420. THE SLENDER CHARACTERISTIC OF Maxims. 1. Some are alert in the beginning, VOICE. In all cases, endeavor to express by but negligent in the end. 2. Fear-is often conthe voice and gesture, the sense and feeling, cealed under a show of daring. 3. The remedy is that are designed to be conveyed by the often worse than the disease. 4. A faint heart nevwords; i. e. tell the whole truth. Most of er won a fair lady. 5. No man is free, who does the following words, that Shakspeare puts not govern himself. 6. An angry man opens his into the mouth of Hotspur, descriptive of a mouth, and shuts his eyes. 7. Such as give ear to dandy, requires the use of this peculiarity of slanderers, are as bad as slanderers themselves. 8. A cheerful manner denotes a gentle nature. 9. voice, in order to exhibit their full meaning. Proud looks lose hearts, but courteous word-win Conceive how a blunt, straight-forward, honest soldier would make his defence, when unjustly accused by his fnical superior, of unsoldier-like conduct; and then recite the following.

My liege-I did deny no prisoners.

But I remember, when the fight was done,
When I was dry with rage, and extreine toil,
Breathless, and faint, leaning upon my sword,
Came there a certain lord; neat, trimly dress'd;
Fresh as a bridegroom; and his chin, new reap'd,
Showed like stubble-land-at harvest home.
He was perfumed like a milliner;

And, 'twixt his finger and his thumb, he held
A pouncet-box, which, ever and anon,

them. 10. Brevity is the soul of eloquence.

Anecdote. Seif-interest. When Dr. Franklin applied to the king of Prussia to lend his assistance to America,-"Pray Doc. tor," says he, "what is the object you mean to attain ?" "Liberty, Sire,” replied the phi. losopher; "Liberty! that freedom, which is the birthright of all men." The king, after a short pause, made this memorable answer: "I was born a prince, and am become a king; and I will not use the powers I possess, to the ruin of my own trade."

Of Lying. Lying-supplies those who are addicted to it-with a plausible apology

He gave his nose. And still he smild, and talk'd, for every crime, and with a supposed shelter

And as the soldiers-bore dead bodies by,

He called them untaught knaves, unmannerly,

To bring a slovenly, unhandsome corse
Betwixt the wind-and his nobility.
With many holiday, and lady terms,

He question'd me; amongst the rest, demanded

My prisoners, in her majesty's behalf;

from every punishment. It tempts them to rush into danger-from the mere expectation of impunity; and, when practiced with frequent success, it teaches them to confound the gradations of guilt; from the effects of which there is, in their imaginations, at least one sure and common protection. It

I then, all smarting with my wounds, being gall'd corrupts the early simplicity of youth; it

To be so pestered with a popinjay,

Out of my grief-and my impatience,
Answered negligently,-1 know not what-

He should, or should not; for he made me mad,
To see him shine so brisk, and smell so sweet,

And talk so like a waiting gentlewoman, [mark,)
Of guns, and drums, and wounds, (heaven save the
And telling me the sovreign'st thing on earth,
Was spermaceti-for an inward bruise:
And that it was great pity, (so it was,)
That villanous saltpetre-should be digged,
Out of the bowels of the harmless earth,
Which many a good, tall fellow had destroyed
So cowardly; and, but for these vile guns,
He would himself have been a soldier:
This bald, unjointed chat of his, my lord,
I answered indirectly, as I said;
And I beseech you, let not his report
Come current, for an accusation,
Betwixt my love, and your high majesty.

blasts the fairest blossoms of genius; and will most assuredly counteract every effort, by which we may hope to improve the tal ents, and mature the virtues of those whom it infects.

Varieties. 1. A very moderate power, exercised by perseverance, will effect-what direct force could never accomplish. 2. We must not deduce an argument against the use of a thing, from an occasional abuse of it. 3. Should we let a painful and cold attention to manner and voice, chill the warmth of our hearts, in our fervency and zeal in a good cause? 4. Youth-often rush on, impetuously, in the pursuit of every gratification, heedless of consequences. 5. The adherence to truth-produces much good; and its appearances―much mischief. 6. Every one, who does not grow better, as he grows older, Number. Unity-is an abstract concep- is a spendthrift of that time, which is more tion, resembling primary, or incorporeal precious than gold. 7. Obedience to the matter, in its general aggregate; one-ap- truths of the Word, is the life of all; for pertains to things, capable of being num-truths are the laws of the heavens, and of the bered, and may be compared to matter, rendered visible under a particular form. Number is not infinite, any more than matter is; but it is the source of that indefinite divisibility, into equal parts, which is the property of all bodies. Thus, unity and one are to be distinguished from each other. Plenty-makes dainty.

church; obedience-implics the reception of hem; so far as we receive, so far we are alive, by the coming of the kingdom within


Whoe'er, amidst the sons

Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue,
Displays distinguished merit, is a noble
Of Nature's own making.

