ance may be referred to its connection with Aratus of Sicyon, | family of lichens. All his publications were connected
about 30 years later, as it was further augmented by the with this subject, the Lichenographia Universalis (Göt-
splendid abilities of Philopoemen. Thus did this people, so tingen, 1804) being the most important. Acharius died
celebrated in the heroic age, once more emerge from com of apoplexy in 1819. His name has been given by
parative obscurity, and become the greatest among the states botanists to more than one species of plants.
of Greece in the last days of its national independence. The ACHATES, the faithful friend and companion of Æneas,
inhabitants of Patræ and of Dyme were the first assertors of celebrated in Virgil's, Æneid as fidus Achates.
ancient liberty. The tyrants were banished, and the towns ACHEEN. See Schín.
again made one commonwealth. A public council was then ACHELOUS, the largest river in Greece, rises in Mount
held, in which affairs of importance were discussed and deter- Pindus, and dividing Ætolia from Acarnania, falls into
mined; and a register was provided for recording the trans- the Ionian Sea. In the lower part of its course the river
actions of the council. This assembly had two presidents, winds in an extraordinary manner through very fertile but
who were nominated alternately by the different towns. marshy plains. Its water descends from the mountains,
But instead of two presidents, they soon elected but one. heavily charged with fine mud, which is deposited along
Many neighbouring towns, which admired the constitution its banks and in the sea at its mouth, where a number of
of this republic, founded on equality, liberty, the love of small islands have gradually been formed. It was formerly
justice, and of the public good, were incorporated with the called Thoas, from its impetuosity in its upper portion, and
Achæans, and admitted to the full enjoyment of their Homer gave it the name of king of rivers. It has a course
laws and privileges. The Achæan League affords the most of 130 miles. The epithet Acheloius is used for aqueus
perfect example in antiquity of the federal form of govern- (Virgil), the ancients calling all water Achelous, according
ment; and, allowing for difference of time and place, its to Ephorus. The river is now called Aspro Potamo.
resemblance to that of the United States government is ACHENWALL, GOTTFRIED, a German writer, cele-
very remarkable. (See Arts. AMPHICTYONY and FEDERAL brated as having formulated and developed the science
GOVERNMENT; also Freeman's Federal Government, 2 vols. (Wissenschaft der Staaten), to which he was the first to
8vo. 1863, and Comparative Politics, 8vo. 1873; Droysen, apply the name scientia statistica, or statistics. Born at
Geschichte des Hellenismus, 2 vols.; Helwing, Geschichte Elbing, in East Prussia, in October 1719, he studied at
des Achaischen Bundes.)

Jena, Halle, and Leipsic, and took a degree at the lastACHAN, the son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, at named university. He removed to Marburg in 1746, the taking of Jericho concealed two hundred shekels of where for two years he read lectures on history, and on the silver, a Babylonish garment, and a wedge of gold, con law of nature and of nations. Here, too, he commenced trary to the express command of God. This sin proved those inquiries in statistics by which his name became fatal to the Israelites, who were repulsed at the siege of known. In 1748, having been invited by Münchhausen, Ai. In this emergency Joshua prostrated himself before the Hanoverian minister, to occupy a chair at the univerthe Lord, and begged that he would have mercy upon his sity, he removed to Göttingen, where he resided till his people. Achan was discovered by casting lots, and he death in 1772. His chief works were connected with and his children were stoned to death. This expiation statistics. The Staatsverfassungen der europäischen Reiche being made, Ai was taken by stratagem. (Josh. vii. viii.) appeared first in 1752, and revised editions—corrected

