338. INFLECTIONS. An anecdote may Proverbs. 1. The remedy is often wore serve to present this important branch of our than the disease. 2. To him that wills, ways are subject, in a light easy to be understood by seldom wanting. 3 A well-balanced mind-wil all. An elderly gentleman asked the author, resist the pressure of adversity. 4. Be always on if he thought it possible for him to learn to your guard, against the advices of the wicked, sing? He was answered in the affirmative, when you come in contact with them. 5. Blessed provided he loved music, and was anxious to readeth. 6. Take it for granted, there can be no is he, that readeth, and understandeth what he learn. His voice was quite flexible, and varied, in conversation, and he used all the excellence, without labor. 7. The rich man is often a stranger to the quiet and content of the poor man. notes of the scale, except two. It was 8. Beware of gathering scorpions, for this, or the thought, upon the spur of the moment, to future world. 9. There is no general rule, withget the old man a little angry, (and after-out exceptions. 10. Every light-is not the sun. wards beg his pardon,) in order to induce 11. Never be angry-at what you cannot help. him to slide his voice through the octave: the effort was successful; and with much feeling, he again asked, “Do you say sir, that (1) I— can learn to sing? an old man like me?" carrying his voice from the first to the eighth note, on 1, sing, and me. Just then a friend came in, to whom he observed, with incred-did not believe him. ulous surprise, mingled with a little contempt,-"He says I can learn to sing:" and his voice fell from the eighth to the first note,

which was directed by the Judge, to bring in
Anecdote. Use of Falsehood. A jury,
sion and plea, returned a verdict of "Not
a certain prisoner guilty, on his own confes.
Guilty," and offered, as a reason, that they
knew the fellow to be so great a liar, they

Talent. One man, perhaps, proves miserable in the study of the law, who might have flourished in that of physic, or divinity; an

might have been serviceable to his country at the plough; and a third-proves a very dull and heavy philosopher, who possibly would have made a good mechanic, and have done well enough at the useful philosophy of the spade or anvil.

on I. 339. No one can read the following sen-other-runs his head against the pulpit, who tence of ors, even in the common manner, without any regard to inflections, and not give the word before or, the rising inflection, and the one after it, the falling inflection; and the reader's ear must be the judge. Good, or bad; true, or false; right, or wrong; this, or that; boy, or girl; man, or woman; male, or female; land, or water; over, or under; above, or below; before, or behind; within, or without; old, or young; strength, or weakness; fine, or coarse; one, or two; you, or I; well, or ill; kind, or unkind; black, or white; red, or green; rough, or smoothe; hard, or soft; straight, or crooked; long, or short; round, or square; fat, or lean; swift, or slow; up, or down. If the reader does not satisfy himself the first time, let him practice on these phrases till he loes.

340. READING. The purposes of reading are three: the acquisition of knowledge, assisting the memory in treasuring itp, and the communication of it to others: hence, we see the necessity of reading aloud. The ancient Greeks never read in public, but recited from memory; of course, if we wish to succeed as they did, we must follow in their footsteps. How much better it would be, if clergymen would memorize those portions of the Bible, which they wish to read in public! But it may be said, that the task would be a severe one: true, but how much more effect might be produced on themselves and others: and then to have a large part, or the whole, of that blessed book, stored up in the mind, for use here and hereafter !

The business that we love we raise betime,
And go to with delight.

Varieties-in the Uses of Inflections. 1. Is genuine repentance founded in love, or fear? 2. Can we intentionally offend a person, whom we truly love? 3. Have not angel ic, as well as satanic beings, once been men, and women, on some of the courtless earths in the universe? 4. Has any one actual sin, till he violates the known will of God, and wilfully sins against his own conscience? 5. How can the Red men be forgotten, while so many of the states, territories, mountains, rivers and lakes, bear their names? 6. Since decision of character can be acquired by discipline, what is the best method to ac quire it? The firm resolve—to obtain that knowledge, necessary for a choice, and then to do what we know to be right, at any, and every peril. 7. What places are better adap ted than theatres, in their present degrada tion, to teach the theory and practice of fashionable iniquity? 8. What is a more faith ful, or pleasant friend, than a good book?

