them. Conditions and adaptations favored the Oriental faith, but not the Occidental; this is the philosophy of so great difference of result. Mohammedan increase by propagandism, since the fourteenth century, amounts probably to forty millions or more ; that of Christianity, in the same way and time, may amount to two or three millions, mostly Roman Catholic converts. One reason why Christianity, especially in its Protestant form, does not find ready reception among half-civilized and barbarous races, is that the missionaries are so widely separated from them in habits, sympathies, developments, complexion. Between the Christians on the one side, and the Malays, Javanese, Dyaks, and the African tribes on the other, there are no mutual understandings and attractions, — no permanent bonds of union. For such races the Arab trader and colonist is by far the fittest and most successful propagandist. Mohammedanism during these last four centuries has spread itself much as Christianity did in the first five or six centuries of the Church, - quite as extensively and by similar adaptations; but this extension has attracted far less attention, because the converted races are less important, and far removed from the central regions of human development. In most instances where Mohammedanism has been received voluntarily, (the cases where this or any other faith has been propagated by force alone are few,) it has proved an elevating influence. This is strikingly seen in the case of the Bugis of Celebes, who three centuries ago were unlettered pagans, but who, after receiving Mohammedanism, (which they received while Christianity was also at the door pressing for admission,) invented an alphabet, established government, developed commerce, and are now making more vigorous advances towards a superior civilization than any race of the Archipelago has ever done.

In the matter of race, many of the Mohammedans of Asia appear to have every requisite for a higher culture. The Arabs, the Persians, the Turks, the Afghans, the Beloochees, and many of the Moslems of India, are fine races of men. Military science is likely, sooner or later, to take root among these races, some of whom have already, in an eminent degree, every other qualification for superior soldiers and able gener


als. Military science will open the way for other science, and then will come rivalship with Europe. Such is the order of development in Russia. There is less of civilization in Russia (the nobles excepted) than in Southern Asia, and the religion certainly is not superior, but military science and energetic government are preparing the way for general elevation throughout the Russian empire. Similar results are more than possible in many portions of Asia. Those high qualities of race which enabled the Arabs to stride forth suddenly, in advance of all the races, continue unchanged, ready as ever to fascinate the Oriental world with revelation and valor and poetry. On the whole, there seem to be sufficient reasons for concluding that Mohammedanism, though declining in some respects and in some localities, has not yet fully accomplished the work which Providence has given it to do.

In order to complete our survey and estimate of Asiatic civilization, it remains to compare it, somewhat more definitely and directly than we have yet done, with the civilization of Europe. The suggestions we have thrown out may be sufficient to fix attention upon the important fact, that the inferiority of Orientalism did not become manifest till the sixteenth century, when Europe entered upon its great career, surpassing its own past unfolding, as well as all other revelations of humanity. The roots of this European superiority may be traced back through the Middle Ages to the wonderful civilization of the Greeks, but to do any justice to this part of the general history of civilization would entirely exceed our limits. It will be seen that our present civilization has a broader and more complex basis than that of any of the civilizations of Asia. The riches of the past, the blood and nutriment of many races and the best, the accumulations of many nations and empires, the beauties and sublimities of the noblest arts, the treasures of the choicest literatures and philosophies, the sanctities and moralities of the truest and best religions (one of them the best of all), - all these foundations and disciplines, whether borrowed or inherited or developed, predetermined Europe rather than Asia to be the birthplace of Bacon and the sciences. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the superiorities and vast possibilities of European culture were beginning to be obscurely revealed, here and there; but in the sixteenth and all the following centuries, Asia has been left far behind. Besides the moral and intellectual causes suggested for this difference of destiny, there has been a special physical cause in the peculiar configuration of Europe, its seas and coasts and climate, which we can only thus hint at and pass on.

Inferiority is less seen in the laboring than in the intellectual classes of Asia. In fact, the lower orders of Asiatics are superior to the corresponding classes in Europe, so far as it respects actual attainments in some of the valuable results of civilized society, apart from all questions of future promise. They are more temperate, more submissive to reason and law, have more confirmed habits of order and self-control, are more polished in manners, are further removed from riots and mobs and the grosser crimes. They have acquired the habit of living on little, thus maintaining their civilization at a cheaper rate; they succeed better in making poverty and self-respect go together. The civilized European (particularly the Englishman and his descendants in America, both manifesting herein a younger and weaker civilization than that of the French and the Italians) bears about a ponderous burden of expense, which is a millstone about his neck; the Asiatic, having cheaper wants, older and stronger habits of decorum and sobriety, can lose money without losing caste, can rise or fall in style with less elevation or depression of soul. The vices and excesses of the courts of Indian princes — anomalous courts in which there is nothing to do, while there are ample revenues to be squandered on vicious idleness — are not to be taken as specimens of the habits of the people. When the time of self-government shall return, (as return it must, for the blunders and insults and taxations of foreigners cannot be eternal,) these corrupt and idle courts, corrupt because idle, will be swept away.

