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MINUTES OF COUNCIL.-Will you be so good as to give these eriatim ?-F., Gloucester.
Answer.--We have examined them and find they are far too voluminous. Will our readers let us know if they think a classified list of them, with references and dates, would be useful ? -Ed. E. J. E. VENTILATION BY TUBES PERFORATED ARE EXPENSIVE AND UNSIGHTLY. -Can you suggest a better method cheaper 1-T. J.
Answer. If you have two outer walls you may adopt perforated glass panes, or plates of perforated zinc. But you must have a thorough draught of fresh air above, and at least nine inches below the ceiling. There is no excuse for foul air: it will always escape aloft if it has vent enough. WARMING ROOMS ECONOMICALLY.Pray how can this be best done?
Answer'.—Not at all. We set our faces against all kinds of economical warming: honest open grates with good fires , beat everything. Pipes harbour vermin, and do not warm the air generally; close stoves bake the air, and are generally unmanageable, and a nuisance. Economize in something else, and have good, cheerful fires if you have anything cheery in your nature. If not, give up school-keeping, and be gloomy in grim rooms elsewhere. It will not do for children, rely upon it.
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BCT is very important for the following exercises that the pupils be e able to decompose quickly and easily, and in the most advantageous S359 manner, each of the numbers from 2 to 10. We, therefore, begin here already, leaving it to the judgment of the master how far this exercise is to be extended according to the ability of his pupils.
M. Here I hold two pens together. John, tell me what I am doing now (separating the two pens from one another) ?--A. You separate the two pens from one another.
[If the children have any difficulty in finding the right expression for what they wish to say, the master gives the word.)
M. And how many pens have I put on each part?-A. One pen.
M. What I just now did is called decomposing. How did I, therefore, decompose the two pens? A. You decomposed, &c.
M. You may also say, two pens are equal to one pen and one pen. Say so again, without the word pen. Let us write that down. After the indication of the children, the master now writes :
M. First the figure One. How many parts has this figure? How many strokes does it consist of ? A. This figure has two parts.
M. Where does the first part begin ? Look, I make it once more. Did I begin at the upper line, at the lower line, or in the middle ?--A. You began in the middle, between the two lines.
M. Which way did I go? up or down, to the right or left: Is it a fine or a thick stroke?-A. It goes up a little to the right; is all through fine.
M. Try to make a similar stroke. Who else will do so? Where does the second part of the figure begin? And how far does it go? In which direction? Where is it fine? - A. At the upper part it is fine.
M. And where is it thick ?- A. At the lower part.
M. Very well; now make this whole figure on the black-board. (Several children are admitted to do the same; the master makes them find out their own mistakes.--in this way exciting their emulation.)
VOL. XI. NO. 122, N.s.
[To justify so circumstantial an analysis of the figures, we refer to some preceding observations. Children may of course learn to make figures without so detailed a description of each part thereof; and this lesson appears, indeed, rather a kind of writing-lesson ; but if we want to go rationally to work, it must be gone through, either during the time appointed for arithmetic or otherwise. For it ought to be a general rule, that during lessons nothing new should be brought before the eye or mind of the pupil without explaining it, and having it investigated as thoroughly as possible. A conversation like the present one on figures is, besides, well adapted to accustom children to observation; and it may be considered as a preliminary exercise to writing, drawing, &c. At all events, the time thus spent must not be thought badly employed.]
M. Here I make once more the figure 2. How many parts does this figure contain ? Is there any straight line in it ?-A. No; all the parts are round or curved.
M. Show me where I began to write it. Where must I begin to make the same figure once more ?-A. A little below the upper line.
M. Now show me with your finger how I must make the first part of that figure. (Several children do so, and the master writes according to their direction.)
M. Show also where this line is thickest, and where it is thin. (In the same way the second part of the figure is considered and written, first by the master, afterwards by several of the children.)
It is not necessary to give here the full dialogue about each of the remaining figures: the conversation goes on as before. The figure 3 consists of two parts, the upper one a little smaller than the lower one, both round, fine at the beginning and end, thick in the middle. The figure 4 has three parts: two fine strokes, one thick, the former beginning at the upper line, and going down to the lower line, from the right to the left; the second a little curved; the third beginning about the middle of two lines and passing a little beyond the lowest, &c.
It is, of course, of no consequence if the master makes his figures in a somewhat different way, and changes the given conversation accordingly. When all figures are known and repeatedly copied, for additional practice some of the preceding exercises may be done over again in figures, as, for instance :
LOVE OF TRUTH.--Encourage, in every possible way, a love of truth. Foster the struggling virtue as earnestly as a good gardener would the tenderest hothouse plant. Let no cold blast of harshness check its growth
let no angry tone blast it. Let assurance of a perfect forgiveness of any error short of falsehood help the feeble resolution to confess the fault; and if you do promise forgiveness, keep your own word, in the spirit as well as the letter. Let pardon of a fault imply forgetfulness of it.-Canadian Journal of Education.
COMPULSORY MEASURES FOR SCHOOLGOING.