421. TREMOR OF VOICE-resembles the Proverbs. 1. Proud persons have few red. trill in singing, and may be indicated in this friends. 2. Mildness-governs better than anger. ; the voice ranging 3. No hope should influence as to do evil. 4. Fero things are impossible to skill and industry. 5.


hope flattereth the heart of a fool. 8. Moderate speed is a sure help to all proceedings. 9. LiberIf you endeavor to be honest, you struggle with yourself.

ality of knowledge makes no one the poorer. 10.

from a quarter of a tone, to several tones. It is made deep in the throat, with a drop-Diligence is the mistress of success. 6. C'onscience ping of the jaw; and when properly used, is never dilatory a her warnings. 7. A vain it is very effective and heart-stirring: especially, in the higher kinds of oratory. It heightens joy, mirth, rapture, and exultatum; adds pungency to scorn, contempt, and sarcasm deepens the notes of sorrow, and enhances those of distress: often witnessed in children, when manifesting their delights. There are several degrees, from the gross to the most refined.

2. In

Names. A man, that should call every thing by its right name, would hardly pass through the streets, without being knocked down as a common enemy.

Varieties. 1. In 1840, there were in the 422. 1. Said Falstaff, of his ragged regi- United States, five hundred and eighty-four ment, "I'll not march through Coventry thousand whites, who could not read or with them, that's flat; no eye hath seen such write; five thousand, seven hundred and scarecrow's." Almost every word requires a seventy-three deaf and dumb; five thous kind of chuckle, especially the italic ones; and and twenty-four blind; fourteen thous and by making a motion with the chin, up and five hundred and eight insane, or idiots, and down, the shake of the voice will corres- and two millions four hundred and eightypond to the sign, seven thousand slaves. 2. As our popula this example we have an instance of a refin- tion increases thirty-four per cent. in ten ed tremor of voice; but the right feeling is ne-years, at this rate, in 1850, our seventeen cessary to produce it naturally. Queen Cath- millions will be twenty-two millions: in arine said, in commending her daughter to 1860, thirty millions; and in 1900, ninetyHenry," And a little to love her, for her moth-five millions. 3. The regular increase of the er's sake: who loved him-heaven knows N. E. states is fourteen per cent; of the midhow dearly." The coloring matter of the dle states twenty-five per cent.; of the southvoice is feeling-passion, which gives rise to ern twenty-two per cent.; and of the westthe qualities of voice; thus, we employ ern-sixty-eight per cent. 4. Many persons harsh tones in speaking of what we disap- are more anxious to know who Melchisedec prove, and euphoneous ones in describing the was, or what was Paul's thorn in the flesh, objects of love, complacency, admiration, &c. than to know what they shall do to be saved. 423. In extemporaneous speaking, or 5. To cure anger, sip of a glass of water, till speaking from manuscript, (i. e. making it the fit goes off. 6. An infallible remedy for talk,) when the speaker is under the influ-anxiety-"cast thy burden upon the Lord, ence of strong passion, the voice is apt to be and he shall sustain thee." carried to the higher pitches: how shall he regain his medium pitch? by changing the passion to one requiring low notes; thus, the surface of his flow of voice, will present the appearance of a country with mountains, hills, and dales. Elocution-relates more to the words and thoughts of others; oratory to our own. To become a good reader and speaker, one must be perfect in elocution, which relates to words: in logic, which relates to thoughts; and in rhetoric, which appertains to the affections: thus involving ends, causes, and effects.

Anecdote. Aged Gallantry. A gallant old gentleman, by the name of Page, who was something of a rhymester, finding a lady's glove at a watering-place, presented it to her, with the following lines:

"If from your glove-you take the letter g, Your glove-is love-which I devote to-thee." To which the lady returned the following


"If from your Page, you take the letter p, Your ragis age-antat won't do for me."

'Tis a lesson-you should heed,
Try, try again;

If at first-you don't succeed,
Try, try again;

Then your courage should appear,
For, if you will persevere,
You will conquer, never fear;
Try, try again.

Once, or twice, though you should fail,
Try, try again;

If you would, at last, prevail,
Try, try again;

If we strive, 'tis no disgrace,

Though we may not win the race;
What should you do in the case?

