amateurs, in conjunction with the most eminent masters of was formed by the principal nobility and gentry of the the time, with the view of promoting the study and practice kingdom, for the performance of operas, composed by of vocal and instrumental harmony. This institution, Handel, and conducted by him at the theatre in the Haywhich had the advantage of a library, consisting of the most market. The subscription amounted to £50,000, and the celebrated compositions, both foreign and domestic, in king, besides subscribing £1000, allowed the society to manuscript and in print, and which was aided by the per assume the title of Royal Academy. It consisted of a formances of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, and the governor, deputy-governor, and twenty directors. A conchoir of St Paul's, with the boys belonging to each, con test between Handel and Senesino, one of the performers, tinued to flourish for many years. In 1731 a charge of in which the directors took the part of the latter, occaplagiarism brought against Bononcini, a member of the sioned the dissolution of the academy, after it had subsisted academy, for claiming a madrigal of Lotti of Venice as with reputation for more than nine years. The present his own, threatened the existence of the institution. Dr Royal Academy of Music dates from 1822, and was incorGreene, who had introduced the madrigal into the aca- porated in 1830 under the patronage of the queen. It demy, took part with Bononcini, and withdrew from the instructs pupils of both sexes in music, charging 33 guineas society, taking with him the boys of St Paul's. In 1734 per annum; but many receive instruction free. It also Mr Gates, another member of the society, and master of gives public concerts. In this institution the leading the children of the royal chapel, also retired in disgust; instrumentalists and vocalists of England have received so that the institution was thus deprived of the assistance their education. (See Musical Directory published by which the boys afforded it in singing the soprano parts. Rudall, Carte, and Co.) From this time the academy became a seminary for the ACADEMY is a term also applied to those royal collegiate instruction of youth in the principles of music and the seminaries in which young men are educated for the navy laws of harmony. Dr Pepusch, who was one of its foun- and army. In our country there are three colleges of ders, was active in accomplishing this measure; and by this description—the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth, the expedient of educating boys for their purpose, and the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and the Royal admitting auditor members, the subsistence of the aca- Military College, Sandhurst. demy was continued. The Royal Academy of Music

(F. s.)

ACADIE, or ACADIA, the name borne by Nova Scotia | and Manilla was annihilated when Mexico became indewhile it remained a French settlement.

pendent; and, from this cause, and also on account of the ACALEPHÆ (from åkalýčn, a nettle), a name given to frequent earthquakes by which the town has been visited, the animals commonly known as jelly-fish, sea-blubber, it had sunk to comparative insignificance, when the disMeduse, sea-nettles, &c.

covery of gold in California gave its trade a fresh impetus. ACANTHOCEPHALA (from ăxavba, a thorn, and It is now the most important seaport in Mexico, and is kebalý, the head), a group of parasitic worms, having the regularly touched at by the Pacific mail steamers. Besides heads armed with spines or hooks.

having a large transit trade, it exports wool, skins, cocoa, ACANTHOPTERYGII (from ăxavda, a thorn, and cochineal, and indigo; and the imports include cottons, Tépvě, a wing), an order of fishes, having bony skeletons silks, and hardware. Population about 5000. with prickly spinous processes in the dorsal fins.

ACARNANIA, a province of ancient Greece, now called ACANTHUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural Carnia. It was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian order Acanthaceæ. The species are natives of the southern gulf, on the N.E. by Amphilochia, on the W. and S.W. parts of Europe. The most common species is the Acan- by the Ionian Sea, and on the E. by Ætolia. It was ihus mollis or Brankursine. It has large, deeply-cut, hairy, a hilly country, with numerous lakes and tracts of rich shining leaves, which are supposed to have suggested the pasture, and its hills are to the present day crowned with decoration of the Corinthian column. Another species, thick wood. It was celebrated for its excellent breed of Acanthus spinosus, is so called from its spiny leaves. horses. The Acarnanians, according to Mr Grote, though

