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Cochin China and Aden they succeed in rearing children | sensitive, about the mode in which it was acquired. The and forming permanent communities."
consequences of this indiscriminate sexual intercourse, espeIn some of the hottest parts of South America Europeans cially if much prolonged, is to diminish, in some cases to are perfectly acclimatised, and where the race is kept pure paralyse, the fertility of the female. And as among people it seems to be even improved. Some very valuable notes of mixed race it is almost universal, the population of on this subject have been furnished to the present writer these must fall off both in numbers and quality.” by the well-known botanist Dr Richard Spruce, who resided The following example of divergent acclimatisation of many years in South America, but who has hitherto been the same race to hot and cold zones is very interesting, prevented by ill health from giving to the world the results and will conclude our extracts from Dr Spruce's valuable of his researches. As a careful, judicious, and accurate notes : observer, both of man and nature, he has few superiors. “One of the most singular cases connected with this He says
subject that have fallen under my own observation, is the “The white inhabitants of Guayaquil (lat. 2° 13' S.) are difficulty, or apparent impossibility, of acclimatising the kept pure by careful selection. The slightest tincture of Red Indian in a certain zone of the Andes. Any person red or black blood bars entry into any of the old families who has compared the physical characters of the native who are descendants of Spaniards from the Provincias races of South America must be convinced that these have Vascongadas, or those bordering the Bay of Biscay, where all originated in a common stirps. Many local differences the morals are perhaps the purest (as regards the intercourse exist, but none capable of invalidating this conclusion. of the sexes) of any in Europe, and where for a girl, even The warmth yet shade-loving Indian of the Amazon; the of the poorest class, to have a child before marriage is the Indian of the hot, dry, and treeless coasts of Feru and rarest thing possible. The consequence of this careful Guayaquil, who exposes his bare head to the sun with as breeding is, that the women of Guayaquil are considered much zest as an African negro; the Indian of the Andes, (and justly) the finest along the whole Pacific coast. They for whom no cold seems too great, who goes constantly are often tall, sometimes very handsome, decidedly healthy, bare-legged and often bare-headed, through whose rude although pale, and assuredly prolific enough. Their sons straw hut the piercing wind of the paramos sweeps, and ure big, stout men, but when they lead inactive lives are chills the white man to the very bones ;—all these, in the 2pt to become fat and sluggish. Those of them, however, colour and texture of the skin, the hair, and other important who have farms in the savannahs, and are accustomed to features, are plainly of one and the same race. take long rides in all weathers, and those whose trade “Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging obliges them to take frequent journeys in the mountainous between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very interior, or even to Europe and North America, are often as best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane is less luxuriant active and as little burdened with superfluous flesh as a but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is Scotch farmer.
therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red “The oldest Christian town in Peru is Piura (lat. 5° S.), man sickens and dies. Indians taken down from the sierra which was founded by Pizarro himself. The climate is get ague and dysentery. Those of the plains find the very hot, especially in the three or four months following temperature chilly, and are stricken down with influenza the southern solstice. In March 1843 the temperature and pains in the limbs. I have seen the difficulty only once fell as low as 83°, during the whole month, the experienced in getting farms cultivated in this zone, on usual lowest night temperature being 85°. Yet people of both sides of the Cordillera. The permanent residents are all colours find it very healthy, and the whites are very generally limited to the major domo and his family; and prolific. I resided in the town itself nine months, and in in the dry season labourers are hired, of any colour that the neighbourhood seven months more. The population can be obtained—some from the low country, others from (in 1863-4) was about 10,000, of which not only a the highlands—for three, four, or five months, who gather considerable proportion was white, but was mostly descended in and grind the cane, and plant for the harvest of the from the first emigrants after the conquest. Purity of following year; but a staff of resident Indian labourers, descent was not, however, quite so strictly maintained as such as exists in the farms of the sierra, cannot be kept up at Guayaquil. The military adventurers, who have often in the Yungas, as these half-warm valleys are called. risen to high or even supreme rank in Peru, have not seldom White men, who take proper precautions, and are not been of mixed race, and fear or favour has often availed to chronically soaked with ca ne-spirit, stand the climate procure them an alliance with the oldest and purest-blooded perfectly, but the creole whites are still too much caballeros families.”
