years old.

death, which took place on Mount Hor, when he was 123 | them, and the latter one. The bar marked I indicates

units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads on the AARSSENS, FRANCIS VAN (1572-1641), one of the shorter bars denote fives, five units, five tens, &c. The rod greatest diplomatists of the United Provinces. He re- and correspondpresented the States-General at the Court of France for ing short rod are many years, and was also engaged in embassies to Venice, for marking ounces; Germany, and England. His great diplomatic ability and the short quaryppears from the memoirs he wrote of his negotiations ter rods for fractions in 1624 with Richelieu, who ranked him among the three of an ounce. greatest politicians of his time. A deep stain rests on the The Swan-Pan of memory of Aarssens from the share he had in the death of the Chinese (fig. 6) Barneveldt, who was put to death by the States-General, closely resembles thé 3 0 2 7 15 4 after the semblance of a trial, in 1619.

Roman abacus in its Fig. 6.—Chinese Swan-Pan. ABABDE, an African tribe occupying the country be construction and uso. Computations are made with it by tween the Red Sea and the Nile, to the S. of Kosseir, means of balls of bone or ivory running on slender bamnearly as far as the latitude of Derr. Many of the race boo rods similar to the simpler board, fitted up with beads have settled on the eastern bank of the Nile, but the strung on wires, which is employed in teaching the rudigreater part still live like Bedouins. They are a distinct ments of arithmetic in elementary schools. race from the Arabs, and are treacherous and faithless in ABÆ, a town of ancient Greece in the E. of Phocis, their dealings. They have few horses; when at war with famous for a temple and oracle of Apollo. The temple was other tribes, they fight from camels, their breed of which plundered and burned by the Persians (B.C. 480), and again is famed. They possess considerable property, and trade by the Bæotians (B.C. 346), and was restored on a smaller in senna, and in charcoal made from acacia wood, which scale by Hadrian. Remains of the temple and town may they send as far as Cairo.

still be traced on a peaked hill near Exarkho. See Leake's ÅBACA or ABAKA, a name given to the Musa textilis, Northern Greece. the plant that produces the fibre called Manilla Hemp, ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the governand also to the fibre itself.

ment of Yeniseisk, on the river Abakan, near its confluence ABACUS, an architectural term (from the Gr. áßaß, a with the Yenisei. Lat. 54° N.; long. 91° 14' E. This is tray or flat board) applied to the upper part of the capital considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, of a column, pier, &c. The early form of an abacus is and is remarkable for the tumuli in its neighbourhood, and

for some statues of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics. Population about 1000.

ABANA and PHARPAR, “rivers of Damascus” (2 Kings v. 12), are now generally identified with the Barada and the Awaj respectively. The former flows through the city of Damascus; the Awaj, a smaller stream, passes eight miles to the south. Both run from west to east across the

plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, Fornis of the Abacus.

and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, simply a square flat stone, probably derived from the on the borders of the great Arabian desert. Mr Macgregor, Tuscan order. In Saxon work it is frequently simply who gives an interesting description of these rivers in his chamfered, but sometimes grooved, as in the crypt at Rob Roy on the Jordan, affirms that “as a work of Repton (fig. 1), and in the arcade of the refectory at West- hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the minster. The abacus in Norman work is square where canals by which the Abana and Pharpar are used for the columns are small; but on larger piers it is sometimes irrigation, may be still considered as the most complete octagonal, as at Waltham Abbey. The square of the and extensive in the world.” abacus is often sculptured, as at the White Tower and ABANCAY, a town of Peru, in the department of at Alton (fig. 2). In early English work the abacus is Cuzco, 65 miles W.S. W. of the town of that name. It lies generally circular, and in larger work a continuation of on the river Abancay, which is here spanned by one of the circles (fig. 4), sometimes octagonal, and occasionally square. finest bridges in Peru. Rich crops of sugar-cane are proThe mouldings are

duced in the district, and the town has extensive sugar generally rounds,

refineries. Heinp is also cultivated, and silver is found in which overhang

the mountains. Population, 1200. deep hollows. The

ABANDONMENT, in Marine Assurance, is the surrenabacus in early

dering of the ship or goods insured to the insurers, in the French work is Excoclamadas a


case of a constructive total loss of the thing insured. generally square, as

There is an absolute total loss entitling the assured to at Blois (fig. 3).