ACAPULCO, a town and port in Mexico, on a bay of admitted as Greeks to the Pan-Hellenic games, were more the Pacific Ocean, about 190 miles S.S.W. of Mexico, inakin in character and manners to their barbarian neighbours N. lat. 16° 50', W. long. 99° 46'. The harbour, which is of Epirus. Up to the time of the Peloponnesian war, they the best on the Pacific coast, is almost completely land are mentioned only as a race of rude shepherds, divided locked. It is easy of access, and the anchorage is so into numerous petty tribes, and engaged in continual strife secure that heavily-laden ships can lie close to the rocks and rapine. They were, however, favourably distinguished which surround it. The town lies N.W. of the harbour, from their Ætolian neighbours by the fidelity and steadand is defended by the castle of San Diego, which stands fastness of their character. They were good soldiers, and on an eminence. During a part of the dry season the air excelled as slingers. At the date above mentioned they is infected with the putrid effluvia of a morass eastward of begin, as the allies of the Athenians, to make a more prothe town. This, together with the heat of the climate, minent figure in the history of Greece. The chief town aggravated by the reflection of the sun's rays from the was Stratos, and subsequently Leucas. granite rocks that environ the town, renders it very un ACARUS (from őkapı, a mite), a genus of Arachnides, healthy, especially to Europeans, though a passage cut represented by the cheese mite and other forms. through the rocks, to let in the sea breeze, has tended to ACCELERATION is a term employed to denote geneimprove its salubrity. Acapulco was in former times the rally the rate at which the velocity of a body, whoso great depôt of the trade of Spain with the East Indies. motion is not uniform, either increases or decreases. As A galleon sailed from this port to Manilla in the Philippine the velocity is continually changing, and cannot therefore Islands, and another returned once a year laden with the be estimated, as in uniform motion, by the space actually treasures and luxuries of the East. On the arrival of this passed over in a certain time, its value at any instant has galleon a great fair was held, to which merchants resorted to be measured by the space the body would describe in from all parts of Mexico. The trade between Acapulco the unit of time, supposing that at and from the instant in

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question the motion became and continued uniform. If produce a continuous series of sounds in undistinguished the motion is such that the velocity, thus measured, in- monotonous repetitions like the tăm, từın, tủm, of a drum; creases or decreases by equal amounts in equal intervals of a rational being using words for a rational purpose to time, it is said to be uniformly accelerated or retarded. manifest his thoughts and feelings, necessarily accents both In that case, if f denote the amount of increase or decrease words and sentences in some way or other.” That the of velocity corresponding to the unit of time, the whole of accentuation of some languages is more distinct, various, such increase or decrease in t units of time will evidently and effective than that of others is beyond question, but be ft, and therefore if u be the initial and v the final there are none, so far as we know, in which its power is velocity for that interval, v=u #ft,—the upper sign apply- not felt. The statement sometimes made, that the French ing to accelerated, the lower to retarded, motion. To find have no accent in their words, can only mean that their the distance or space, 8, gone over in t units of time, let t accent is less emphatic or less variously so than that be divided into n equal intervals. The velocities at the of certain other nations. If it means more, it is not

2t end of the successive intervals will be u

merely an error, but an absurdity. From this conception u=f

of the subject, it is obvious that accent must be fundautforming &c. Let it now be supposed that during each mentally the same thing in all languages, and must aim

more or less successfully at the same results, however of these small intervals the body has moved uniformly diverse the rules by which it is governed. But there are, with its velocity at the end of the interval, then (since a nevertheless, important differences between the conditions body moving uniformly for x seconds with a velocity of y under which accent operated in the classical, and those in feet per second will move through xy feet) the spaces which it operates in modern tongues. It did not wholly described in the successive intervals would be the product determine the rhythm, nor in the least affect the metre of

classical verse ; it did not fix the quantity or length of of the velocities given above by, and the whole space

and the whole space in classical syllables. It was a musical element superadded the time t would be the sum of these spaces; i.e.,

to the measured structure of prose and verse.

Passing over the consideration of the accentual system of s=u:(1+1 repeated n times) + f2(1+2+3..... +n) the Hebrews with the single remark, that it exhibits, though

with more elaborate and complicated expression, most of

1 = ut = f.


the characteristics both of Greek and English accent, we n?

find that the Greeks employed three grammatical accents, It is evident, however, that as the increase or decrease of viz., the acute accent ('), which shows when the tone of the velocity takes place continuously, this sum will be too voice is to be raised; the grave accent ('), when it is to be large; but the greater n is taken, or (which is the same depressed; and the circumflex accent (), composed of both thing) the smaller the intervals are during which the the acute and the grave, and pointing out a kind of undulavelocity is supposed to be uniform, the nearer will the tion of the voice. The Latins have made the same use as the result be to the truth. Hence making n as large as pos- Greeks of these three accents, and various modern nations,

1 sible, or as small as possible, i.e., = 0, we obtain as the French, English, &c., have also adopted them. As to the

Greek accents, now seen both in manuscripts and printed correct expression s ft?. In the case of motion books, there has been great dispute about their antiquity 2

But the following things seem to be undoubtedly from rest, u=0, and the above formulæ become v=ft, taught by the ancient grammarians and rhetoricians :-(1.) 1