to devote themselves to agricultural work. These instances, so well stated by Dr Spruce, seem to “In what is now the republic of Ecuador, the only demonstrate the complete acclimatisation of Spaniards in peopled portions are the central valley, between the two some of the hottest parts of South America. Although ridges of the Andes—height 7000 to 12,000 feet—and the we have here nothing to do with mixed races, yet the want hot plain at their western base; nor do the wooded slopes of fertility in these has been often taken to be a fact appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage inherent in the mongrel race, and has been also sometimes hordes, even in the time of the Incas. The Indians of the held to prove that neither the European nor his half-bred highlands are the descendants of others who have inhabited offspring can maintain themselves in the tropics. The that region exclusively for untold ages; and a similar following observation is therefore of interest :
affirmation may be made of the Indians of the plain. Now, “At Guayaquil for a lady of good family-married or there is little doubt that the progenitors of both these unmarried to be of loose morals is so uncommon, that sections came from a temperate region (in North America); when it does happen it is felt as a calamity by the whole so that here we have one moiety acclimatised to endure excommunity. But here, and perhaps in most other towns treme heat, and the other extreme cold; and at this day in South America, a poor girl of mixed race—especially if exposure of either to the opposite extreme (or even, as we good-looking-rarely thinks of marrying one of her own have seen, to the climate of an intermediate zone) is always class until she has-as the Brazilians say-approveitada pernicious and often fatal. But this great difference has de sua mocidade' (made the most of her youth) in receiving been brought about in the red man, might not the same presents from gentlemen. If she thus bring a good dowry have happened to the white man? Plainly it might, time to her husband, he does not care to inquire, or is not being given ; for one cannot doubt that the inherent adapta
bility is the same in both, or (if not) that the white man hood on his son Henry. At first it was given with the possesses it in a higher degree.
naked fist, a veritable box on the ear, but for this was The observations of Dr Spruce are of themselves almost substituted a gentle stroke on the shoulder with the flat of conclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming ac- the sword. A custom of a similar kind is still followed in climatised in the tropics; and if it is objected that this bestowing the honour of knighthood. evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we ACCOLTI, BENEDICT, was born in 1415 at Arezzo, in are fortunately able to point to facts, almost equally well Tuscany, of a noble family, several members of which were authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typi- distinguished like himself for their attainments in law. cal Germanic races. At the Cape of Good Hope the Dutch He was for some time professor of jurisprudence in the have been settled and nearly isolated for about 200 years, University of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated and have kept themselves almost or quite free from native Poggio in 1459 became chancellor of the Florentine reintermixture. They are described as being still perfectly public. He died in 1466. In conjunction with his brother fair in complexion, while physically they are the finest body Leonard, he wrote in Latin a history of the first crusade, of men in the colony, being very tall and strong. They entitled De Bello a Christianis contra Barbaros, pro Christi marry young, and have large families. The population, Sepulchro et Judæa recuperandis, libri tres, which, though according to a census taken in 1798, was under 22,000. itself of little interest, furnished Tasso with the historic In 1865 it was near 182,000, the majority being (according basis for his Jerusalem Delivered. This work appeared at to the Statesman's Year Book for 1873) of “ Dutch, German, Venice in 1432, and was translated into Italian in 1543, or French origin, mostly descendants of original settlers." and into French in 1620. Another work of Accolti's—De We have here a population which has doubled itself every Præstantia Virorum sui Ævi—was published at Parma in twenty-two years; and the greater part of this rapid in- | 1689. crease must certainly be due to the old European immi ACCOLTI, BERNARD (1465–1535), son of the precedgrants. In the Moluccas, where the Dutch have had settle-ing, known in his own day as l'Unico Aretino, acquired great ments for nearly 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace fame as a reciter of impromptu verse. He was listened to by their descent to early immigrants; and these, as well as large crowds, composed of the most learned men and the most most