recover the full amount of his insurance wherever the thing The term is ap

insured has ceased to exist to any useful purpose,—and in plied in its diminu.

such a case abandonment is not required. Where the thing tive form (Abacis

assured continues to exist in specie, yet is so damaged that cus) to the chequers

there is no reasonable hope of repair, or it is not worth the or squares of a tes

expense of bringing it, or what remains of it, to its destinasellated pavement. Fig. 5.-Roman Abacus.

tion, the insured may treat the case as one of a total loss Abacus also signifies an instrument employed by the in this case called constructive total loss), and demand ancients for arithmetical calculations; pebbles, bits of bone, the full sum insured. But, as the contract of insurance is or coins, being used as counters. The accompanying figure one of indemnity, the insured must, in such a case, make (5) of a Roman abacus is taken from an ancient monu an express cession of all his right to the recovery of the ment. It contains seven long and seven shorter rods or subject insured to the underwriter by abandonment. The bars, the former having fonr perforated beads running ou l insured must intimate his intention to abandon, within a








reasonable time after receiving correct information as to others, a century or two earlier. The particulars of his Ilie loss; any unnecessary delay being held as an indica- history are differently related by different authors, but all tion of his intention not to abandon. An abandonment accounts are more or less mythical. He is said to have when once accepted is irrevocable; but in no circumstances travelled over sea and land, riding on an arrow given him

s the insured obliged to abandon. After abandonment, by Apollo, to have lived without food, to have delivered the captain and crew are still bound to do all in their the whole earth from a plague, &c. Various works in prose power to save the property for the underwriter, without and verse are attributed to Abaris by Suidas and others, prejudice to the right of abandonment; for which they are but of these we have no certain information. entitled to wages and remuneration from the insurers, at ABATEMENT, ABATE, from the French abattre, abater, least so far as what is saved will allow. See Arnould, to throw down, demolish.

to throw down, demolish. The original meaning of the Marshall, and Park, on the Law of Insurance, and the word is preserved in various legal phrases. The abatement judgment of Lord Abinger in Roux v. Salvador, 3 Bing. of a nuisance is the remedy allowed by law to a person N.C. 266, Tudor's Leading Cases, 139.

injured by a public nuisance of destroying or removing it ABANDONMENT has also a legal signification in the law by his own act, provided he commit no breach of the peace of railways. Under the Acts 13 and 14 Vict. c. 83, 14 in doing so. In the case of private nuisances abatement and 15 Vict. c. 64, 30 and 31 Vict. c. 126, and 32 and 33 is also allowed, provided there be no breach of the peace, Vict. c. 114, the Board of Trade may, on the application and no damage be occasioned beyond vhat the removal of of a railway company, made by the authority and with the the nuisance requires. consent of the holders of three-fifths of its shares or stock, Abatement of freehold takes place where, after the death and on certain conditions specified in the Acts, grant a war of the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands rant authorising the abandonment of the railway or a por- before the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter tion of it. After due publication of this warrant, the out of possession. It differs from intrusion, which is a company is released from all liability to make, maintain, similar entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for or work the railway, or portion of the railway, authorised life, to the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; to be abandoned, or to complete any contracts relating to and from disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent exit, subject to certain provisions and exceptions.

pulsion of a person seised of the freehold. ABANDONING a young child under two years of age, so Abatement among legatees (defalcatis) is a proportionate that its life shall be endangered, or its health permanently deduction which their legacies suffer when the funds out injured, or likely to be so, is in England a misdemeanour, of which they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in punishable by penal servitude or imprisonment; 24 and 25 full. Vict. c. 100, § 273. In Scotland abandoning or exposing Abatement in pleading is the defeating or quashing of a an infant is an offence at common law, although no evil particular action by some matter of fact, such as a defect consequences should happen to the child.