ACHARD, Franz Carl, a Prussian chemist, born at from information which he travelled through England, Berlin on the 28th April 1753, was the first to turn France, and other countries to collect—were published in Marggraff's discovery of the presence of sugar in beet-root | 1762 and 1768. He was married in 1752 to a lady to commercial account. He erected a factory on an estate named Walther, who obtained some celebrity by a volume in Silesia, granted to him about 1800 by the king of Prussia, of poems published in 1750, and by other writings. and produced there large quantities of sugar to meet ACHERON, in Classical Mythology, the son of Ceres, the scarcity occasioned by the closing of the West Indian who, for supplying the Titans with drink when they were ports to continental traders. In 1812 a similar establish- in contest with Jupiter, was turned into a river of Hades, ment was erected by Napoleon at Rambouillet, although over which departed souls were ferried on their way to the Institute of France in 1800, while honouring Achard Elysium. The name eventually was used to designate the for his researches, had declared his process to have little whole of the lower world. practical value. At the close of the war the manufacture ACHILL, or “Eagle” Island, off the west coast of Ireof beet-root sugar was protected by duties on other sugars land, forms part of the county of Mayo. It is of triangular that were almost prohibitive, so that the real worth of shape, and extends 15 miles from east to west, and 12 Achard's discoveries could not be tested. Achard was a from north to south, its total area being 51,521 acres. frequent contributor to the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin, The island is very mountainous; its extreme western point, and published in 1780 Chymisch-Physische Schriften, con Achill Head, is a bold and rugged promontory rising to a taining descriptions and results of his very numerous and height of 2222 feet above the sea. Large bogs, incapable carefully conducted experiments on the adhesion of bodies. of cultivation, alternate with the hills of this desolate isle, He died in 1821.

of whose extensive surface not more than 500 acres have ACHARIUS, Erik, a Swedish physician and botanist, been reclaimed. The inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence born at Gefle in 1757. The son of a comptroller of by fishing and tillage; their dwellings are miserable customs, he studied first in his native town, and then in hovels. There is a mission-station on the island, and 1773 at the University of Upsal, where Linnæus was one remains of ancient churches are still extant. of his teachers. In 1782 he took the degree of M.D. at ACHILLES ('Agulleús). When first taken up by the the University of Lund, and practised thereafter in various legendary history of Greece, the ancestors of Achilles were districts of Sweden. But the direction of his studies had settled in Phthia and in Ægina. That their original seat, been determined by his contact with Linnæus, and he however, was in the neighbourhood of Dodona and the found his appropriate sphere when he was appointed Achelous is made out from a combination of the following Professor of Botany at the Wadstena Academy in 1801. facts: That in the Iliad (xvi. 233) Achilles prays to Zeus Five years before he had been admitted a member of the of Dodona; that this district was the first to bear the Academy at Stockholm. He devoted himself to the study name of Hellas; that the followers of Achilles at Troy were of the cryptogamic orders of plants, and especially of the the only persons named Hellenes in the time of Homer