of the people of Dutch descent in the East, are quite distinguished prelates of the age. Among others, Cardinal as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, Bembo has left on record a testimony to his extraordinary and are very prolific. But the Dutch accommodate them- talent. His high reputation with his contemporaries seems selves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their scarcely justified by the poems he published, though they work early in the morning, dressing very lightly, and living give evidence of brilliant fancy. It is probable that he a quiet, temperate, and cheerful life. They also pay great succeeded better in his extemporary productions than in attention to drainage and general cleanliness. In addition those which were the fruit of deliberation. His works, to these examples, it may be maintained that the rapid in- under the title Virginia, Comedia, Capitoli e Strambotti di crease of English-speaking populations in the United States Messer Bernardo Accolti Aretino, were published at Florence and in Australia, only a comparatively small portion of in 1513, and have been several times reprinted. which can be due to direct immigration, is far from support ACCOLTI, PIETRO, brother of the preceding, was born ing the view of Dr Knox, that Europeans cannot per- at Florence in and died there in 1549. He was manently maintain themselves in those countries. Mr abbreviator under Leo X., and in that capacity drew up Brace expressly denies that the American physique has in 1520 the famous bull against Luther. In 1527 he was degenerated from the English type. He asserts that manu made a cardinal by Clement VII., who had employed him facturers and others find that “ for labours requiring the as his secretary. utmost physical endurance and muscular power, such as ACCOMMODATION, a term used in Biblical interpreiron-puddling and lumbering in the forests and on the tation to denote the presentation of a truth not absolutely streams, and pioneer work, foreigners are never so suitable as it is in itself, but relatively or under some modification, as native Americans. The reports of the examining sur- with the view of suiting it either to some other truth or to geons for volunteers—such as that of Dr W. H. Thomson the persons addressed. It is generally distinguished into to the Surgeon-General in 1862, who examined 9000 men formal and material,—the accommodation in the one case
show a far higher average of physique in the Americans being confined to the method of teaching, and in the other examined than in the English, Germans, or Irish. It is a being extended to the matter taught. To the former head fact well known to our life insurance companies, that the may be referred teaching by symbols or parables, by proaverage length of life here is greater than that of the gressive stages graduated according to the capacity of the English tables.”—The Races of the Old World, p. 375. learner, by the application of prophecy to secondary fulfil. Although the comparisons here instituted may not be quite ments, &c. To the latter head are to be referred the allefair or conclusive, they furnish good arguments against those gations of the anti-supranaturalistic school, that Christ and who maintain that the Americans are physically deteriorat- the writers of Scripture modified or perverted the truth ing.
itself in order to secure wider acceptance and speedier On the whole, we seem justified in concluding that, under success, by speaking in accordance with contemporary ideas favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means rather than with absolute and eternal truth. to the end in view, man may become acclimatised with at ACCOMMODATION, in commerce, denotes generally least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations temporary pecuniary aid given by one trader to another, or rather than by years) as any of the lower animals. (A. R. w.) by a banker to his customers, but it is used more par
ACCOLADE (from collum, the neck), a ceremony an- ticularly to describe that class of bills of exchange which ciently used in conferring knighthood; but whether it was represents no actual exchange of real value between the an embrace (according to the use of the modern French word, parties. accolade), or a slight blow on the neck or cheek, is not ACCORAMBONI, VITTORIA, an Italian lady remarkagreed. Both these customs appear to be of great antiquity. able for her extraordinary beauty and her tragic history. Gregory of Tours writes that the early kings of France, in Her contemporaries regarded her as the most captivating conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the woman that had ever been seen in Italy. She was sought left cheek; and William the Conqueror is said to have in marriage by Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, made use of the blow in conferring the honour of knight- who, it was generally believed, had murdered his wife,
On fourths of the Month.