in form or personal incompetency of the parties suing, ABANO, a town of Northern Italy, 6 miles S.W. of pleaded by the defendant. Such a plea is called a plea in Padua. There are thermal springs in the neighbourhood, abatement; and as it does not involve the merits of the which have been much resorted to by invalids for bathing, cause, it leaves the right of action subsisting. Since 1852 both in ancient and modern times. They were called by it has been competent to obviate the effect of such pleas the Romans Aponi Fons, and also Aquæe Patavinæ. Popu by amendment, so as to allow the real question in controlation of Abano, 3000.

versy between the parties to be tried in the same suit. ABANO, PIETRO D', known also as Petrus de Apono or In litigation an action is said to abate or cease on the A ponensis, a distinguished physician and philosopher, was death of one of the parties. born at the Italian town from which he takes his name in ABATEMENT, or REBATE, is a discount allowed for 1250, or, according to others, in 1246. After visiting the prompt payment; it also means a deduction sometimes east in order to acquire the Greek language, he went to made at the custom-house from the fixed duties on certain study at Paris, where he became a doctor of medicine and kinds of goods, on account of damage or loss sustained in philosophy. In Padua, to which he returned when his warehouses. The rate and conditions of such deductions studies were completed, he speedily gained a great reputa- are regulated by Act 16 and 17 Vict. c. 107. tion as a physician, and availed himself of it to gratify his ABATI, or DELL'ABBATO, Niccolo, a celebrated frescoavarice by refusing to visit patients except for an exorbitant painter of Modena, born in 1512. His best works are at fee. Perhaps this as well as his meddling with astrology Modena and Bologna, and have been highly praised by caused the charge to be brought against him of practising Zanotti, Algarotti, and Lanzi. He accompanied Primaticcio magic, the particular accusations being that he brought to France, and assisted in decorating the palace at Fontainback into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money bleau (1552-1571). His pictures exhibit a combination of he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher's stone. skill in drawing, grace, and natural colouring. Some of He was twice brought to trial by the Inquisition; on the his easel pieces in cil are in different collections; one of the first occasion he was acquitted, and he died (1316) before finest, now in the Dresden Gallery, represents the martyrthe second trial was completed. He was found guilty, dom of St Peter and St Paul. Abati died at Paris in however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed and 1571. burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the ABATTOIR, from abattre, primarily signifies a slaughterInquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public house proper, or place where animals are killed as distinproclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in guished from boucheries and étaux publics, places where effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the the dead meat is offered for sale. But the term is also medical and philosophical systems of Averrhoes and other employed to designate a complete meat market, of which Arabian writers. His best known works are the Con the abattoir proper is merely part. ciliator differentiarum quae inter philosophos et medicos Perhaps the first indication of the existence of abattoirs versantur (Mantua, 1472, Venice, 1476), and De venenis may be found in the system which prevailed under the eorumque remediis (1472), of which a French translation Emperors in ancient Rome. A corporation or guild of was published at Lyons in 1593.

butchers undoubtedly existed there, which delegated to its ABARIS, the Hyperborcan, a celebrated sage of anti- officers the duty of slaughtering the beasts required to quity, who visited Greece about 570 B.C., or, according to supply the city with meat. The establishments requisite

