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Engaged as they are in continual wars, and accustomed | from or acknowledged independence of the central power at to bloodshed, human life is little regarded among them. Gondar. The geographical position of Tigré enhances its Murders and executions are frequent, and yet cruelty is political importance, as it lies between Gondar and the sea said not to be a marked feature of their character; and in at Massowah, and thus holds as it were the gate of the war they seldom kill their prisoners. When one is con- capital. The province of Shoa is almost separated from victed of murder, he is handed over to the relatives of the that of Amhara by the Wolla Gallas, a Mohammedan tribe, deceased, who may either put him to death or accept a and for a long time the former had been virtually indepen

When the murdered person has no relatives, the dent, and governed by a hereditary line of princes, to one priests take upon themselves the office of avengers. The of whom the Indian government sent a special embassy Abyssinians are irritable, but easily appeased; and are a under Major Harris in 1841. gay people, fond of festive indulgences. On every festive

ive "The principal towns are Gondar in Amhara, the former occasion, as a saint's day, birth, marriage, &c., it is capital of the kingdom, and containing about 7000 inhabitcustomary for a rich man to collect his friends and neigh-ants, and Debra Tabor in Amhara, formerly a small village, bours, and kill a cow and one or two sheep. The principal but which rose to be a place of considerable size in conseparts of the cow are eaten raw while yet warm and quiver- quence of the Emperor Theodore having fixed upon ing, the remainder being cut into small pieces, and cooked his residence, and near it was Gaffat, where the European with the favourite sauce of butter and red pepper paste. workmen resided. It was burned by the emperor when he The raw meat in this way is considered to be very superior set out on his fatal march to Magdala. Adowa is the in taste and much tenderer than when cold. “I can capital of Tigré, and the second city in the empire, having readily believe,” says Mr Parkyns,” that raw meat would be about 6000 inhabitants. Antalo is also one of the principal preferred to cooked meat by a man who from childhood towns of Tigré, and the capital of Enderta. Near Antalo had been accustomed to it.” The statement by Bruce is Chelicut. Sokota, the capital of Lasta Waag, is a town respecting the cutting of steaks from a live cow has fre- of considerable size. The capital of Shoa is Ankobar, and quently been called in question, but there can be no doubt near it is Angolala, also a place of considerable size. The that Bruce actually saw what he narrates, though it would capital of Agame is Adigerat. appear to have been a very exceptional case. Mr Parkyns The language of the religion and literature of the country was told by a soldier, " that such a practice was not un is the Geez, which belongs to the Ethiopic class of languages, common among the Gallas, and even occasionally occurred and is the ancient language of Tigré; of this the modern among themselves, when, as in the case Bruce relates, a cow Tigré is a dialect. The Amharic, the language of Amhara, had been stolen or taken in foray.” The principal drinks is that of the court, the army, and the merchants, and is are mése, a kind of mead, and bousa, a sort of beer made that too which travellers who penetrate beyond Tigré have from fermented cakes. Their dress consists of a large ordinarily occasion to use. But the Agow in its various folding mantle and close-fitting drawers; and their houses dialects is the language of the people in some provinces. are very rude structures of a conical form, covered with almost exclusively, and in others, where it has been superthatch. Marriage is a very slight connection among them, seded by the language of the dominant race, it still exists dissolvable at any time by either of the parties; and poly- among the lowest classes. This last is believed to be the gamy is by no means uncommon. Hence there is little original language of the people; and from the affinity of the family affection, and what exists is only among children of Geez, Amharic, and cognate dialects, to the Arabic, it the same father and mother. Children of the same father, seems probable that they were introduced by conquerors or but of different mothers, are said to be “always enemies to settlers from the opposite shores of the Red Sea. The each other.”—Gobat.