On Stock Exchange
On Consols Settling Days
Isabella de Medici, with his own hand; but her father | Ausonium, Solinum, et Ovidium, printed at Rome, in folio, gave her in preference to Francesco Peretti, nephew of in 1524, is a singular monument of erudition and critical Cardinal Montalto. Peretti was assassinated (1581), and skill. He bestowed, it is said, unusual pains on Claudian, a few days afterwards Vittoria fled from the house of the and made, from different manuscripts, above seven hundred Cardinal, where she had resided, to that of the Duke of corrections on the works of that poet. Unfortunately these Bracciano. The opposition of Pope Gregory XIII., who criticisms were never published. He was the first editor even went so far as to confine Vittoria to Fort St Angelo of the Letters of Cassiodorus, with his Treatise on the Soul; for nearly a year, did not prevent her marriage with the and his edition of Ammianus Marcellinus (1533) contains duke. On the accession of Montalto to the papal throne five books more than any former one. The affected use of as Sixtus V. (1585), the duke thought it prudent to take antiquated terms, introduced by some of the Latin writers refuge with his wife in the territory of the Venetian of that age, is humorously ridiculed by him, in a dialogue republic. After a few months' residence at Saló, on the published in 1531 (republished, with his name, in 1574), Lake of Garda, he died, bequeathing nearly the whole of entitled Osco, Volsco, Romanaque Eloquentia Interlocuhis large fortune to his widow. This excited the anger of toribus, Dialogus Ludis Romanis actus. Accorso was Ludovico Orsini, a relative, who caused Vittoria to be accused of plagiarism in his notes on Ausonius; and the murdered in her residence at Padau (Dec. 22, 1585). The determined manner in which he repelled, by a most solemn history of this beautiful and accomplished but unfortunate oath, this charge of literary theft, presents us with a singular woman has been written by Adry (1800), and recently by instance of anxiety and care to preserve a literary reputaCount Gnoli, and forms the basis of Webster's tragedy, The tion unstained. White Devil, and of Tieck’s romance, Vittoria Accoramboni. ACCOUNT, a Stock Exchange term: e.g., “ To Buy or
ACCORDION (from the French accord), a small musical Sell for the Account,” &c. The word has different, though instrument in the shape of a bellows, which produces sounds kindred, significations, all derived from the making up and by the action of wind on metallic reeds of various sizes. settling of accounts on particular days, in which stricter It is played by being held in both hands and pulled back sense the word “Settlement” is more specially used. wards and forwards, the fingers being left free to touch The financial importance of the Account may be gathered the keys, which are ranged along each side. The instru- from the Clearing House returns. Confining ourselves to ment is akin to the concertina, but differs from it in having the six years, from the 30th of April 1867 to the 30th of the chords fixed by a mechanical arrangement. It is manu- April 1873, we have the following figures, furnished by factured chiefly in Paris.