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(Thucyd. 1.3 ; of. Iliad, ii. 684, where the more usual name who calls him Achilles Statius, says that he was converte, of Myrmidones also occurs); that in Ægina Zeus was styled from heathenism and became a Christian bishop, but this “Hellanios;" and that the name of Selloi, applied to the is doubtful, the more so that Suidas also attributes to him priesthood at Dodona, is apparently identical with the name a work on the sphere (Trepi opaipas) which is referred to Hellenes. Whether from this local connection the derivation by Firmicus (330—50), and must, therefore, have been of the name of Achilles from the same root 'Axeloos written by another person. The erotic romance of Achilles should be preferred to the other derivations, such as Tatius, entitled The Loves of Clitophon and Leucippe, is 'Axe-deús = 'Eyelaos,“ ruler,” or 'Ax-udeús, =“the bane of almost certainly the work of a heathen writer. The style the Ilians," remains undecided. But this is gained, that we of the work is ornate and rhetorical, while the story is see in what manner the legend of Achilles had its root in often unnatural, and sometimes coarse, and the developthe earlier Pelasgic religion, his adherence to which in the ment of the plot irregular and frequently interrupted. Its prayer just cited would otherwise appear very strange on popularity at the time it appeared is proved by the many the part of a hero who, through the influence of Homer and manuscripts of it which still exist, and the value attached his successors, is completely identified with the Olympian to it by modern scholars and critics is seen in the frequency system of gods. According to the genealogy, Æacus had with which it has been reprinted and translated. A Latin two sons, Peleus and Telamon, of whom the former became translation by Annibal Crucceius was published, first in the father of Achilles—the latter, of Ajax; but of this part at Leyden in 1544, and then complete at Basel in relationship between Achilles and Ajax there is no sign in 1554. The Greek text was first printed by Commelin, at the Iliad. Peleus ruled in Phthia ; and the gods remark- Heidelberg, in 1601. Other editions by Salmasius (Leyden, ing his piety, rewarded him with, among other presents, a 1640), Mitscherlich (Biponti, 1792), and Jacobs (Leipsic, wife in the person of the beautiful nereid Thetis. After 1821), have been superseded by the editions of Hirschig her son was born, Thetis appears to have returned to her (Paris, 1856), and Hercher (Leipsic, 1857). An English life in the sea. The boy was placed under his father's translation by A. H. (Anthony Hodges) appeared at friend, the centaur Cheiron. When six years old he slew Oxford in 1638. lions and boars, and could run down a stag. When nine, ACHILLINI, ALEXANDER (1463–1512), a native of he was removed from his instructor to the island of Scyrus, Bologna, was celebrated as a lecturer both in medicine and where, dressed as a girl, he was to be brought up among in philosophy, and was styled the second Aristotle. He and the daughters of Lycomedes, his mother preferring for Mundinus were the first at Bologna to avail themselves of him a long inglorious life to a brief but splendid career. the permission given by Frederick II. to dissect dead The same desire for his safety is apparent in other legends, bodies. His philosophical works were printed in one which describe her as trying to make him invulnerable volume folio, at Venice, in 1508, and reprinted with conwhen a child by placing him in boiling water or in a fire, siderable additions in 1545, 1551, and 1568. He also and then salving him with ambrosia; or again, in later wrote several medical works, chiefly on anatomy. story, by dipping him in the river Styx, from which he ÁCHÍN (pronounced Atcheen), a town and also a state of came out, all but the heel which she held, proof against Northern Sumatra; the one state of that island which has wounds. When the aid of Achilles was found indispensable been powerful at any time since the discovery of the Cape to the expedition against Troy, Odysseus set out for Scyrus route to the East, and the only one that still remains indepenas a pedlar, spread his wares, including a shield and spear, dent of the Dutch, though that independence is now menaced. before the king's daughters, among whom was Achilles De Barros names Achín among the twenty-nine states in disguise. Then he caused an alarm of danger to be that divided the sea-board of Sumatra when the Portuguese sounded, upon which, while the girls fled, Achilles seized took Malacca. Northern Sumatra had been visited by the arms, and thus revealed himself. Provided with a several European travellers in the Middle Ages, such as contingent of 50 ships, and accompanied by the aged Marco Polo, Friar Odorico, and Nicolo Conti. Some of Phenix and Patroclus, he joined the expedition, which these as well as Asiatic writers mention Lambri, a state after occupying nine years in raids upon the towns in the which must have nearly occupied the position of Áchín. neighbourhood of Troy and in Mysia, as detailed in the But the first voyager to visit Achín, by that name, was epic poem entitled the Cypria, culminated in the regular Alvaro Tellez, a captain of Tristan d'Acunha’s fleet, in siege of Troy, as described in the Iliad, the grand object 1506. It was then a mere dependency of the adjoining of which is the glorification of our hero. Estranged from state of Pedir; and the latter, with Pasei, formed the only his comrades, because his captive Briseïs had been taken states on the coast whose chiefs claimed the title of Sultan. from him, Achilles remained inexorable in his tent, while Yet before twenty years had passed Achín had not only defeat attended the Greeks. At length, at their greatest gained independence, but had swallowed up all other states need, he yielded so far as to allow Patroclus to take his of Northern Sumatra. It attained its climax of power in chariot and to assume his armour. Patroclus fell, and the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), under the news of his death roused Achilles, who, now equipped whom the subject coast extended from Aru opposite with new armour fashioned by Hephæstus, drove back the Malacca round by the north to Padang on the west coast, Trojans, slew Hector, and after dragging his body thrice a sea-board of not less than 1100 miles; and besides this, round the Trojan walls, restored it to Priam. With the the king's supremacy was owned by the large island of funeral rites of Patroclus the Iliad concludes, and the story Nyás, and by the continental Malay states of Johor, is taken up by the Ethiopis, a poem by Arctinus of Miletus, Páháng, Quedah, and Perák. in which is described the combat of Achilles first with the The present limits of Achín supremacy in Sumatra are amazon Penthesilea, and next with Memnon. When the reckoned to be, on the east coast the River Tamiang, in latter fell, Achilles drove back the Trojans, and, impelled about 4° 25' N. lat., which forms the frontier of territories by fate, himself advanced to the Scæan gate, where an tributary to Siák; and on the west coast a line in about arrow from the bow of Paris struck his vulnerable heel, 2° 48' N., the frontier of Trumon, a small modern state and be fell, bewailed through the whole camp. (2. S. m.) lying between Achin and the Dutch government of Padang.