That by accent (apoowdía, tóvos) the Greeks understood the 2

elevation or falling of the voice on a particular syllable We have a familiar instance of uniformly accelerated of a word, either absolutely, or in relation to its position and uniformly retarded motion in the case of bodies fall- in a sentence, accompanied with an intension or remission ing and rising vertically near the earth's surface, where, if of the vocal utterance on that syllable (eritatis, &veris), the resistance of the air be neglected, the velocity of the occasioning a marked predominance of that syllable over body is increased or diminished, in consequence of the the other syllables of the word. The predominance thus earth's attraction, by a uniform amount in each second of given, however, had no effect whatever on the quantity time. To this amount is given the name of the accelera- | -long or short—of the accented syllable. The accented tion of gravity (usually denoted by the letter g), the value syllable in Greek as in English, might be long or it might of which, in our latitudes and at the surface of the sea, is be short; elevation and emphasis of utterance being one very nearly 32 feet per second. Hence the space a body thing, and prolongation of the vocal sound quite another falls from rest in any number of seconds is readily found thing, as any one acquainted with the first elements of by multiplying 16 feet by the square of the number of music will at once perceive. The difficulty which many seconds. For a fuller account of accelerating force,-ex modern scholars have experienced in conceiving how a pressed in the notation of the Differential Calculus by syllable could be accented and not lengthened, has arisen dv

dos f=+ or f= + dt

-the reader is referred to the article partly from a complete want of distinct ideas on the nature dcz

of the elements of which human speech is composed, and DYNAMICS.

partly also from a vicious practice which has long preACCENT, in reading or speaking, is the stress or vailed in the English schools, of reading Greek, not accordpressure of the voice upon a syllable of a word. The deriva- ing to the laws of its own accentuation, but according to tion of the term (Lat. accentus, quasi adcantus) clearly shows the accent of Latin handed down to us through the Roman that it was employed by the classical grammarians to Catholic Church. For the rules of Latin accentuation are, express the production of a musical effect. Its origin is as Quintilian and Cicero and the grammarians expressly therefore to be sought in the natural desire of man to mention, very different from the Greek; and the long syllable gratify the ear by modulated sound, and probably no of a word has the accent in Latin in a hundred cases, where language exists in which it does not play a more or less the musical habit of the Greek ear placed it upon the short, important part. “Only a machine," says Professor Blackie There is, bes es, a vast number of words in Greek accented (Place and Power of Accent in Language, in the Transac on the last syllable (like volunteer, ambusca'de, in English), tions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1871), “could of which not a single instance occurs in the Latin lan.



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recurrence of the accents, they are always on the root-coro'na, colos'sus, ide'a, hypoth'esis, cæsu'ra, dia'resis, diagsyllables.