the Clearing House to Sir John Lubbock, and communi. ACCORSO (in Latin Accursius), Francis, an eminent cated by him to the Times :lawyer, born at Florence about 1182. After practising
April for some time in his native city, he was appointed professor 1867 to 1868 £147,113,000 £444, 443,000 £132,293,000 at Bologna, where he had great success as a teacher. He 1868 to 1869 161,861,000 550,622,000 142,270,000 undertook the great work of arranging into one body the 1869 to 1870 168,523,000 594,763,000 148,822,000
1870 to 1871 almost innumerable comments and remarks upon the Code,
186,517,000 635,946,000 169,141,000
1871 to 1872 229,629,000 942, 446,000 233,843,000 the Institutes, and Digests, the confused dispersion of which 1872 to 1873 205,965,000 1,032, 474,000 243,561,000 among the works of different writers caused much obscurity and contradiction. When he was employed in this work, checks, &c., paid at the Clearing House showed an increase of
During the year ending April 30, 1873, the total amount of bills, it is said that, hearing of a similar one proposed and begun £643,613,000 during the same period ending April 1872, and of by Odofred, another lawyer of Bologna, he feigned indis- £2,745,924,000 over 1868. The amounts passing through on the position, interrupted his public lectures, and shut himself 4ths of the month amounted to £265,965,000, showing an increase up, till he had, with the utmost expedition, accomplished Account Days formed a sum of £1,032,474,600, being an increase
of £36,336,000 over 1872. The payments on Stock Exchange his design. His work has the vague title of the Great Gloss, of £90,028,000 over 1872. The payments on Consols Account Days and, though written in barbarous Latin, has more method for the same period amounted to £243,561,000, giving an increase than that of any preceding writer on the subject. The of £9,718,000 over 1872. best edition of it is that of Godefroi, published at Lyons in In English and Indian Government Securities, the settle1589, in 6 vols. folio. Accursius was greatly extolled by ments are monthly, and for foreign, railway, and other the lawyers of his own and the immediately succeeding age, securities, generally speaking, they are fortnightly. It and he was even called the Idol of Jurisconsults, but those follows therefore that in 1867–1868, an ordinary Stock of later times formed a much lower estimate of his merits. Exchange Account Day involved payments, on Stock There can be no doubt that he has disentangled with Exchange accounts only, averaging about £10,000,000 much skill the sense of many laws; but it is equally un- sterling, and in 1872–3 something like £25,000,000 sterdeniable that his ignorance of history and antiquities has ling; and these sums again, enormous as they are, repre often led him into absurdities, and been the cause of many sent for the most part only the balance of much larger defects in his explanations and commentaries. He died at transactions. The London Account is, in fact, probably Bologna in 1260. His eldest son Francis, who filled the the greatest and most important periodical event in the chair of law at Bologna with great reputation, was invited financial world. The great European centres have their to Oxford by King Edward I., and in 1275 or 1276 read own Account Days and methods of settlement, but the lectures on law in that university. In 1280 he returned to amounts dealt in are very much less than on the London Bologna, where he died in 1293.
market. The leading cities in the United Kingdom have ACCORSO (or ACCURSIUS), MARIANGELO, a learned and also their Stock Exchanges, but their practice follows more ingenious critic, was born at Aquila, in the kingdom of or less that of London, where the bulk of their business is Naples, about 1490.
He was a great favourite with transacted by means of post and telegraph. Charles V., at whose court he resided for thirty-three years, The Account in Consols or other English Government and by whom he was employed on various foreign missions. Securities, or in the securities of the Government of India, To a perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin he added an or in Bank of England Stock, or other Stocks transferable intimate acquaintance with several modern languages. In at the Bank of England, extends over a month, the settlediscovering and collating ancient manuscripts, for which his ments being monthly, and in them the committee of the travels abroad gave him special opportunities, he displayed Stock Exchange does not take cognisance of any bargain uncommon diligence. His work entitled Diatribæ in for a future account, if it shall have been effected more
than eight days previously to the close of the existing of containing 140,000,000 gallons has been constructed for account.
the water supply of the town. Accrington is a station on The Account in Securities to Bearer, and, with the above the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. The population of exceptions, in Registered Securities also, extends over a | the two townships of Old and New Accrington was in 1861, period of from twelve to nineteen days. This period is in 17,688; and in 1871, 21,788. each case terminated by the “settlement," which occurs ACCUM, FREDERICK, chemist, born at Bückeburg in twice in each month (generally about the middle and end), 1769, came to London in 1793, and was appointed teacher on days fixed by the committee for general purposes of the of chemistry and mineralogy at the Surrey Institution in Stock Exchange in the preceding month.