ACHILLES TATIUS, a Greek writer, born at Alexan- Even within these limits the actual power of Achin is predria. The precise time when he flourished is uncertain, but carious, and the interior boundary can be laid down only it cannot have been earlier than the 5th century, as in his from conjecture. This interior country is totally unex principal work he evidently imitates Heliodorus. Suidas, plored. It is believed to be inhabited by tribes kindred

to the Battas, that remarkable race of anthropophagi who | handsomer, and darker, as if with a mixture of blood from adjoin on the south. The whole area of Achin territory, India proper. Their language is little known; but though defined to the best of our ability, will contain about 16,400 it has now absorbed much Malay, the original part of it is English square miles. A rate of 20 per square mile, per- said to have characteristics connecting it both with the haps somewhat too large an average, gives a probable Batta and with the Indo-Chinese tougues. The Achín population of 328,000.

literature, however, is entirely Malay; it embraces poetry, The production of rice and pepper forms the chief a good deal of theology, and several chronicles. industry of the Achín territory. From Pedir and other The name of the state is properly Acheh. This the ports on the north coast large quantities of betel-nut are Portuguese made into Achem; whilst we, with the Dutch, exported to continental India, to Burmah, and to Penang learned to call it Áchín. The last appears to have been a for China. Some pepper is got from Pedir, but the chief Persian or Indian form, suggested by jingling analogy with export is from a number of small ports and anchorages on Máchín (China). the west coast, where vessels go from port to port making The town itself lies very near the north-west extremity up a cargo. Achín ponies are of good repute, and are of Sumatra, known in charts as Áchín Head.

Here a exported. Minor articles of export are sulphur, iron, girdle of ten or twelve small islands affords protection to sappan-wood, gutta-percha, dammer, rattans, bamboos, the anchorage. This fails in N.W. winds, but it is said benzoin, and camphor from the interior forests. The that vessels may find safe riding at all seasons by shifting camphor is that from the Dryabalanops camphora, for their berths. The town lies between two and three miles which so high a price is paid in China, and the whole goes from the sea, chiefly on the left bank of a river of no great thither, the bulk of that whole being, however, extremely size. This forms a swampy delta, and discharges by three small. Very little silk is now produced, but in the 16th mouths. The central and chief mouth is about 100 yards century the quantity seems to have been considerable. wide, and has a depth of 20 to 30 feet within the bar. What is now wanted for the local textures, which are in But the latter has barely 4 feet at low tide; at high tide some esteem, is imported from China.

it admits native craft of 20 or 30 tons, and larger craft in The chief attraction to the considerable trade that existed the rainy season. The town, like most Malay towns, conat Achín two centuries ago must have been gold. No sists of detached houses of timber and thatch, clustered in place in the East, unless Japan, was so abundantly sup- enclosed groups called kampongs, and buried in a forest of plied with gold. We can form no estimate of the annual fruit-trees. The chief feature is the palace of the Sultan, export, for it is impossible to accept Valentyn's statement which communicates with the river by a canal, and is that it sometimes reached 80 bahars (512,000 ounces !). enclosed, at least partially, by a wall of cụt stone. Crawford (1820), who always reckoned low, calculated the The valley or aÎluvial plain in which Áchín lies is low, whole export of Sumatra at 35,530 ounces, and that of and subject to partial inundation; but it is shut in at a Áchín at 10,450; whilst Anderson (1826), who tends to short distance from the town, on the three landward sides, put figures too high, reckoned the whole Achín export by hills. It is highly cultivated, and abounds in smali alone at 32,000 ounces. The chief imports to Achin are villages and kampongs, with white mosques interspersed. opium (largely consumed), rice (the indigenous supply The hills to the eastward are the spurs of a great volcanic being inadequate), salt, iron ware, piece-goods, arms and mountain, upwards of 6000 feet in height, called by natives ammunition, vessels of copper and pottery, China goods of Yamuria, by mariners “the Golden Mountain." 1' of the sorts, and a certain kind of dried fish.