When you mournfully rivet-your tear-laden eyes,

That have seen the last sunset of hope-pass away,
On some bright orb, that seems, through the sti sapphire sky
In beauty and splendor, to roll on its way:

Oh remember, this earth, if beheld from afar
Would seem wrapt in a halo-as clear ard as bright
As the pure silver radiance-enshrining yon star,
Where your spirit—is eagerly soaring to-night.
And at this very moment, perhaps, some poor heart,
That is aching and breaking in that distant sphate,
Gazes down on this dark world, and longs to depart
From its own dismal home, to a brighter one here

841. THE RISING INFLECTION ('). This indicates that the voice glides upward continuously, on the more important words. Ex. Do you say that I can learn to sing? Are you going to town to-day? Is he a good mán? Do you love and práctice the truth? Is it your desire to become useful? Do you wish to become a good reader, speaker, and singer? Is there not a difference between words, thoughts, and feelings?


Proverbs. 1. Good manners are sure to procure respect. 2. Self-con eit makes opinion costinate. 3. Knowledge is the mind's treasure. Make the best of a bad bargain. 5. Never speak to deceive, nor listen to betray. 6. Passion-is ever the enemy of truth. 7. Piefer lose, to unjust gain, and solid sense, to wit. 8. Quit not certainty for hope. 9. Rejoice in the truth, and maintain it. 10. Seek not after the failings of others. 11. Might does not make right. 12. Divinity-cannot be de fined. 13. Deride not the unfortunate.

Philosophy. Philosophy, so far from deserving contempt, is the glory of human nature. Man approaches, by contemplation, to what we conceive of celestial purity and excellence. Without the aid of philosophy, the mass of mankind, all over the terraqueous globe, would have sunk in slavery and superstition, the natural consequences of gross ignorance. Men, at the very bottom of society, have been enabled, by the natural talents they possessed, seconded by favorable

342. THREE MODES OF EXISTENCE. May we not appropriately contemplate our bodies, and our minds, as consisting of three degrees, each having its own legitimate sphere? Is not each like a three story house, with three successive suits of apartments, which may be called the lower, the middle and the upper? Are there not three vital degrees of the body, the abdominal, the thoracic, and the enceph'alic? And does not the mind consist of as many degrees, called scientific, rational and uffed tuous? or, natural, spiritual and hear-opportunities, to reach the highest improve enly? Is there not in us, as it were, a ladder reaching from earth to heaven? Shall we not ascend, and descend upon it, and thus take a view of both the worlds in which we livé? But will not the material part soon die, and the soul-live forever? Then does not wisdom say, attend to each, according to its importance? Are we not wonderfully made? Doth our soul know it right well? And will we praise our Redeemer, by doing

his will' ?

ments in philosophy; and have thus lifted up a torch in the valley, which has exposed the weakness and deformity of the castle on the mountain, from which the oppressors sallied, in the night of darkness, and spread desolation with impunity. Despots: the meanest, the basest, the most brutal and ignorant of the human race, who would have trampled on the rights and happiness of men unresisted, if philosophy had not opened the eyes of the sufferers, shown them their own 348. On examining children, in an unper-power and dignity, and taught them to despise verted state, and all animals, it will invariably be found, that they use the lower muscles for breathing, and producing sounds. Who is not aware that children will hallon, all day long, without becoming hoarse, or exhausted? And how often it is the case, that parents wish their children to call persons at a distance, being aware that they have themselves lost the power to speak as formerly. Now all that is necessary to be done, by such individuals, is to retrace their steps to truth and nature. Remember, that examples, in this art especially, are better than precents: rules are to prevent faults, not to introduce beauties; therefore, become so familiar with them, that they may govern your practice involuntarily.