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424. Before entering on a consideration and illustration of the Passions, the pupil is urged to revise the preceding lessons and exercises; but do not be deceived with the idea, that thinking about them is enough, or reading them over silently; join practice with thought, and the effects are yours. One of the great difficulties in thinking about any art or science, and witnessing the efforts of others in their presentation, is-that one's taste is so far in advance of his own practice, that he becomes disgusted with it, and despairs of his success. Let us remember that nothing is truly our own, that we do not understand, love and practice.


Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you; trippingly on the tongue. But if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief the town-crier had spoke my lines. And do not saw the air too much with your hand; but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say, WHIRLWIND of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it smoothness. Oh! it offends me to the soul, to hear a robustious, periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings; who, (for the most part,) are capable of nothing, but inexplicable dumb-show and noise. I would have such a fellow whipp'd for o'erdoing termagant, it out-Herod's Herod. Pray you, avoid it. Be not too tame, neither; but let your own discretion be your tutor. Suit the action-to the word, the wor-to the action; with this special observance, that you o'erstep not the modesty of nature: for anything, so overdone, is from the purpose of playing; whose end, both at the first, and now, was, and is-to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own

feature, scorn-her own image,—and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure. Now, this overdone, or come tardy off, though it may make the unskillful laugh, cannot but make the judicious-grieve: the censure of one of which, must, in your allowance, o'erweigh a whole theatre of others. Oh! there be players that I have seen play, and heard others praise, and that highly, that, neither having the accent of christian, nor

the gait of christian, pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed, that I have thought some of nature's journeymen had made men, and not made them well; they imitated humanity so abom


425. TENDENCIES OF OUR LANGUAGE. As our language abounds in monosyllables, it affords good means to deliver our thoughts in few sounds, and thereby favors despatch, which is one of our characteristics; and when we use words of more than one syllable, we readily contract them some, by our rapid pronunciation, or by the omission of some vowel; as, drown'd, walk'd, dips; instead of drown-ed, walk-ed, dip-peth, &c.; and even proper names of several syllables, when familiarized, often dwindle down into monosyllables; whereas, in other languages, they receive a softer turn, by the addition ot a new syllable.

Proverbs. 1. Beauty is rp longer amiable, than while virtue adorns it. 2. Past services should never be forgotten. 3. A known enemy is better than a treacherous friend. 4. Don't engage in any undertaking, if your conscience says no to it. 5. Benefits and injuries receive their value from the intention. 6. We should give by choice, and not by hazard. 7. He, that does good to another, from proper motives, does good a so to himself. 8. He that is false to God can never be trus to man. 9. A good principle is sure to produce a good practice. 10. None are truly wise, but those that are pure in heart.

Anecdote. Contrary. A woman, having fallen into a river, her husband went to look for her, proceeding up stream from where she fell in. The bystanders asked him if he was mad? she could not have gone against the stream. The man answered:

She was obstinate and contrary in her lifetime, and I suppose for certain she is so at her death."

Intuition. We cannot have an idea of one, without the idea of another to which it is related. We then get the idea of two, by contemplating them both; referring, ab. stractly, to one of them. We say one and one are equal to two; one one, is less than two ones; therefore, one does not equal two. One and one, are the parts of two, and the parts of a thing are equal to the whole of it. Thus, we come to the knowledge of what has been called intuitive proposition, only by reasoning. When such a principle is clearly admitted, we cannot deny its truth, for a moment: but it is far from being, strictly speaking, an intuitive truth.

Varieties. 1. The virtues of the country are with our women, and the only remaining hope of the resurrection of the genius and character of the nation, rests with them. 2. The present-is the parent of the future. 3. The last words of the Indian chief, who died at Washington, in 1824, were, "When I am gone, let the big guns be fired over 4. Beware of turning away from dome." ing good, by thinking how much good you The pleasure of thinking on important subwould do, if you only had the means. to the unfolding minds around us, is a most jects, with a view to communicate our tho'te exquisite pleasure. 6. Principle and prac tice must go hand in hand, to make the man, or woman. 7. The time is fast approaching, when the mind will strike out new fields, and view itself, its Creator, and the Universe from new positions.



Why do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear,
More sweet than all the landscapes shining neari
Tis distance lends enchantment to the view,
And robes the mountain in its azure hue!
Thus with delight we linger to survey
The promis'd joys of life's unmeasur'd way
Thus from afar, each dim discover'd scene,
More pleasing seems than all the past hath been
And every form that fancy can repair,
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there.