town population we find no modern estimate. The great repute of Achin at one time as a place of The real original territory of the Achinese, called by trade is shown by the fact, that to this port the first Dutch them Great Achín (in the sense of Achín proper), consists (1599) and first English (1602) commercial ventures to of three districts immediately round the city, distinguished the Indies were directed. Lancaster, the English com- respectively as the 26, the 25, and the 22 múkims? (or modore, carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the king hundreds, to use the nearest English term). of Achín, and was well received by the prince then reign Each of these three districts has two heads, called panging, Aláuddin Shah. Another exchange of letters took limas; and these, according to some modern accounts, place between King James I. and Iskandar Muda in 1613. constitute the council of state, who are the chief adminisBut native caprice and natural jealousy at the growing trators, and in whose hands it lies to depose the sovereign force of the European nations in those seas, the reckless or to sanction his choice of a successor, Late notices rivalries of the latter and their fierce desire for monopoly, speak of a chief minister, apparently distinct from these; were alike destructive of sound trade; and the English and another important member of the government is the factory, though several times set up, was never long main- Shábandar, who is over all matters of customs, shipping, tained. The French made one great effort under Beaulieu and commerce. (1621) to establish relations with Achín, but nothing The court of Achín, in the 17th century, maintained a came of it.

good deal of pomp; and, according to Beaulieu, the king Still the foreign trade of Achín, though subject to spas- had always 900 elephants. These animals, though found modic interruptions, was important. Dampier and others throughout Sumatra, are now no longer tamed or kept. speak of the number of foreign merchants settled there, — Hostilities with the Portuguese began from the time of English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, Banyans the first independent king of Achín; and they had little from Guzerat, &c. Dampier says the roads were rarely remission till the power of Portugal fell with the loss of without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing Malacca (1641). Not less than ten times before that vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins, event were armaments despatched from Achín to reduce and opium. Besides the Chinese merchants settled at | Malacca, and more than once its garrison was very hard Achín, others used to come annually with the junks, ten pressed. One of these armadas, equipped by Iskandar or twelve in number, which arrived in June. A regular Muda in 1615, gives an idea of the king's resources. It fair was then established, which lasted two months, and consisted of 500 sail, of which 250 were galleys, and was known as the China camp,—a lively scene, and great resort of foreigners.

1 Several other great volcanic cones exist in the Áchín territory, and The Achinese are not identical with the Malays proper unexplored interior.

two visible from seaward rise to a height of 11,000 feet or more in the either in aspect or language. They are said to be taller, : A múkim is said properly to embrace 44 households.

among these a hundred were greater than any then used in of colours and distortion of images that result from the Europe. 60,000 men were embarked, with the king and use of lenses in optical instruments. When white light his women.

passes through a lens, the different-coloured rays that conOn the death of Iskandar's successor in 1641, the widow stitute it are refracted or bent aside at different angles, and was placed on the throne; and as a female reign favoured so converge at different foci, producing a blurred and the oligarchical tendencies of the Malay chiefs, three more coloured image. To remedy this compound lenses havo queens were allowed to reign successively. Though this been devised, which present a well-defined image, unsurseries of female sovereigns lasted only fifty-eight years alto- rounded by coloured bands of light. To instruments fitted gether, so dense is apt to be the ignorance of recent history, with lenses of this kind has been given the name achromatic, that long before the end of that period it had become an from å privative, and xowua, colour. The celebrated optiaccepted belief among foreign residents at Achín that there cian, John Dollond, was the first to surmount this practical never had been any sovereigns in Achín except females; difficulty, about the year 1757, by the use of a combination and hence, by an easy inference, that the Queen of Sheba of crown and flint glass. See OPTICS, MICROSCOPE, &c. had been Queen of Achin!