Anecdote. Gold Pills. Dr. Goldsmith, having been requested by a wife, to visit her husband, who was melancholy, called upon the patient, and seeing that the cause was poverty, told him he would send him some pills, which he had no doubt would prove efficacious. He immediately went home, put ten guineas into a paper, and sent them to the sick man: the remedy had the desired effect.

Suspicion overturns-what confidence-builds;
And he, who dares but doubt when there's no ground,
Le neither to himself, I`r others -sound'.

those giants of power, as they appeared thro' the mists of ignorance, who ruled a vassal world with a mace of iron. Liberty-is the daughter of philosophy; and they who detest the offspring, do all that they can to vilify and discountenance the mother.

Varieties. 1. nat is humility, and what are its effects? 2. Vice-stings us, even in our pleasures; but virtue-consoles us, even in our pains. 3. Cowards-die many times; the valiant-never taste of death but once. 4. True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known till it is lost. 5. Young folks tell what they do; old ones, what they have done; and fools, what they will do. 6. Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues, we write in sand. 7. The natural effects of (4) fidelity, (5) clemency and (6) kindness, in governors, are peace, good-will, order and esteem, on the part of the governed. 8. Never make yourself too little for the sphere of duty; but stretch, and expand yourself to the compass of its objects. 9. (4) Friends, (5) Romans, (6) countrymen-lend me your ears; I come to bury Cesar, not to praise him. 10. All truths are but forms of heavenly loves; and all fai sities-are the forms of infernal loves.

If you would excel in arts, excel in industry.

344. INFLECTIONS. One very encouragProverbs. 1. The body contains the working ing feature of our interesting subject is, that tools of the mind; master your tools, or you will all our principles are drawn from nature, and be a bad workman. 2. Here, and there; or, this are therefore inherent in every one; the grand world, and the next, is a good subject for reflection. design is to develop our minds and bodies in 3. An artist lives everywhere. 4. The body—is accordance with these principles; which can the image, or type, of the soul; and the sou. is be done, not by silently reading the work, offer, in hopes of a better one; the first is certain; visible, only through it. 5. Never refuse a good or thinking about its contents; but, by pa- the last is only hope. 6. A promiscuous and sutient, persevering practice: this, only, can perficial study of books, seldom yields much solid enable us to overcome our bad habits, and information. 7. Tho' ruin ensue, justice must bring our voices, words, and mind into har-not be infringed. 8. Those things become us best, mony, so that the externals may perfectly that appertain to our situation in life. 9. Proscorrespond to the internals. perity-intoxicates and disturbs the mind: adversi

345. 1. Is there aught, in éloquence-ty-subdues and ameliorates it. 10. The strongest that can warm the heart? She draws her symptoms of wisdom in us, is being sensible of our fire from natural magery. Is there aught follies. 11. A good man-is not an object of fear. in poetry to enliven the imagination? 12. Friendship-is stronger than kindred. 13 There is the secret of her power. 2. Do Sin is sin, whether seen or not. you love to gaze at the (3) sín, the (4) moon, and the (6) planets? This affection contains the science of ASTRONOMY, as the seed -contains the future tree. Would a few pence-duty, on tea, for raising a revenue, have ruined the fortunes of any of the Americans? No! but the payment of one penny, on the principle it was demanded, would have made them-slaves.

Duelling. We read, in Swedish history, that Adolphus, king of Sweden, determining to suppress these false notions of honor, is

sued a severe edict against the practice. Two gentlemen, however, generals in his service, on a quarrel, agreed to solicit the king's permission, to decide their difference by the laws of honor. The king consented, and said, he tended by a body of guards and the public would be present at the combat. He was atthe onset, he told these gentlemen, that they executioner, and before they proceeded to must fight till one of them died. Then, turn

346. INVALIDS—will find the principle, and practice, here set forth, of great service to them, if they possess the strength, and have the resolution, to adopt them; and they will often derive special aid by attempting to do something: for the mind, by a determina-ing to the executioner, he added, do you imtion of the will, can be brought to act upon the nervous system, in such a way, as to start the flow of the blood on its career of health, and strength; and, ere they are aware of it, they will be ready to mount up as with the wings of an eagle, and leave all care, and trouble, and anxiety on the earth. Let them try it, and they will see: persevere.