H OSE who take an interest in the education of the people, and have So followed what has of late been said and written on this subject, must
9 he be aware that in several countries of the Continent where national education is more advanced and universally spread than elsewhere, a particular law enjoins the acquisition of at least a certain amount of elementary knowledge, whilst, at the same time, the means thereto are placed within the reach of every one. The object has been repeatedly mentioned, but always in a very superficial way, with a short summary remark that similar regulations are too much opposed to the feelings and institutions of this country to admit of any further consideration. A policeman driving a herd of reluctant children away from their home and family is the only image that at once stands before the imagination, as representing the nature and consequences of such a law; which latter is at the most thought an efficient one, but only worthy of a country where free institutions are unknown, and the rights of the individual may be disregarded by the will of an absolute ruler. In Germany, people take a different view of the case, and, strange as it may sound, not so abstract, but a more practical one. Education is there considered and treated as a most important state affair, and not entirely left to private exertions or speculation. A complete system of public instruction and education has been for a long time in operation, and, amongst other advantages, secured that superiority of primary as well as general instruction which it is impossible not to acknowledge. The people at large, even the lower classes, have by this time learned fully to appreciate the benefits of that system; and there is no doubt, even if more constitutional liberty were granted, it would not be made use of to overthrow that system, the abolition of which every one must regard as a retrograde step in civilisation. There exists indeed, through all classes of society, if any, at least much less popular feeling against the measures in question than in England against other legal institutions; the Sunday laws for instance, which certainly also interfere with personal liberty, but are generally tolerated as promoting a proportionately important object. However a vindication of compulsory measures necessarily prejudices many readers, who suppose that an undue attempt against their personal liberty is implied thereby, and think their opinions on all similar questions so surely settled, that there is at least much presumption in endeavouring to advocate opposite views. We may therefore be allowed to state in the beginning, as an essential feature of the measures in question, that no one who cares for reading articles like this, nor any person of common sense and moral feeling, will be in the least personally concerned in compulsory education. We must indeed, in order to meet with the pretended victims, descend in the scale of society to the lowest class of people, who from more or less culpable motives neglecting their holiest duties towards their families, and careless about the consequences for all their fellow creatures, quietly contemplate through their fault, the germs of future misery, disorder, and crimes growing up and being propagated amongst them, whilst means for preventing these evils are placed within their hands. But although the reader himself, and the great majority of the people may not be immediately interested, there still remains the principle. Whatever be the social position of a person, his rights ought to be respected; any intrusion upon them must excite the just apprehension and opposition of all. Looking then at the question from this point of view as the only one from which an objection can be raised, and admitting on the one hand the undeniably desirable results derived from a system including compulsory measures : tho superiority of general instruction, the instilling of sound principles into the youthful minds, training to good habits, and the consequent influence upon the material and moral welfare of the people : we have to examine whether a law imposing upon a father to let his children partake of means offered for acquiring suitable knowledge is opposed to his natural rights as a parent. For it is obvious that objections are chiefly based upon the supposition that parents have imprescriptible rights, and especially that of disposing according to their own views, of the education of their children, which renders any interference in this matter on the part of government, against their will, unjustifiable. Here lies the difficulty; there are two conflicting opinions and parties, on the one hand goverment, or rather the community, requiring a certain share in, or eventually control over, education, on the other hand the promoters of most absolute independence. Our task then will be to weigh these two opinions and the arguments by which they are supported, against each other, in order to come to a decision about the question. Now the most simple expression of the argument upon which a person might rest in refusing to comply with the injunction of a law in this case would be: That is my child, no one has a stronger claim to it than myself. Simple and clear as this sentence may appear, a close examination will perhaps discover a great want of distinctness therein, and that the reasoning contained in it is neither tenable nor conclusive. What does it really mean? That is what we have to see.
It is incredible how deeply one single incorrect notion may affect the whole of an opinion or argument, and likewise how much confusion in our ideas with consequent disputes are occasioned by the deficiency of our language in exact terms for each particular idea. There would certainly not be so much difference of opinion nor so many quarrels if our fundamental ideas about the objects in dispute stood more clearly and distinctly before our eyes. A trifling every day occurrence a short time ago gave occasion to this observation, and may also serve to illustrate the assertion with respect to our object. Two little boys, excited to that purpose by another person, were fighting in good earnest, and when asked for the reason of their quarrel it came out that each pretended this to be his birthday, and opposed the same appropriation of the day by his adversary. The quarrel here evidently arose from a false interpretation of the expression “my birthday,” more especially of the possessive “my.” Misled by a few remarks on this specious pretext, the boys thought they might as well defend their right to their birthday as to anything else they called exclusively theirs. The whole affair may seem only ridiculous, but how many graver disputes would appear in the same light, were it but possible to analyse their object into their most simple principles. A father opposing an invitation or injunction to let his children partake of advantages especially prepared for their sake, and for which he can in no manner compensate, on the sole ground that they are his children and he may do as he likes, is perhaps not far superior in argument to the little boys; their