There is not sufficient reason for believing that the Asiatic man is dying out because he is old, and because he is below our standard in some things, and rejects our ideals in others. The Jews are old and scattered, and long ago lost their nationality, but exhibit no indications of decay; the Arminians and Parsees have had a similar history with similar results; all three are vigorous and superior Asiatic races, without nationality, yet with as sure prospect of a long and prosperous future as any race. The Hindus manifest no symptoms of decay; they are protected from permanent European intrusion by climate, as well as religion and caste. What race but the Arab, and what religion but that of Mohammed (to be greatly improved it may be hoped), is fitted to find a home in Arabia ? Mohammed was only a reformer and organizer of religious, social, and military ideas as old as the times of Abraham and Job, and how much older we know not. In Persia, Europeans can live, so far as climate is concerned ; but they will meet with powerful, and probably successful rivals, in that superior race of men (now followers of Mohammed after a fashion of their own) whose ancestors had the misfortune (for us, the good fortune) to lose the battle of Marathon, and to have boasting and hostile Greeks for their historians. In China, also, climate will allow European colonization; but in crowding, trading, cheating, working, economizing, they will find such competition as they have never before encountered. It must be long, if ever, before the Chinese can be elbowed out of China, even by insolent Europeans and Americans.

Is Asia then to remain unchanged ? Certainly not. Railroads and telegraphs and military science are becoming naturalized in India. They will be welcomed by the Chinese. European machinery and manufactures will follow; for the Hindus and Chinese will make the best, and by far the cheapest, factory operatives in the world. These changes will draw after them others. Scientific agriculture will be introduced ; and at length pure science. Education is already extending and improving. In some of the languages of India, the press, in the hands of natives, is beginning to exert a considerable influence. Religions are becoming modified and reformed. To nourish and water, without inundating, all this growth and progress, there will be colonies of Europeans and Americans, wherever commerce attracts and climate favors. By this contact and commerce of Europeans, Americans, and Asiatics, new races of men will be developed. Let us not flatter ourselves that the Creator has exhausted himself upon Anglo-Saxons. The laws of climate and race move on, revealing, as they move, the Unwearied Wisdom, independent of our parliaments, congresses, synods, our prophets, priests, philanthropists; in other phrase, God is everywhere, pervading all matter and spirit, all history and civilization, and moulding them after the eternal ideals. The last star is not yet discovered, nor created; nor the last race. Changes and improvements in Oriental society are coming, greater and better than we can plan or predict or conceive. That wide-spread monotony of governorships, collectorships, chaplaincies, mess-tables, punkahs, beef and beer, which the English imagination paints as the future of Asia, need not disturb the dreams of the philosopher or the artist; neither need we fear for Asia the equally afflicting prospect of American caucuses, camp-meetings, tract-societies, unventilated court-rooms, and conventicles, unamused youth, unexpanded manhood, ungenial age. These two Anglo-Saxon civilizations are energetic, rapidly improving, highly commendable in the main, unsurpassed in ancient or modern times, unequalled save by Greece, Germany, France, and Italy, but as yet too confined, dogmatic, unartistic, unsympathizing. The Persians, the Arabians, the Hindus, the Chinese, while learning much from us, will also be our teachers, and help to form the great Asiatic races and nations and religions and civilizations that are to be. Be not startled, good reader, at these suggestions. To thine own physical and spiritual system, how many races contribute their blood, how many worships and cultures their influence! And if the past has been so abundant and various, why not the future also ?

We write in the interest of human brotherhood; in the persuasion that Anglo-Saxons, however grand their destiny, however prolonged their history, are not to go fillibustering for ever round the world, crushing under their hard heel all the races and colors and systems and ideals that differ from their own. Surely Asiatics also are children of the good God, who watches their history, influences their nationalities, guides their progressions, perpetuates and modifies their races, restores their declensions, as truly as our own. Half the world, the older and larger, is not left Fatherless, as our dogmas teach. Long

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