1801. While occupying this position he published several This "settlement" occupies three continuous days, which scientific manuals (Chemistry, 1803; Mineralogy, 1808; are all termed Account days, but the third day is the true Crystallography, 1813), but his name will be chiefly reAccount, Settling, or Pay Day.
membered in connection with gas-lighting, the introduction Continuation or Carrying-over is the operation by which the of which was mainly due to him and to the enterprising settlement of a bargain transacted for money, or for a given account, printseller, Ackermann. His excellent Practical Treatise may for a consideration (called either a “Contango" or a “Back
on Gaslight appeared in 1815; and he rendered another wardation") be deferred for the period of another account. Such a continuation is equivalent to a sale “for the day," and a repur
valuable service to society by his Treatise on Adulterations chase for the succeeding account, or to a purchase'" for the day," of Food and Culinary Poisons (1820), which attracted and a re-sale for the succeeding account. The price at which such much notice at the time it appeared. Both works, as well transactions are adjusted is the “Making-Up” price of the day. as a number of his smaller publications, were translated
Contango is a technical term which expresses the rate of in. into German. terest charged for the loan of money upon the security of stock
In consequence of charges affecting his transferred for the period of an account or otherwise, or the rate of honesty, Accum left London for Germany, and in 1822 interest paid by the buyer to the seller to be allowed to defer paying was appointed professor in the Industrial Institute and for the stock purchased, until the next settlement day.
Academy of Architecture at Berlin. He died there in 1838. Backwardation, or, as it is more often called, Back (for brevity), ACCUMULATOR, a term applied frequently to a in contradistinction to contango, is the amount charged for the loan of stock from one account to the other, and it is paid to the powerful electrical machine, which generates or accumupurchaser by the seller in order to allow the seller to defer the deli-lates, by means of friction, electric currents of high tenvery of the stock.
sion, manifested by sparks of considerable length. A Bull Account is one in which either the purchases have pre- Accumulators have been employed in many places for dominated over the sales, or the disposition to purchase has been more marked than the disposition to sell.
exploding torpedoes and mines, for blasting, &c. An A Bear Account is one in which either the sales have preponderated exceedingly powerful apparatus of this kind was employed over the purchases, or in which the disposition to sell has been by the Confederate authorities during the civil war in more strongly displayed than the disposition to buy. Sometimes the Buil or the Bear disposition extends to the great Whatever the nature of the materials employed in the con
America for discharging submarine and river torpedoes. majority of securities, as when there are general falls or general struction of the accumulator, or the form which it may rises. Sometimes a Bull Account in one set of securities is contemporaneous with a Bear Account in another.— Vide Cracroft's assume mechanically, it is simply a modification of, or an Stock Exchange Manual.
improvement upon, the ordinary cylindrical or the plateACCOUNTANT, earlier form ACCOMPTANT, in the glass frictional electrical machine, — the fundamental most general sense, is a person skilled in accounts. It is scientific principles being the same in nearly every case. The applied to the person who has the charge of the accounts exciting body consists generally of a large disc or circular in a public office or in the counting-house of a large private plate of vulcanite,-more frequently termed by electricians business. It is also the designation of a distinct profession, "ebonite,” in consequence of its resemblance, in point of which deals in any required way with mercantile accounts. hardness and of polish, to polished ebony,—the vulcanite
ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, an officer in the English disc taking the place of the ordinary circular plate of Court of Chancery, who receives all monies lodged in court, thick glass. and by whom they are deposited in bank and disbursed. ACE, the received name for the single point on cards or
ACCRA or Acra, a town, or rather a collection of dice—the unit. Mr Fox Talbot has a speculation (English forts, in a territory of the same name, on the Gold Coast of Etymologies, p. 262) that the Latins invented, if not the Africa, about 75 miles east of Cape Coast Castle. Of the game of dice, at least the name for the single point, which forts, Fort St James is a British settlement, Crèvec@ur | they called unus. The Greeks corrupted this into ovos, was established by the Dutch, and Christianborg by the and at length the Germanic races, learning the game from Danes ; but the two last have since been ceded to Britain, the Greeks, translated the word into ass, which has now Christianborg in 1850, and Crèvec@ur in 1871. Accra become ace. The fact, however, is, that the root of the is considered to be one of the healthiest stations on the west word lies in the Latin as, the monetary unit, which is to coast of Africa, and has some trade in the productions of be identified with the Greek eis; Doric, ais or ås. the interior,-ivory, gold dust, and palm-oil; while cotton goods, tobacco, rum, and beads are imported in exchange. the molluscous animals, which are divided into encephala It is the residence of a British civil commandant.