ACI REALE, a city and seaport of Sicily, in the In 1699 the Arab or fanatical party suppressed female Italian province of Catania, near the base of Mount Etna. government, and put a chief of Arab blood on the throne. It stands on solidified lava, which has here been deposited The remaining history of Achín is one of rapid decay. by different streams to a depth of 560 feet. The town, Thirty sovereigns in all have reigned from the beginning which has been almost entirely re-erected since the earthof the 16th century to the present day.

quake of 1693, is built of lava, contains many handsome After the restoration of Java to the Netherlands in 1816, edifices, and is defended by a fortress. Linen, silks, and a good deal of weight was attached by the neighbouring cutlery are manufactured, and the trade in cotton, flax, English colonies to the maintenance of our influence in grain, and wines is considerable. The place is celebrated Áchín; and in 1819 a treaty of friendship was concluded for its cold sulphurous mineral waters. Near Aci Reale with the Calcutta Government, which excluded other is the reputed scene of the mythical adventures of Acis and European nationalities from fixed residence in Achín. Galatea; and on this account several small towns in the When the home Government, in 1824, made a treaty with neighbourhood also bear the name of Aci, such as Aci the Netherlands, surrendering our remaining settlements Castello, Aci Terra, &c. Aci Reale has a population of in Sumatra in exchange for certain possessions on the cou- 24,151. tinent of Asia, no reference was made in the articles to the ACID, a general term in chemistry, applied to a Indian treaty of 1819; but an understanding was exchanged group of compound substances, possessing certain very that it should be modified by us, whilst no proceedings distinctive characteristics. All acids have one essential hostile to Achín should be attempted by the Dutch. property, viz., that of combining chemically with an alkali

This reservation was formally abandoned by our Govern or base, forming a new compound that has neither acid ment in a convention signed at the Hague, November 2, nor alkaline characters. The new bodies formed in this 1871; and little more than a year elapsed before the way are termed salts. Every acid is therefore capable of government of Batavia declared war upon Achín. Doubt- producing as many salts as there are basic substances to be less there was provocation, as there always will be between neutralised; and this salt-forming power is the best desuch neighbours; but the necessity for war has been finition of an acid substance. greatly doubted, even in Holland. A Dutch force landed The majority of acids possess the following contingent at Achín in April 1873, and attacked the palace. It was properties :defeated with considerable loss, including that of the 1. When applied to the tongue, they excite that sensation general (Köhler). The approach of the south-west mon- which is called sour or acid. soon was considered to preclude the immediate renewal of 2. They change the blue colours of vegetables to a red. the attempt; but hostilities were resumed, and Achín fell The vegetable blues employed for this purpose are generally in January 1874.

tincture of litmus and syrup of violets or of radishes, which (De Barros; Faria y Souza; Valentyn, vol. v.; Beaulieu have obtained the name of re-agents or tests. If these (in Thévenot's Collection); Dampier; Marsden; Crawfurd's colours have been previously converted to a green by alkalies, Hist. and Decl. of the Ind. Archip.; J. of Ind. Archip.; the acids restore them. Dulaurier in J. Asiatique, 3d s. vol. viii.; Anderson's Acheen, All these secondary properties are variable; and if we 1840; Veth, Atchin, &c. Leyden, 1873, &c.)