for this purpose were at first scattered about the various arrangement of the abattoirs will be understood from the streets, but were eventually confined to one quarter, and preceding plan of that of Ménilmontant. formed the public meat market. This market, in the time The component parts of a French abattoir are—1. of Nero, was one of the most imposing structures in the Echaudoirs, which is the name given by the Paris butcher city, and some idea of its magnificence has been transmitted to the particular division allotted to him for the purpose of to us by a delineation of it preserved on an ancient coin. knocking down his beasts ; 2. Bouveries et Bergeries, the As the policy and customs of the Romans made themselves places set apart for the animals waiting to be slaughtered, felt in Gaul, the Roman system of abattoirs, if it may be | where the animals, instead of being killed at once, after a so called, was introduced there in an imperfect form. A long and distressing journey, when their blood is heated and clique of families in Paris long exercised the special func- their flesh inflamed, are allowed to cool and rest till the tion of catering for the public wants in respect of meat. body is restored to its normal healthy condition ; 3. FonBut as the city increased in magnitude and population, the deurs, or boiling-down establishments; and, 4. Triperies, necessity of keeping slaughter-houses as much as possible which are buildings set apart for the cleaning of the tripe apart from dwelling-houses became apparent. As early as of bullocks, and the fat, heads, and tripe of sheep and the time of Charles IX., the attention of the French author- calves. Besides these, a Paris abattoir contains Logements ities was directed to the subject, as is testified by a decree des agens, Magasins, Réservoirs, Voiries, Lieux d'aisance, passed on the 25th of February 1567. But although the Voûtes, Remises et écuries, Parcs aux Bæufs, &c., and is importance of the question was frequently recognised, no provided with an abundant supply of water. All the abatdefinite or decided step seems to have been taken to effect toirs are under the control of the municipal authorities, the contemplated reform until the time of Napoleon I. and frequent inspections are made by persons regularly The evil had then reached a terribly aggravated form. appointed for that purpose. Slaughter-houses abutted on many of the principal thorough The abattoirs are situated within the barriers, each at a fares; the traffic was impeded by the constant arrival of distance of about a mile and three-quarters from the heart foot-sore beasts, whose piteous cries pained the ear; and of the city, in districts where human habitations are still rivulets of blood were to be seen in the gutters of the public comparatively few. There are two principal markets from streets. The constant accumulation of putrid offal tainted which the abattoirs at Paris are supplied,—the one at the atmosphere, and the Seine was polluted by being used Poissy, about 13 miles to the north-west, and the other at as a common receptacle for slaughter-house refuse. This Sceaux, about 5 miles and a quarter to the south of the condition of things could not be allowed to continue, and city. There are also two markets for cows and calves, on the 9th of February 1810, a decree was passed authoris- namely, La Chapelle and Les Bernadins. ing the construction of abattoirs in the outskirts of Paris, The Paris abattoirs were until recently the most perfect and appointing a Commission, to which was committed the specimens of their class; and even now, although in some consideration of the entire question.

of their details they have been surpassed by the new The result of the appointment of this Commission was Islington meat market, for their complete and compact the construction of the five existing abattoirs, which were arrangement they remain unrivalled. formally opened for business on the 15th of September The example set by Paris in this matter has been fol1818. The Montmartre abattoir occupics 8 English acres; lowed in a more or less modified form by most of the prin

cipal Continental towns, and the system of abattoirs has

become almost universal in France. TITANITITITISTIIT

The condition of London in this important sanitary respect was for a long period little more endurable than that of Paris before the adoption of its reformed system. Smithfield market, situated in a very populous neighbourhood, continued till 1852 to be an abomination to the town and a standing reproach to its authorities. No fewer than 243,537 cattle and 1,455,249 sheep were sold there in 1852, to be afterwards slaughtered in the crowded courts and thoroughfares of the metropolis. But public opinion at length forced the Legislature to interfere, and the corporation was compelled to abandon Smithfield market and to provide a substitute for it elsewhere.

The site selected was in the suburb of Islington, and the designs for the work were prepared by Mr Bunning. The

first stone was laid March 24, 1854, and the market was TTTTTT

opened by Prince Albert, June 15, 1855. The Islington market is undoubtedly the most perfect of its kind. It occupies a space of some 20 acres on the high land near the Pentonville prison, and is open to both native and foreign cattle, excepting beasts from foreign countries under quarantine.