This had the intended effect; the difference mediately strike off the head of the survivor. between the two officers was adjusted, and no more challenges were heard of in the army of Gustavus Adolphus.

Varieties. 1. Oh! who can describe woman's love, or woman's constancy. 2. Can the immortality of the soul be proved from the light of nature? 3. If the sculptor could Anecdote. The Cobbler. A cobbler, at Leyden, who used to attend the public dis-ble a good orator? 4. Can we be too zealous put life into his works, would he not resemputations, held at the academy, was once asked if he understood Latin. “No," replied the mechanic," but I know who is wrong in the argument." "How ?" replied his friend. Why, by seeing who is angry first."

Lift up thine eyes, afflicted soul!

From earth-lift up thine eyes,
Though dark-the evening shadows roll,
And daylight beauty-dies;

One sun is set-a thousand more

Their rounds of glory run,

Where science leads thee-to explore

In every star-a sun.

Thus, when some long-loved comfort ends,
And nature would despair,

Faith-to the heaven of heavens ascends,
And meets ten thousand there;

First, faint and small, then, clear and bright,
They gladden all the gloom,

And stars, that seem but points of light,
The rank of suns assume.

in promoting a good cause? 5. Are miracles the most convincing evidences of truth? 6. Is it not very hard to cherish unkind feelings, and thoughts, without showing them in

unkind words and actions? 7. Are theatres
-beneficial to mankind? 8. Ought any
thing be received, without due examination?
9. Do you wish to know the persons, against
whom you have most reason to guard your-
self? your looking-glass will reveal him to
you. 10. If a man is in earnest, would you
therefore call him a fanatic.

They are sleeping! Who are sleeping?
Captives, in their gloomy cells;
Yet sweet dreams are o'er them creeping,
With their many-colored spells.

All they love-again they clasp them;
Feel again-their long-lost joys;
But the haste-with which they grasp them,
Every fairy form destroys.

347. THE FALLING INFLECTION (') indicates that the voice glides downwards, continuously, on the more important words. 1. " Where are you going? 2. Of what are you thinking? 3. Who sendeth the early and the latter rain? 4. What things are most proper for youth to learn? Those that they are to practice, when they enter upon the stage of action. 5. Be always sure you are right, then go ahead." 6. Begin'; be bold, and venture to be wise: He who defers this work, from day to day, Does on a river's brink expecting, stay, Till the whole stream, that stopt him, shall be gone,-That runs, and runs, and ever will run on. 7. I do not so much request, as demand your attention. 8. Seek the truth for its own sake, and out of love for it; and when found,

embrace it, let it cut where it will; for it is all powerful, and must prevail.

348. Never begin, or end, two successive sentences on the same pitch: neither two lines in poetry; nor two members of a sentence; nor two words meaning different things; if you do, it will be monotonous. The 3d, 4th, or 5th note is the proper pitch for commencing to read or speak; the force must be determined by the occasion, the size of the room, the sense, &c. If we are in the middle of the pitches, we can rise or fall according to circumstances; but if we begin too high, or too low, we shall be liable to extremes. Look at those of the audience at a medium distance, and you will not greatly err in pitch.

349. MENTAL PHILOSOPHY-treats of the faculties of the human mind; their laws and actions, with a general reference to their use and cultivation. It teaches, that the two constituents of mind-are the WILL and the UNDERSTANDING; the former is the receptacle of all our affections, good, or evil; the latter, of all our thoughts, true or false. Phrenology may be considered, to a certain extent, as the highway to the philosophy of mind; but it is not a sure guide, being founded on the philosophy of effects, instead of that of causes; as is the case with all the sciences: hence, it cannot be depended on. To judge righteously of the subject of mind, we must have the whole man; which involves phrenology, physiology, and psycholo gy: all of which must be seen in the light of TRUTH, natural, and spiritual.