and acephala, according as they have or want a distinctly ACCRINGTON, an important manufacturing town of differentiated head. The Acephala, or Lamellibranchiata, England, in Lancashire, lies on the banks of a stream called as they are also called, are commonly known as bivalve the Hindburn, in a deep valley, 19 miles N. from Man- shell-fish. chester and 5 miles E. of Blackburn. It has increased rapidly ACEPHALI (from a privative, and kepalń, a head), a in recent years, and is the centre of the Manchester cotton- term applied to several sects as having no head or leader; printing trade. There are large cotton factories and print- and in particular to a sect that separated itself, in the end works, besides bleach-fields, &c., employing many hands. of the 5th century, from the rule of the patriarchs of AlexCoal is extensively wrought in the neighbourhood. The andria, and remained without king or bishop for more than town has a good appearance, and among the more handsome 300 years (Gibbon, c. xlvii.) buildings are a fine church, in the Gothic style, erected in ACEPHALI was also the name given to the levellers in 1838, and the Peel Institution, an Italian structure, contain the reign of Henry I., who are said to have been so poor ing an assembly room, a lecture room, &c., The sanitary as to have no tenements, in virtue of which they might arrangements generally are good, and a reservoir capable acknowledge a superior lord.
| be ACEPHA WA, a name sometimes given to a section of
ACEPHALI, or Acephalous Persons, fabulous monsters, | in a fertile district, but is rendered very unhealthy by the described by some ancient naturalists and geographers as malaria rising from the artificial water-courses of the surhaving no heads.
rounding Campagna. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a ACER. See MAPLE.
cathedral and seminary. Flax is grown in the neighbourACERBI, GIUSEPPE (JOSEPH), an Italian traveller, born hood. Population, 11,717. at Castel-Goffredo, near Mantua, on the 3d May 1773, ACETIC ACID, one of the most important organic acids. studied at Mantua, and devoted himself specially to natural It occurs naturally in the juice of many plants, and in cerscience. In 1798 he undertook a journey through Den- tain animal secretions ; but is generally obtained, on the mark, Sweden, Finland, and Lapland; and in the follow- large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the ing year he reached the North Cape, which no Italian had destructive distillation of wood. In the former process it previously visited. He was accompanied in the latter part is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which of the journey by the Swedish colonel Skiöldebrand, an also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are disexcellent landscape-painter. On his return Acerbi stayed solved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily for some time in England, and published his Travels term vinegar. The strongest vinegar sold in commerce through Sweden, &c. (London, 1802), which was translated contains 5 per cent. of real acetic acid. It is used as a into German (Weimar, 1803), and, under the author's per- mordant in calico-printing, as a local irritant in medicine, sonal superintendence, into French (Paris, 1804). The as a condiment, and in the preparation of various acetates, French translation received numerous corrections, but even varnishes, &c. Pure acetic acid is got from the distillation in this amended form the work contains many mistakes. of wood, by neutralising with lime, separating the tarry Acerbi rendered a great service to Italian literature by matters from the solution of acetate of lime, evaporating starting the Biblioteca Italiana (1816), in which he off the water, and treating the dry residue with sulphuric opposed the pretensions of the Academy della Crusca. acid. On applying heat, pure acetic acid distills over as Being appointed Austrian consul-general to Egypt in a clear liquid, which, after a short time, if the weather 1826, he entrusted the management of the Biblioteca to is cold, becomes a crystalline mass known by the name of Gironi, contributing to it afterwards a series of valuable Glacial Acetic Acid. For synthesis, properties, &c., see articles on Egypt. While in the East he obtained for the CHEMISTRY. museums of Vienna, Padua, Milan, and Pavia many ACHAIA, in Ancient Geography, a name differently objects of interest. He returned from Egypt in 1836, applied at different periods. In the earliest times the name and took up his residence in his native place, where he was borne by a small district in the south of Thessaly, and occupied himself with his favourite study till his death in was the first residence of the Achæans. At a later period August 1846.
