophesy against them, [prophesy,] O son of man. And the spirit of the Lord fell upon me, and said unto me: Speak, thus saith the Lord”And St. Peter says, 2 Ep. i. 20, 21, “ Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation [impulse or suggestion]. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost,” or by the divine influence. As St. Paul also says, 2 Tim. iii. 16, “ All scripture is given by inspiration of God."
1 Chron. xii. 18,"" Then the spirit came upon Amasai, who was chief of the captains, and he said : Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse. Peace be unto thee, and peace be to thy helpers. For thy God helpeth thee. Then David received them." Patrick's comment is to this purpose: “ The spirit of power, saith the Targum: * that is, Gód powerfully moved him with an heroical bold• ness and resolution, in the name of them all to protest fidelity to David, in such pathetical words, as convinced him they were friends.'
2 Kings ii. 9, “ And it came to pass, when they were gone over, [Jordan,] that Elijah said unto Elisha: Ask what I shall do for thee, before I be taken away from thee. And Elisha said: I pray thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.'
By which some have supposed, that Elisha begged to have as much more of the spirit as Elijah bad. But as that would be arrogance, the best commentators rather think, he only desired, that he might be as the eldest, or first-born among his fellow-disciples: even as the first-born in a family had a double portion to that of other children. See thereafter, ver. 15, and Deut. xxi, 17, and Grotius and Patrick upon
this text. All must be sensible, that a gift, not a person, is here intended.
Prov. i. 23, “ Turn you at my reproof. Behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you. I will make known my words unto you.” • That is, I will teach you, and enable
you to understand the rules of virtue and holiness ; which • if you follow, you will be happy.'
Zech. xii. 10, “ And I will pour out upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and supplications.” Which cannot imply a promise of pouring out upon them a transcendent being or spirit : but of giving them the temper, the qualification, the disposition of grace and supplication.
There are also in the Old Testament promises of the spirit relating to the Messiah.
Is, xi. 1-3, “ And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse-And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord. And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord.”
Is. Ixii. 2, “ Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my elect, in whom my soul delighteth. I have put my spirit upon him. He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.”
And the promises of the spirit, in the times of the Messiah, import also a plentiful effusion of spiritual gifts.
İs. xliv. 3, “ And I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and Hoods upon the dry ground. I will pour my, spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thy offspring. Comp. John vii, 38, 39, Acts ii, 17, 18. ‘And see Is. lix. 2, Ezek. xi. 19, XXxvi. 27, xxxvii. 14, xxxix. 29.
Joel ii. 28, 29, “ And it shall come to pass afterwards, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh. And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy. Your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions. And also upon the servants, and the handmaids, in those days will I pour out my spirit.” See Acts ii. 17, 18.
In all which texts, as seems very evident, by the spirit, and the spirit of God, and the spirit of the Lord, is meant not a being, or intelligent agent, but a power, a gift, a favour, a blessing.
I proceed to the New Testament, in which likewise many texts are to be taken notice of by us. Matt. x. 19, 20. “ But when they deliver you up,
take no thought how or what ye shall speak. For it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.
Mark xiii. 11, “ But when they shall lead you and deliver you up, take no thought before-band what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate. But whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye. For it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost."
Luke xii, 11, 12, “ And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and unto magistrates, and powers; take ye no thought how, or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say. For the Holy Ghost shall teach you, in that same hour, what ye ought to say.”
Luke xxi. 14, 15, “ Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before, what ye shall answer. For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, [or wise speech,] which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay or resist.”
How these and the like promises were afterwards fulfilled, when the apostles of Christ, and other his disciples, were brought before the Jewish or other rulers and governors, we see in their history, recorded in the book of the Acts. Of St. Stephen, in particular, it is said, ch. vi. 9, 10, “ Then there arose certain, disputing with Stephen. And they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit, by which he spake.”
John iii. 34, “For he, whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God. For God giveth not the spirit by measure unto him.” Here by the spirit, as I suppose, all understand a gift.
John vii. 37–39, “ In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood, and cried, saying: If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. But this spake he of the spirit, which they that believe on him should receive. For the Holy Ghost