Anecdote. Rhymetry. When queen Elizabeth visited the town of Falkenstene, the inhabitants employed their parish clerkto versify their address: the mayor, on being introduced, with great gravity mounted a three legged stool, and commenced his poetical declamation thus: "O mighty queer, Welcome to Falkenstene!" Eliza beth burst out in a loud roar of laughter; and, without giving his worship time to reconer himself, she replied, "You great fool, Get off that stool."

Keep company with the wise and good.

Proverbs. 1. Speech-is the image of action, 2. Superstition-is the spleen of the soul. 3. Suspect a tale-bearer, and trust him not. 4. Suspicion is the passion of true friendship. 5. Sweet are the slumbers of the virtuous. 6. Safe is he, who action. 8. Set not too high a value on your own serves a good conscience. 7. Never do a mean abilities. 9. Simple diet makes healthy children. 10. Sneer not at that you cannot RVAL best answer to a slander-is silence. 1. Vice-is infamous in every body.

11. The

Compassion. Compassion-is an emo tion, of which we ought never to be asham. ed. Graceful, particularly in youth, is the tear of sympathy, and the heart, that melts at the tale of wo; we should not permit ease and indulgence to contract our affections, and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment. But the distresses of human life, of the solitary we should accustom ourselves to think of cottage, the dying parent, and the weeping orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with pain and distress, in any of our amusements, or treat even the meanest insect with wanton

cruelty. ▲

signify, and what the knowledge of good and Varieties. 1. What does the tree of life evil, and what the eating from them? 2. What heaps of the ruins of a former world, are piled up to form the substratum, and the Caucasian, or European race, so migra surface, of the one we inhabit? 3. Why is tory and unsettled in its habits and propensities, while the African race seems dis posed to stay at home, contented, and happy? 4. Where, in the brain, is the determination of the mind, when we think intensely! Is it not where phrenologists locate causal ty? 5. Why is the eye used to represent wisdom? 6. Who knoweth, (says Solomon,) the spirit of the beast, that goeth downward? the spirit of man, that goeth upward, and 7. Why is a circle-used to represent elernity?


Vital spark-of heav'nly flame!
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame;
Trembling, hoping, lingʻring, flying,
Oh, the pain, the bliss-of dying!
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife,
And let me languish-into life.
Hark! they whisper; angels say,
"Sister spirit, come away."
What is this--absorbs me quite;
Steals my senses,-shuts my sight,
Drowns my spirits,-draws my breath!
Tell me, my soul, can this-be death?
The world recedes; it disappears!
Heav'n-opens on my eyes! my ears
With sounds seraphie ring:
Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly'
O grave! where-is thy victory?

O death! where-is thy sting?
I hate to see-a shabby book,
With half the leaves-torn out,
And used, as if its owner-thought
"Twere made--to toss about

350. INFLECTIONS. The reader sees that the rising inflection is used, when questions are asked, that may be answered by yes, or no; also, in cases of doubt and uncertainty: and that the falling inflection is used, when questions are asked that are not thus anwered; and in all cases of strong affirmation. Some authors seem not to have noticed the distinction between a rising inflection of the voice, and a simple suspension of it, when there is a continuation of the sense. Let us not rely too much on the inflections, to enable us to give variety, but on the different pitches of voice: the former gives artificial variety, and the latter, a

natural one.