426. A just delivery consists in a distinct Proverbs. 1. To fail, or not-to fail; that articulation of words, pronounced in proper is the question. 2. He, that loveth pleasure, shall tones, suitably varied to the sense, and the be a poor man. 3. Flattery is a dazzling meteor emotions of the mind; with due observation that casts a delusive glare before the mental eye of accent, the several gradations of emphasis; seduces the imagination, perverts the judgment, pauses or rests in proper places, and well and silences the dictates of reason. 4. Mankind measured degrees of time; and the whole acare governed more by feeling and impulse, than companied with expressive looks, and signi- by reason and reflection. 5. Our duty and true ficant gestures. To conceive, and to execute, laugh, is often an act of wisdom. 7. No one can interest, always unite. 6. An occasional hearty are two different things: the first may arise be great, who is not virtuous. 8. We make more from study and observation; the second is than half the evils we feel. 9. No one can estithe effect of practice. mate the value of a pious, discreet, and faithful mother. 10. The boy-is the father of the max.

427. RULES FOR THE. When questions are not answered by yes or no; as, Who Anecdote. Tallow and Talent. Fletcher, is that lady? In AFFIRMATIVE sentences; bishop of Nesmes, was the son of a tallowas-I am prepared to go: language of AU- chandler. A great duke once endeavored to THORITY; as-Back to thy punishment, mortify the prelate, by saying to him, at the false fugitive: TERROR; as- -The light king's levee, that he smelt of tallow. To burns blue: SURPRISE; as-Sir, I perceive which the bishop replied, “My lord, I am. that thou art a prophet: REPREHENSION; the son of a chandler, it is true, and if you: as-You are very much to blame for suffer- lordship had been the same, you would have ing him to pass: INDIGNATION: Go-false remained a chandler all the days of your life. fellow, and let me never see your face Disinterestedness-is the very flower of again: CONTEMPT; as—' -To live in awe of all the virtues, a manifestation-in the heart such a thing as I myself: EXCLAMATION: of one who feels and acts from it, of heaven O nature! how honorable is thy empire! on earth, the very reflection of the sun of RHETORICAL DIALOGUE, when one or more Parudise. If mankind more generally, knew persons are represented; as-James said, how beautiful it is to serve others, from the Charles, go and do as you were bidden; and love of doing them good, there would not be John said, he need not go at present, for I so much cold and narrow selfishness in the have something for him to do: and the world. When we have contributed most to FINAL PAUSE; as--All general rules have the happiness of others, we are receptive our some exceptions. selves of the most happiness.

428. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is there more than one God? 2. Was the world created out of nothing? 3. What is the meaning of the expression, "let us make man in our image, after our likeness ?" 4. By what means can we become happy? 5. Can we be a friend, and an enemy, at the same time? 6. Are miracles the most convincing evidences of truth? 7. Will dying for principles, prove any thing more than the sincerity of the martyr S. Is it possible for a created being to merit salvation by good works? 9. Have we life of our own; or are we dependent on God for it every moment? 10. What is the difference between good and evil? 11. Is any law independent of its maker? 12. Are miracles-violations of nature's laws?

429. Some think matter is all, and manner little or nothing; but if one were to speak the sense of an angel in bad words, and with a disagreeable utterance, few would listen to him with much pleasure or profit. The figure of Adonis, with an awkward air, and ungraceful motion, would be disgusting instead of pleasing.

Reader, whosoe'er thou art,

What thy God has given, impart ;
Ilide it not within the ground;
Send the cup of lessing round

Varieties. 1. Never repay kindness with unkindness. 2. Is pride-commendable? 3. No guarantee for the conduct of nations, or individuals, ought to be stronger than that which honor imposes. 4. True patriotism labors for civil and religious liberty all over the world—for universal freedom; the liberty and happiness of the human race. 5. What is charity, and what are its fruits? 6. When persons are reduced to want, by their own laziness, or vices, is it a duty to relieve them? 7. To read Milton's Paradise Lost, ment of the Essay on Man, is said to have is the pleasure of but few. 8. The argubeen written by Bolingbroke, and versified by Pope. 9. Painting, Sculpture and Architecture-are three subjects, on which nearly all persons, of polite education, are compelled to conceal ignorance, if they cannot display knowledge. 10. Is labor—a blessing, or a

a curse?