Gallas, who have overrun a great part of Abyssinia, have Abyssinia is one of the most ancient monarchies in the introduced their own language into various parts of the world, and has been governed from time immemorial by an country, but in many cases they have adopted the language emperor. For many years, however, until the accession of of the people among whom they have come. The literature the late Emperor Theodore, he had been a mere puppet in of Abyssinia is very poor, and contains nothing of much the hands of one or other of his chiefs. Each chief is value. During the late war the libraries in connection entire master of all sources of revenue within his territory, with the religious communities were found to contain only and has practically full power of life and death. His sub- modern works of little interest. On the capture of Magdala, jection consists in an obligation to send from time to time a large number of MSS. were found there, which had been presents to his superior, and to follow him to war with as brought by Theodore from Gondar and other parts. Of large a force as he can muster. For several generations these 359 were brought home for examination, and are the emperor had been little better than a prisoner in his now deposited in the British Museum. The oldest among palace at Gondar, his sole revenue consisting of a small them belong to the 15th and 16th centuries, but the great stipend and the tolls of the weekly markets of that city, bulk of them are of the 17th and 18th, and some are of the real power being in the hands of the ras or vizier of the present century. They are mostly copies of the Holy the empire, who was always the most powerful chief for the Scriptures, canonical and apocryphal, including the Book of time. If at any time a chief " has found himself strong Enoch, prayer and hymn books, missals, lives of saints, and enough to march upon the capital, he has done so, placed translations of various of the Greek fathers. upon the throne another puppet emperor, and been by him The trade and manufactures of Abyssinia are insignificant, appointed ras or vizier, till a rival stronger than himself the people being chiefly engaged in agriculture and pastoral could turn him out and take his place.”Dr Beke. pursuits. Cotton cloths, the universal dress of the country,

The three principal provinces of Abyssinia are Tigre in are made in large quantities. The preparation of leather the north, Amhara (in which Gondar the capital is situated) and parchment is also carried on to some extent, and manuin the centre, and Shoa in the south. The governors of factures of iron and brass. “The Abyssinians are, these have all at different times assumed the title of Ras. think,” says Mr Markham, “capable of civilisation. Their Three other provinces of some importance are Lasta and agriculture is good, their manufactures are not to be Waag, whose capital is Sokota ; Godjam, to the south of despised; but the combined effects of isolation, Galla Lake Dembea ; and Kivara, to the west of that lake, the inroads, and internal anarchy, have thrown them back for birth-place of the Emperor Theodore The two provinces centuries.” The foreign trade of Abyssinia is carried on of Tigré and Shoa have generally been in a state of rebellion entirely through Massowah. Its principal imports are lead,

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tin, copper, silk, gunpowder, glass wares, Persian carpets, | for 40 years over the rest of the kingdom, and transmitted and coloured cloths. The chief exports are gold, ivory, the crown to her descendants. In 1268 the kingdom was slaves, coffee, butter, honey, and wax.