Proverbs. 1. Through the ear, we must find access to the heart. 2. Hunger makes every kind of food acceptable. 3. Death-- is the finishing stroke in the picture of life. 4. The remembrance of labors performed, and difficulties overcome, is always agreeable. 5. The labors of the student are sweeter, the farther he proceeds; because his heart is in them. 6. Always yield to the truth. 7. The improvement of the mind is of the first importance. 8. Beware of going into the way of temptations: many have been ruined, merely by looking on, to see how others do. 9. Tricks and treachery are the practice of fools. 10. The proper study of mankind-is man. 11. Promote virtuous communication. 12. An ape-is ridiculous by nature; men-by art and study. 13. Flattery-is a very fashionable art.

Anecdote. Old Habits. The duke de Nivernois was acquainted with the countess de Rochefort, and never omitted going to see her a single evening. As she was a widow and he a widower, one of his friends observed to him, it would be more convenient for him to marry that lady. "I have often thought so," said he, "but one thing prevents me; in that case, where should ĭ spend my evenings?"

351. 1. Accustom yourself to submit, on all occasions, (even in the most minute, as well as the most important circumstances in life,) to a small, present evil, to obtain a greater, distant good. This will give decision, tone, and energy to the mind; which, thus disciplined, will often reap victory-from defeat, and honor-from repulse. Having acquired this invaluable habit of rational preference, and just appreciation, start for the prize that endureth forever. 2. The man, whose house is on fire, criesFire! FIRE!! FIRE!!! with the falling inflection: but the roguish boy, who would raise a false alarm, cries, Fire, fire, firé, with the rising inflection. 3. This is an Varieties. Educational Questions. (5) open, (4) honorable challenge; why are What are the rights and duties of the famiyou (6) silent? Why do you (5) prevarily, and of society at large, respecting the cate? I (6) insist upon this point; I (5) urge you to it: (4) prèss it; nay, I (3) demand-it.

Promises. If promises-from man to man have force, why not from man to woman? Their very weakness is the charter of their power, and they should not be injured because they can't return it.


education of children? 2. To what sort and degree of education can any human individual, as such, lay claim, independently of 352. The END, the CAUSE and the EFFECT, fortune, or any other distinction? 3. How are the three distinct things, which follow far should the education of a child be regueach other in regular and successive order; lated, according to his natural capacities, for every thing, in this world, and in the and how far should external circumstances other, proceeds according to these degrees: be permitted to affect it? 4. What are the hence, intelligence-properly consists in chief obstacles to a more general education knowing and distinguishing them, and see- of the poor; and what are the leading errors ing them in their order. Illustration: the committed in this greatest of all charities, end of man is the love of his will; for what so far as it extends at present? 5. What one loves, he proposes and intends: the are the chief errors committed in the educacause with him is the reason of the under- tion of the wealthier classes, and by what standing; for the end, by means of the rea- means can the education of both door and son, seeks for mediates, or efficient causes: rich be made to produce, in the course of and the effect is the operation of the body time, a more harmonious state of society? from, and according to, them. When these 6. How far, hitherto, has christianity been three are exhibited in act, the end is inward- allowed to influence education, and by what ly in the cause, and thro' the cause in the means can the difficulties, arising from dis effect; wherefore, they co-exist in the effect.inctions among christians, be obviated in it? Hence, the propriety of judging every one- 7. Who will satisfactorily answer these im by his works; that is, by his fruits: tor the portant questions? end, or the love of ine will, and the cause, or the reason of his understanding, are together in the effects; which three constitute the whole man.

Oh how poor
Seems the rich gift of genius, when it lies,
Like the adventurous bird, that hath out-flown
His strength-upon the sea, ambition-wrecked-
A thing-the thrush might pity, as she sits,
Brooding in quiet, on her lowly nest.

"From the birth

Of mortal man, the sov'reign Maker said,
That not in humble, nor lu brief delight,
Not in the fading echoes of renown,
Power's purple robes, nor pleasure's flowery lap,
The soul-can find enjoyment; but from these
Turning, disdainful, to an equal good.
Thro' all th' ascent of things-enlarge her view,
Till every bound-at length-shall disappear,
And infinite perfection-close the scene."

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