In connection with the Islington cattle market are a few 1. Menilmontant Abattoir.

slaughter-houses, half of which were originally public, and G. Steam Engine, B. Sheep and Cattle Sheds H. Stable with Water Tanks,

half rented to private individuals ; but at present they are C. Slaughter-Houses.

all practically private, and the majority of the cattle sold

are driven away and killed at private slaughter-houses. In F. Tallow-melting Houses. M. Layers for Cattle.

this respect the London system differs from that of Paris; Ménilmontant, 101 acres ; Grenelle, 74; Du Roule, 54; and it may be said for the former that the meat is less and Villejuif, 53. The first two contain each 64 slaughter- liable to be spoiled by being carted to a distance, and is houses and the same number of cattle-sheds; the third, 48; therefore probably delivered in better condition ; but the and each of the others 32. The dimensions of each of the latter secures that great desideratum, the practical extincslaughter-houses is about 294 feet by 13. The general i tion of isolated slaughter-houses.

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C. Cattle Sheds.
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The Edinburgh abattoir, erected in 1851 by the corpora- than by the tedious and troublesome method of handtion, from designs prepared by Mr David Cousin, the city cleaning. architect, is the best as regards both construction and By the Edinburgh Slaughter-Houses Act of 1850, the management in the United Kingdom. It occupies an area management is vested in the city authorities. Booths of four acres and a quarter, surrounded by a screen-wall, are let at a statutory rent of £8 each per annum, and, in from which, along the greater part of its length, the build- addition to this, gate-dues are payable for every beast ings are separated by a considerable open space. Opposite entering the establishment. The present rates for tenants

of booths are ijd. for an ox or cow, ad. for a calf or pig, and d. for a sheep. Common booths are provided for butchers who are not tenants, on payment of double gate-dues. The city claims the blood, gut, and manure. The tripe and feet are dressed for the trade without extra

charge. FITOT

The blood was formerly collected in large casks, and disFIT

posed of for manufacturing purposes. This necessitated T

the storage of it for several days, causing in warm weather a very offensive effluvium. It even happened at times, when there was little demand for the commodity, that the blood had to be sent down the drains. All nuisance is now avoided, and the amount received annually for

the blood has risen from between £200 and £450 to feet

from £800 to £1200, by a contract into which Messrs

Smith and Forrest of Manchester have entered with 2. Edinburgh Slaughter-Houses. A. Central Roadway.

the city authorities, to take over the whole blood at B. Slaughtering Booths, H. Tripery

a fixed price per beast. They have erected extensive I. Pig-slaughtering House.

premises and apparatus at their own cost, for extracting F. Steam-Engine. İL. Blood House, now Albumen Factory. from the blood the albumen, for which there is great

demand in calico-printing, and for converting the clot into the principal gateway is a double row of buildings, extend manure. ing in a straight line to about 376 feet in length, with a In connection with the establishment is a boiling-house, central roadway (marked AA in the annexed plan), 25 feet where all meat unfit for human food is boiled down and wide. There are three separate blocks of building on each destroyed. The number of carcases seized by the inspecside of the roadway, the central one being 140 feet in tor, and sent to the boiling-house, during the 54 years length, and the others 100 feet each—cross-roads 18 feet ending with the close of 1872, amounted to 1449, giving wide separating the blocks. These ranges of building, as a weight of upwards of 400,000 pounds. well as two smaller blocks that are placed transversely Before the erection of these buildings, private slaughterbehind the eastern central block, are divided into compart- houses were scattered all over the city, often in the most ments, numbering 42 in all, and all arranged on the same populous districts, where, through want of drainage and plan. Next the roadway is the slaughtering-booth (BB), 18 imperfect ventilation, they contaminated the whole neighfeet by 24, and 20 feet in height, and behind this is a shed bourhood. Since the opening of the public abattoir, all (CC) 18 feet by 22, where the cattle are kept before being private slaughtering, in the city or within a mile of it, is slaughtered. All the cattle are driven into these sheds by strictly prohibited. a back-entrance, through the small enclosed yards (DD). Few of the provincial towns in Great Britain have as yet The large doors of the booths are hung by balance weights, followed the example of London and Edinburgh. In some and slide up and down, so as to present no obstruction instances improvements on the old system have been either within the booth or outside. By a series of large adopted, but Great Britain is still not only far behind her ventilators along the roof, and by other contrivances, the foreign neighbours in respect of abattoirs, but has even slaughtering-booths are thoroughly ventilated. Great pre- been excelled by some of her own dependencies. In cautions have been used to keep rats out of the buildings. America abattoirs are numerous, and at Calcutta and other To effect this, the booths are laid with thick well-dressed towns in British India, the meat markets present a very pavement, resting on a stratum of concrete 12 inches creditable appearance from their cleanliness and systematic Ehick, and the walls, to the height of 7 feet, are formed of arrangement.