(H. Y.)

attempted to base a definition on any one of them, many ACHMET, or AHMED, the name of three emperors or important acids would be excluded. Take the case of a sultans of Turkey, the first of the name reigning from 1603 body like silica, so widely diffused in nature. to 1617, the second from 1691 to 1695. Achmet III. silicious sand or flint an acid or a neutral substance? When succeeded his brother Mustapha II., whom the Janissaries it is examined, it is found to be insoluble in water, to be deposed in 1703. After the battle of Pultowa in 1709, devoid of taste, and to possess no action on vegetable colourCharles XII. of Sweden took refuge with him, and incited ing matters; yet this substance is a true acid, because when him to war with Peter the Great, Czar of Russia. Achmet it is heated along with soda or lime, it forms the new body recovered the Morea from the Venetians (1715); but his commonly called glass, which is chemically a salt of silicic expedition into Hungary was less fortunate, his army being acid. Many other acids resemble silica in properties, and defeated at Peterwardein by Prince Eugene in 1716, and would be mistaken for neutral bodies if the salt-forming again near Belgrade the year after. The empire was dis- power was overlooked. tracted during his reign by political disturbances, which Another method of regarding an acid, which is found of were occasioned, in part at least, by his misgovernment; great importance in discussing chemical reactions, is to say and the discontent of his soldiers at last (1730) drove him an acid is a salt whose base is water. This definition is from the throne. He died in prison in 1736.

very apparent if we regard what takes place in separating ACHRAY, a small picturesque lake in Perthshire, near the acid from a salt. In this decomposition the acid would Loch Katrine, 20 miles W. of Stirling, which has obtained appear to be left without having any substitute for the notoriety from Scott's allusion to it in the Lady of the Lake. removed alkali. This is not however the case, as water is

ACHROMATIC GLASSES are so named from being found to enter into union instead of the base. Thus every specially constructed with a view to prevent the confusion true acid must contain hydrogen; and if this is displaced

Is pure

I. – 13

iv. 62).


by a metal, salts are formed directly. An acid is there fourth Council of Carthage that the archdeacon, at their fore a salt, whose metal is hydrogen. The full importance ordination, put into their hands a candlestick with a taper of the definition of an acid will be learned under the head and an empty pitcher, to imply that they were appointed ing CHEMISTRY.

to light the candles of the church and to furnish wine ACIDALIUS, VALENS, a very distinguished scholar for the eucharist. Their dress was the cassock and surand critic, born in 1567 at Wittstock, in Brandenburg. plice. The name and office still exist in the church. After studying at Rostock and Helmstaedt, and residing ACONCAGUA, a province of Chile, South America, is about three years in Italy, he took up his residence at about 100 miles long by 40 miles wide, and lies between Breslau, where he professed the Roman Catholic religion. 31° 30' and 33° 20' $. lat., and 70° and 71° 30' W. long., His excessive application to study was supposed to have between the provinces of Valparaiso and Santiago on the N. caused his untimely death, which occurred in 1595, when and Coquimbo on the S. A large part of the province he had just completed his twenty-eighth year. He wrote is mountainous, but it contains several rich and fertile notes on Tacitus and Curtius, a commentary on Plautus, valleys, which yield wheat, maize, sugar-cane, fruits, and and a number of poems, which are inserted in the Deliciæ garden produce in abundance. In the agricultural disof the German poets. Baillet gave him a place among his tricts there are raised from 50 to 60 fanegas of wheat for Enfans Célèbres, and tells that he wrote the commentary every quadra, equal to about 35 bushels per English acre. on Plautus and several of the Latin poems when he was The province has also mineral resources, but not to such only seventeen or eighteen years of age.

extent as Coquimbo or Atacama. Its chief town is San ACINACES, an ancient Persian sword, short and Felipe. The mountain Aconcagua, one of the loftiest straight, and worn, contrary to the Roman fashion, on the peaks of the Andes, rises to the height of 23,910 feet right side, or sometimes in front of the body, as shown in above the sea on the frontier between this province and the bas-reliefs found at Persepolis. Among the Persian Mendoza, a department of the Argentine Republic. A nobility they were frequently made of gold, being worn as river of the same name rises on the south side of the a badge of distinction. The acinaces was an object of mountain, and after a course of 230 miles falls into the religious worship with the Scythians and others (Herod. Pacific 12 miles N. of Valparaiso. Population (1870),