Music!-oh! how faint, how weak!
LANGUAGE-fades before thy spell;
Why should feeling-ever speak,

When thou canst breathe her soul-so well
Ah! why will kings-forget-that they are men,
And MEN, that they are brethren?
[the ties
Why delight-in human sacrifice! Why burst
Of NATURE, that should knit their souls together
In one soft band—of amity and love;

430 STYLE. The character of a person's Maxims. 1. It does not become a law-maker, style of reading and speaking depends upon to become a law-breaker. 2. Friendship is stronger his moral perceptions of the ends, causes, and than kindred. 3 Idleness is the sepulchre of a liv effects of the composition: thus, STYLE may ing man. 4. An orator, without judgment, is like a be considered the man himself, and, as every horse without a bridle. 5. He that knows when to one sees and feels, with regard to everything, speak, knows when to be silent. 6. The truest end according to the state or condition of his of life-is to know the life that never ends. 7 Wine has drowned more than the sea. 8. Impose mind, and as there are and can be no two not on others a burthen which you cannot bear persons alike; each individual will have a manner and style peculiar to himself; tho' yourself. 9. He overcomes a stout enemy, that in the main, that of two persons of equal as well as books. overcomes his own anger. 10. Study mankind education and intelligence, may be ir. a great degree similar.

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Anecdote. Note of Interrogation (?). Mr. Pope, the poet, who was small and de• When ques-formed, sneering at the ignorance of a young man, who was very inquisitive, and asked a good many impertinent questions, inquired of him if he knew what an interrogation point was? "Yes sir," said he, “it is a little crooked thing, like yourself, that asks questions."

431. RULES FOR THE tions are answered by yes or no, they generally require the'. Exs. Are you well? Is he gone? Have you got your hát? Do you say yes? Can he accommodate me? Will you call and see me? But when the questions are emphatic, or amount to an affirmative, the 'is used. A're you well? As much as to say: tell me whether you are well. Is ne gone? Have you done it? All given in an authoritative manner. Hath he said it, and shall he not do it? He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? Is he a man, that he should repent?

Ideas, acquired by taste-are compound and relative. If a man had never experi enced any change, in the sensation produced by external things, on the organs of taste, that which he now calls sweet, (if it had been the quality, subjected to the sense,) would have conveyed to the mind no possible idea; 432. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is the but, alternating with the quality we call bitcasket more valuable than the jewel? 2. ter, contrariety-produces the first impres Will not the safety of the community be en- sion, and he learns to distinguish the qualities dangered, by permitting the murderer to live? by names. The sensation· awakened by 3. Are theatres-beneficial to mankind? 4. Madeira wine, must be very acute, to enable Did Napolean do more hurt than good to the a man to discriminate, accurately, without a world? 5. Were the Texans right-in re- very careful comparison. Let a particular belling against Mexico? 6. Ought the license kind of Madeira wine remain a few years on system to be abolished? 7. Is animal mag- the lees of many other kinds, and who would netism true? 8. Who was the greatest mon-detect the compound flavor, but the contriver ? ster-Nero, or Catiline? 9. Should we act from policy, or from principle? 10. Is not the improvement of the mind, of the first importance?

Varieties. 1. Inspire a child with right

feelings, and they will govern his actions. hence, the truth of the old adage, Example is better than precept. 2. The great difficulty Nature. Man is radiant with expressions. is, that we give rules, instead of inspiring Every feature, limb, muscle and vein, may sentiments; it is in vain to lead the undertell something of the energy within. The standing with rules, if the affections are not brow, smooth or contracted,―the eye, placid, right. 3. Benjamin West states, that his mo dilated, tearful, flashing,-the lip, calm, quiv- ther kissed him, eagerly, when he showed her ering, smiling, curled,—the whole counten- the likeness he had sketched of his baby sisance, serene, distorted, pale, flushed, the ter; and, he adds,—that kiss made me u hand, with its thousand motions, the chest, painter. 4. Lay by all scraps of material still or heaving,-the attitude, relaxed or firm, things, as well as of knowledge, and they cowering or lofty,-in short, the visible char-will certainly come in use within seven years. acteristics of the whole external man,-are 5. Gain all the information you can, learn all NATURE'S HAND-WRITING; and the tones and qualities of the voice, soft, low, quiet, broken, agitated, shrill, grave, boisterous,-are her ORAL LANGUAGE: let the student copy and learn. Nature is the goddess, and art and

science her ministers.

Since trifles-make the sum of human things,
And half our misery-from our foibles springs
Since life's bat joys-consist in peace and ease,"
And few-can save or serve, but all-can please;
O let the ungentle spirit-learn from hence,-
Annall unkindness-is a great offence.

that comes in your way, without being intrusive, and provided it does not interfere with the faithful discharge of other duties. 6. It was a maxim of the great William Jones, never to lose an opportunity of learning anything.

A wise man poor,

Is like a sacred book, that's never read;
To himself he lives, and to all else seems dead:
This age-thinks better of a gilded fool,
Than of a threadbare saint-in wisdom's school

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