(C. N. B.) solid ashlar; the roadways, too, are laid with concrete, ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a learned Frenchman, was born and causewayed with dressed whinstone pavement; and the of Protestant parents at Uzès, in Languedoc, in 1679. drainage consists entirely of glazed earthenware tubes. His father, who was of Arabian descent, died when he

The ground on which the abattoir is built was previously was but two years of age ; and when, on the revocation connected with a distillery, and contains a well 100 feet of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps deep (E), which, with the extensive system of tunnels to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his attached to it, provides the establishment with an abundant mother contrived his escape. For two years his brother supply of pure water. By means of a steam-engine (F), and he lived as fugitives in the mountains of the Cevennes, introduced in 1872, the water is pumped up into a raised but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother aftertank (G), whence it is distributed to the different booths wards joined them on escaping froin the imprisonment in and sheds, as well as for scouring the roadways and drains. which she was held from the time of their flight. Abauzit's The steam from the engine is utilised in heating water for youth was spent in diligent study, and at an early age he the numerous cast-iron tanks required in the operations of acquired great proficiency in languages, physics, and cleansing and dressing the tripery (H) and pig slaugh-theology. In 1698 he travelled into Holland, and there tering-house (I). By an ingenious arrangement of became acquainted with Bayle, Jurieu, and Basnage. rotary brushes driven by the steam-engine,—the inven- Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac tion of Mr Rutherford, the superintendent,--the tripe is Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders dressed in a superior manner, and at greatly less cost of the great truths his discoveries disclosed to the world.

Sir Isaac corrected in the second editiou of his Principia an / wide circulation all over Europe. The most important of error pointed out by Abauzit. The high estimate Newton these are Traité de la Vérité de la Religion Chrétienne ; entertained of his merits appears from the compliment its continuation, Traité de la Divinité de Jésus-Christ; he paid to Abauzit, when, sending him the Commercium and L’Art de se connaître Soi-même. Epistolicum, he said, “You are well worthy to judge ABBAS I., surnamed the Great, one of the most between Leibnitz and me.” The reputation of Abauzit celebrated of the sovereigns of Persia, was the youngest induced William III. to request him to settle in England, son of Shah Mohammed Khodabendeh. After heading a but he did not accept the king's offer, preferring to return successful rebellion against his father, and causing one of to Geneva. There from 1715 he rendered valuable assistance his brothers (or, as some say, both) to be assassinated, he to a society that had been formed for translating the New obtained possession of the throne at the early age of Testament into French. He declined the offer of the eighteen (1585). Determined to rais? the fallen fortunes chair of philosophy in the University in 1723, but ac of his country, he first directed his efforts against the cepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the city predatory Uzbeks, who occupied and harassed Khorasan. of his adoption. Here he died at a good old age, in 1767. After a long and severe struggle, he defeated them in a Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful great battle near Herat (1597), and drove them cut of his versatility. The varied knowledge he possessed was so dominions. In the wars he carried on with the Turks well digested and arranged in his retentive mind as to be during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were always within his reach for immediate use. Whatever numerous, and he acquired or regained a large extent of chanced to be discussed, it used to be said of Abauzit, as territory. By the victory he gained at Bassorah (1605), of Professor Whewell of our own times, that he seemed to he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates; Achmed I. have made it a subject of particular study. Rousseau, was forced to cede Shirwan and Kurdistan in 1611 ; the who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to united armies of the Turks and Tartars were completely him, in his Nouvelle Héloïse, a fine panegyric; and when a defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit. Baghdad fell into his hands after a year's siege (1623). Little remains of the labours of this intellectual giant, his In the same year he took the island of Ormuz from the heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into Portuguese, by the assistance of the British. When he died their possession, because their religious opinions differed in 1628, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus. from those of Abauzit. A few theological, archæological, Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the in arms, and by the magnificence of his court, but also by Journal Helvétique and elsewhere, and he contributed his reforms in the administration of his kingdom. He several papers to Rousseau's Dictionary of Music. A encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and work he wrote throwing doubt on the canonical authority building bridges, did much to facilitate it. To foreigners, of the Apocalypse was answered—conclusively, as Abauzit especially Christians, he showed a spirit of tolerance; two himself allowed-by Dr Leonard Twells. He edited, and Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, were made valuable additions to Spon's History of Geneva. A admitted to his confidence, and seem to have had much collection of his writings was published at Geneva in influence over him. His fame is tarnished, however, by 1770, and another at London in 1773. Some of them numerous deeds of tyranny and cruelty. His own family, were translated into English by Dr Harwood (1770, 1774). especially, suffered from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son Information regarding Abauzit will be found in Senebier's was slain, and the eyes of his other children were put out, Histoire Littéraire de Genève, Harwood's Miscellanies, and by his orders. Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica, 1834.