134,178. ACIS, in Mythology, the son of Faunus and the nymph ACONITE, ACONITUM, a genus of plants commonly Symæthis, was a beautiful shepherd of Sicily, who being known as Aconite, Monkshood, Friar's Cap, or Helmet beloved by Galatea, Polyphemus the giant was so enraged flower, and embracing about 18 species, chiefly natives of that he crushed his rival with a rock, and his blood gush- the mountainous parts of the northern hemisphere. They ing forth from under the rock, was metamorphosed into are distinguished by having one of the five blue or yellow the river bearing his name (Ovid, Met. xiii, 750; Sil. Ital. coloured sepals in the form of a helmet; hence the English xiv. 221). This river, now Fiume di Jaci, or Acque Grandi, Two of the petals placed under the hood of the rises under a bed of lava on the eastern base of Etna, and calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow passing Aci Reale, after a rapid course of one mile, falls spur at their apex. The genus belongs to the natural into the sea. The waters of the stream, once celebrated order Ranunculaceæ, or the Buttercup family. Aconitum for their purity, are now sulphureous.

Napellus, common monkshood, is a doubtful native of ACKERMANN, JOHN CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB, a learned Britain. It is an energetic irritant and narcotic poison. physician and professor of medicine, born at Zeulenroda, It causes death by a depressing effect on the nervous system, in Upper Saxony, in 1756. At the early age of fifteen he by producing palsy of the muscles concerned in breathing, and became a student of medicine at Jena, where he soon by fainting. A tincture prepared by the action of spirit attracted the favourable notice of Baldinger, who undertook on the roots is used medicinally to allay pain, especially the direction of his studies. When Baldinger was trans in cases of tic. Its roots have occasionally been mistaken ferred to Göttingen in 1773, Ackermann went with him, for horse-radish. The Aconite has a short underground and afterwards studied for two years at Halle. A few stem, from which dark-coloured tapering roots descend. The years' practice at Stendal (1778-99), where there were crown or upper portion of the root gives rise to new plants. numerous factories, enabled him to add many valuable When put to the lip, the juice of the Aconite root prooriginal observations to his translation of Ramazzini’s duces a feeling of numbness and tingling. The horseTreatise of the Diseases of Artificers (1780–83). In 1786 radish root, which belongs to the natural order Crucihe became professor of medicine at the university of feræ, is much longer than that of the Aconite, and it is Altorf, in Franconia, occupying first the chair of chemistry, not tapering; its colour is yellowish, and the top of the and then, from 1794 till his death in 1801, that of patho- root has the remains of the leaves on it. It has a punlogy and therapeutics. Dr Ackermann's knowledge of the gent taste. Many species of Aconite are cultivated in history of medicine may be estimated by his valuable con- gardens, some having blue and others yellow flowers. tributions to Harless's edition of Fabricius' Bibliotheca Aconitum Lycoctonum, Wolfsbane, is a yellow-flowered Græca. He wrote numerous original works, besides trans- species common on the Alps of Switzerland. One species, lations.

Aconitum heterophyllum, found in the East Indies, and ACEMETÆ (åkoluntos, sleepless), an order of monks called Butees, has tonic properties in its roots. The roots instituted by Alexander, a Syrian, about the middle of of Aconitum ferox supply the famous Indian (Nipal) the 5th century. Founding on the precept, Pray without poison called Bikh, Bish, or Nabee. This species is conceasing, they celebrated divine service uninterruptedly night sidered by Hooker and Thomson as a variety of Aconitum and day, for which purpose they divided themselves into Napellus. Aconitum palmatum yields another of the three sections, that relieved each other in turn. The celebrated Bikh poisons. Aconitum luridum, of the Himachief seat of the Acæmetæ was the cloister Studium at layas, also furnishes a poison. Constantinople, whence they were sometimes called Studites. ACONTIUS, the Latinised form of the name of GIACOMO Having adopted the monophysite heresy, they were put ACONCIO, a philosopher, jurisconsult, engineer, and theolounder the Papal ban about the year 536.

gian, born at Trent on the 7th September 1492. He emACOLYTÊ (from åkólovdos, an attendant), one of a braced the reformed religion; and after having taken refuge minor order of clergy in the ancient church, ranking for a time in Switzerland and Strasburg, he came to Enge next to the sub-deacon. We learn from the canons of the land about 1558.

land about 1558. He was very favourably received by

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