Achaia Propria was a narrow tract of country in the north ACERNUS, the Latinised name by which SEBASTIAN of the Peloponnesus, running 65 miles along the Gulf of FABIAN KLONOWICZ, a celebrated Polish poet, is generally Corinth, and bounded by the Ionian Sea on the W., by known, was born at Sulmierzyce in 1551, and died at Elis and Arcadia on the S., and by Sicyonia on the E. Lublin in 1608. He was for some time burgomaster and on the south it is separated from Arcadia by lofty mounpresident of the Jews' civil tribunal in the latter town, tains, but the plains between the mountains and the sea are where he had taken up his residence after studying at very fertile. Its chief town was Patræ. The name of Cracow. Though himself of an amiable disposition, his Achaia was afterwards employed to denote collectively the domestic life was very unhappy, the extravagance and states that joined the Achæan League. When Greece was misconduct of his wife driving him at last to the public subdued by the Romans, Achaia was the name given to the hospital of Lublin, where he ended his days. He wrote most southerly of the provinces into which they divided the both Latin and Polish poems, and the genius they dis-country, and included the Peloponnesus, the greater part of played won for him the name of the Sarmatian Ovid. Greece Proper, and the islands. The titles of fourteen of his works are known; but a Achæans and the Achæan League.—The early inhabitants number of these were totally destroyed by the Jesuits and of Achaia were called Achæans. The name was given also a section of the Polish nobility, and copies of the others in those times to some of the tribes occupying the eastern are for the same reason exceedingly rare. The Victoria portions of the Peloponnesus, particularly Argos and Sparta. Deorum ubi continetur Veri Herois Educatio, a poem in forty- Afterwards the inhabitants of Achaia Propria appropriated four cantos, cost the poet ten years' labour.
the name. This republic was not considerable, in early times, ACERRA, in Antiquity, a little box or pot, wherein were as regards either the number of its troops, its wealth, or put the incense and perfumes to be burned on the altars of the extent of its territory, but was famed for its heroic the gods, and before the dead. It appears to have been virtues. The Crotonians and Sybarites, to re-establish the same with what was otherwise called thuribulum and order in their towns, adopted the laws and customs of pyxis. The censers of the Jews were acerre; and the the Achæans. After the famous battle of Leuctra, a difRomanists still retain the use of acerræ, under the name ference arose betwixt the Lacedæmonians and Thebant, of incense pots.
who held the virtue of this people in such veneration, that The name acerra was also applied to an altar erected they terminated the dispute by their decision. The governamong the Romans, near the bed of a person recently de- ment of the Achæans was democratical. They preserved ceased, on which his friends offered incense daily till his their liberty till the time of Philip and Alexander; but in burial. The real intention probably was to fumigate the the reign of these princes, and afterwards, they were either apartment. The Chinese have still a somewhat similar subjected to the Macedonians, who had made themselves custom.
masters of Greece, or oppressed by domestic tyrants. The ACERRA, a town of Italy, in the province of Terra Achæan commonwealth consisted of twelve inconsiderable di Lavoro, situated on the river Agno, 7 miles N.E. of towns in Peloponnesus. About 280 years before Christ the Naples, with which it is connected by rail. It is the an- republic of the Achæans recovered its old institutions and cient Acerrae, the inhabitants of which were admitted to unanimity. This was the renewal of the ancient confedethe privileges of Roman citizenship so early as 332 B.C., ration, which subsequently became so famous under the and which was plundered and burnt by Hannibal during name of the AchæAN LEAGUE-having for its object, not the second Punic war. A few inscriptions are the only as formerly a common worship, but a substantial political traces time has left of the ancient city. The town stands union. Though dating from the year B.c. 280, its import