ABBAS MIRZA (b. 1785, d. 1833), Prince of Persia, ABB, a town of Yemen in Arabia, situated on a moun third son of the Shah Feth Ali, was destined by his father tain in the midst of a very fertile country, 73 miles N.E. to succeed him in the government, because of his mother's of Mocha. Lat. 13° 58' N., long. 44° 15' E. It contains connection with the royal tribe of the Khadjars. He led about 800 houses, and is surrounded by a strong wall; various expeditions against the Russians, but generally the streets are well paved ; and an aqueduct from a neigh- without success (1803, 1813, 1826). By a treaty made bouring mountain supplies it with water, which is received between Russia and Persia in 1828, the right of Abbas in a reservoir in front of the principal mosque. The to the succession was recognised. When the Russian population is about 5000.

deputies were murdered by the Persian populace in 1829, ABBADIE, JAMES, an eminent Protestant divine, Abbas was sent to St Petersburg, where he received a was born at Nay in Bern about 1657. His parents hearty welcome from the Czar, and made himself a were poor, but through the kindness of discerning friends, favourite by his courtesy and literary taste. He formed a he received an excellent education. He prosecuted his design against Herat, but died shortly after the siege had studies with such success, that on completing his course been opened by his son, who succeeded Feth Ali as the at Sedan, though only seventeen years of age, he had con Shah Mohammed Mirza. He was truthful—a rare quality ferred on him the degree of doctor in theology. After in an Eastern-plain in dress and style of living, and fond spending some years in Berlin as minister of a French of literature. Protestant church, he accompanied Marshal Schomberg, ABBASSIDES, the caliphs of Baghdad, the most in 1688, to England, and became minister of the French famous dynasty of the sovereigns of the Mahometan or church in the Savoy, London. His strong attachment to Saracen empire. They derived their name and descent the cause of King William appears in his elaborate from Abbas (b. 566, d. 652 A.D.), the uncle and adviser of defence of the Revolution, as well as in his history of Mahomet, and succeeded the dynasty of the Ommiads, the the conspiracy of 1696, the materials of which were caliphs of Damascus. Early in the 8th century the furnished, it is said, by the secretaries of state. The family of Abbas had acquired great influence from their king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe in Ireland. near relationship to the Prophet; and Ibrahim, the fourth He died in London in 1727. Abbadie was a man of in descent from Abbas, supported by the province of great ability and an eloquent prcachar, but is best known Khorasan, obtained several successes over the Ommiad by his religious treatises, several of wlich were translated armies, but was captured and put to death by the Caliph from the original French into other languages, and had a Merwan (747). Ibrahim's brother, Abul-Abbas, whom he

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