no'sis, dilu'vium, diploma, efflu'vium, elys'ium, &c.; besides The Norman Conquest, however, introduced a different the still larger number that have suffered a slight modifisystem, which gradually modified the rigid uniformity of cation of form, but no change of accent, as dialec'tic, diagthe native English accentuation. The change is visible as nos'tic, efflores'cent, ellip'tic, emer' sion, emollient, &c. The early as the end of the 12th century. By the middle of Italian contributions to our tongue retain their original the 14th, that is to say, in the age of Chaucer, it is in full accent when the form is untouched, as mulatto, sona'ta, vol. operation. Its origin is thus explained by Mr Marsh, in ca'no, but lose it when the form is shortened, as ban'dit his Origin and History of the English Language (Lond., (It. bandi'to). 1862) 3" The vocabulary of the French language is de A change in the position of the accent serves a variety rived, to a great extent, from Latin words deprived of their of purposes in English. It distinguishes (1.) a noun from terminal inflections. The French adjectives mortal and a verb, as ac'cent, accent'; augʻment, augment'; tor'ment, fatal are formed from the Latin mortalis and fatalis, by torment'; com'ment, comment'; con'sort, consort'; con’test, dropping the inflected syllable; the French nouns nation contest'; con'trast, contrast'; di'gest, digest'; dis'count, disand condition from the Latin accusatives nationem, condi- count'; in'sult, insult', &c.; (2.) an adjective from a verb, tionem, by rejecting the em final. In most cases, the last as ab'sent, absent'; fre'quent, frequent'; pre'sent, present'; syllable retained in the French derivatives was prosodically com'pound, compound', &c.; (3.) an adjective from a noun, long in the Latin original; and either because it was also as ex'pert, expert'; com'pact, compact'. It also denotes a accented, or because the slight accent which is perceivable difference of meaning, e.g., conjure, conjure'; in'cense, in the French articulation represents temporal length, the incense'; au'gust, august'; su'pine, supine'. stress of the voice was laid on the final syllable of all these Accent has exercised a powerful influence in changing words. When we borrowed such words frożn the French the forms of words. The unaccented syllables in the we took them with their native accentuation; and as ac course of time frequently dropped off. This process was cent is much stronger in English than in French, the final necessarily more rapid and thorough in English than in syllable was doubtless more forcibly enunciated in the many other languages which were not subjected to equal former than in the latter language.” The new mode of ac strain. The Norman Conquest made havoc of the English centuation soon began to affect even words of pure English tongue for a time. It was expelled from the court, the origin—e.g., in Robert of Gloucester we find falshede instead schools, the church, and the tribunals of justice ; it ceased of falshede, tidinge instead of tidinge, trewehede instead to be spoken by priests, lawyers, and nobles; its only of trewehede, gladdore instead of gladdore, wisliche instead guardians were churls, ignorant, illiterate, indifferent to of wisliche, begynnyng instead of begynnyng, endyng in- grammar, and careless of diction. Who can wonder if, stead of endyng. In the Proverbs of Hendyng we have no in circumstances like these, it suffered disastrous eclipse ? thyng for nothing, habben for habben, fomon for fomon ; in The latter part of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle furnishes Robert of Brunne, halydom for halydom, clothyng for cloth- melancholy evidence of the chaos into which it had fallen, ing, gretand for gretand. Chaucer furnishes numerous in- yet out of this chaos it rose again into newness of life, stances of the same foreign influence revolutionising the reforming and re-accenting its half-ruined vocabulary, and native accent; fredom for fredom, hethenesse for hethenesse, drawing from the very agent of its destruction the elements worthinesse for worthinesse, lowly for lowly, wynnynge for of a richer and more plastic expression. For it cannot be wynnynge, weddynge for weddynge, comynge for comynge ; doubted that the irregularities now existing in English and it is traceable even in Spenser. On the other hand, accent, though perplexing to a foreigner, copiously vary a contrary tendency must not be overlooked. We see an the modulation, and so increase the flexibility and power effort, probably unconscious, to compel words of French of the language. The older forms of English, those in use origin to submit to the rule of English accentuation. It is before the Conquest, and down to the period of Chaucer, noticeable in the century before Chaucer : in Chaucer him are stiff, monotonous, and unmusical. A hard strength is self it begins to work strongly;"mortal becomes mortal; in the verse, but no liquid sweetness or nimble grace. tempest, tempest; substance, substance; amyable, amyable; Now, it is possible, in spite of our deficiency in vowel morsel, morsel ; servise, servise ; duchesse, duchesse ; cosyn, endings, to produce the noblest melody in accent words cosyn, &c. ; while a multitude of words oscillate between known to the modern world. Almost every kind of metre, the rival modes of accentuation, now following the French swift or slow, airy or majestic, has been successfully and now the English. Before and during the Elizabethan attempted since the age of the Canterbury Tales. When period, the latter began to prove the stronger, and for the we compare the drone of Caedmon with the aerial melody last 300 years it may be said to have, for the most part, of the Skylark, the Cloud, and the Arethusa of Shelley, Anglicised the accent and the nature of the foreign additions we see what an infinite progress has been made by to our vocabulary. Nevertheless, many French words still the development of accent in the rhythm of our native retain their own accent. Morris (Historical Outlines of tongue. English Accidence, p. 75) thus classifies these :

See Lectures on the English Language, by G. P. Marsh " (1.) Nouns in -ade, -ier (-eer), -é', -ee, or -oon, -ine, (-in), as cas (Lond. 1861); the Origin and History of the English cade', crusade', &c.; cavalier', chandelier', &c.; gazetteer', pioneer', | Language, &c., by G. P. Marsh (Lond. 1862); Historische &c. (in conformity with these we say, harpooneer', mountaineer",); Grammatik der Englische Sprache, von. C. Friedrich Koch legateľ, payec', &c.; balloon', cartoon', &c.; chagrin', violin', &c. ; (1863–69); The English Language, by R. G. Latham routine', marine', &c.

“Also the following words :-crdet", brunette', gazette, cravať, (1855); Philological Essays, by the Rev. Richard Garnett canal, control, gazelle', amateur, fatigue', antique', police', &c. (Lond. 1859); On Early English Pronunciation, with

(2.) Adjectives (a) from Lat. adj. in us, as august', benign', robust, &c.; (b) in -ose, as morose", verbose', '&c. ; (e) -esque, a bura especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A. J. Ellis lesque, grotesque', &c.

(Lond. 1867–71); Historical Outlines of English Accidence, (3.) Some verbs, as baptize, cajole', caress', carouse', chastise', by Dr R. Morris (Lond. 1872).

(J. M. R.) escape', estcem', &c.

ACCEPTANCE is the act by which a person binds To these may be added the Greek and Latin words himself to comply with the request contained in a bill of which have been introduced into English for scientific and exchange addressed to him by the drawer.

In all cases it other learned purposes, and which, not having been altered is understood to be a promise to pay the bill in money, the in form, retain their original accentuation—as auro'ra, | law not recognising an acceptance in which the promise is

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