restored to the royal house in the person of Icon Imlac. Abyssinia, or at least the northern portion of it, was Towards the close of the 15th century the Portuguese included in the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia. The connec missions into Abyssinia commenced. A belief had long tion between Egypt and Ethiopia was in early times very prevailed in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom intimate, and occasionally the two countries were under in the far east, whose monarch was known as Prester John, the same ruler, so that the arts and civilisation of the one and various expeditions had been sent in quest of it. naturally found their way into the other. In early times, Among others who had engaged in this search was Pedro too, the Hebrews had commercial intercourse with the de Covilham, who arrived in Abyssinia in 1490, and, Ethiopians; and according to the Abyssinians, the Queen believing that he had at length reached the far-famed kingof Sheba, who visited Solomon, was a monarch of their dom, presented to the Negus, or emperor of the country, a country, and from her son Menilek the kings of Abyssinia letter from his master the king of Portugal, addressed to are descended. During the captivity many of the Jews Prester John. Covilham remained in the country, but in settled here, and brought with them a knowledge of the 1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the Negus Jewish religion. Under the Ptolemies, the arts as well as to the king of Portugal to request his aid against the Turks. the enterprise of the Greeks entered Ethiopia, and led to In 1520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on board, entered the establishment of Greek colonies. A Greek inscription the Red Sea in compliance with this request, and an at Adulis, no longer extant, but copied by Cosmos, and embassy from the fleet visited the country of the Negus, preserved in his Topographia Christiana, records that and remained there for about six years. One of this Ptolemy Euergetes, the third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, embassy was Father Alvarez, from whom we have the invaded the countries on both sides of the Red Sea, and, earliest and not the least interesting account of the country. having reduced most of the provinces of Tigré to subjection, Between 1528 and 1540 armies of Mohammedans, under the returned to the port of Adulis, and there offered sacrifices renowned general Mohammed Gragn, entered Abyssinia from to Jupiter, Mars, and Neptune. Another inscription, not the low country, and overran the kingdom, obliging the so ancient, found at Axum, and copied by Salt and others, emperor to take refuge in the mountain fastnesses. In this states that Aeizanas, king of the Axomites, the Home- extremity recourse was again had to the Portuguese, and rites, &c., conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned Bermudez, who had remained in the country after the thanks to his father, the god Mars, for his victory. The departure of the embassy, was ordained successor to the ancient kingdom of Auxume flourished in the first or Abuna, and sent on this mission. In consequence a second century of our era, and was at one time nearly Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen de Gama, coextensive with the modern Abyssinia. The capital was sent from India and arrived at Massowah. A force Auxume and the seaport Adulis were then the chief of 450 musqueteers, under the command of Christopher centres of the trade with the interior of Africa in gold dust, de Gama, younger brother of the admiral, marched into ivory, leather, aromatics, &c. At Axum, the site of the the interior, and being joined by native troops were at first ancient capital, many vestiges of its former greatness still successful against the Turks, but were subsequently defeated, exist; and the ruins of Adulis, which was once a seaport and their commander taken prisoner and put to death. on the Bay of Annesley, are now about 4 miles from the Soon afterwards, however, Mohammed Gragn was shot in shore. Christianity was introduced into the country by an engagement, and his forces totally routed. After this, Frumentius, who was consecrated first bishop of Abyssinia quarrels arose between the Negus and the Catholic primate by St Athanasius of Alexandria about A.D. 330. Subse- Bermudez, who wished the former publicly to profess him. quently the monastic system was introduced, and between self a convert to Rome. This the Negus refused to do, 470 and 480 a great company of monks appear to have and at length Bermudez was obliged to make his way out of entered and established themselves in the country. Since the country. The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed that time Monachism has been a power among the people, Bermudez into Abyssinia, and fixed their head-quarters and not without its influence on the course of events. In at Fremona, were oppressed and neglected, but not actually 522 the king of the Homerites, on the opposite coast of expelled. In the beginning of the following century Father the Red Sea, having persecuted the Christians, the Emperor Paez arrived at Fremona, a man of great tact and judgment, Justinian requested the king of Abyssinia, Caleb or who soon rose into high favour at court, and gained over Elesbaan, to avenge their cause. He accordingly collected the emperor to his faith. He directed the erection of an army, crossed over into Arabia, and conquered Yemen, churches, palaces, and bridges in different parts of the which remained subject to Abyssinia for 67 years.

This was

country, and carried out many useful works. His successor the most flourishing period in the annals of the country. The Mendez was a man of much less conciliatory manners, and the Ethiopians possessed the richest part of Arabia, carried on a feelings of the people became more strongly excited against large trade, which extended as far as India and Ceylon, and the intruders, till at length, on the death of the Negus, and were in constant communication with the Greek empire. the accession of his son Facilidas in 1633, they were all Their expulsion from Arabia, followed by the conquest of sent out of the country, after having had a footing there Egypt by the Mohammedans in the middle of the 7th for nearly a century and a half. The French physician century, changed this state of affairs, and the continued ad Poncet, who went there in 1698, was the only European vances of the followers of the Prophet at length cut them that afterwards visited the country before Bruce in 1769. off from almost every means of communication with the It was about the middle of the 16th century that the civilised world; so that, as Gibbon says, “encompassed by Galla tribes first entered Abyssinia from the south; and the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for near a notwithstanding frequent efforts to dislodge them, they thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were gradually extended and strengthened their positions till forgotten." About A.D. 960, a Jewish princess, Judith, they had overrun the greater part of the country. The power conceived the bloody design of murdering all the members of the emperor was thus weakened, independent chiefs set of the royal family, and of establishing herself in their stead. themselves up in different parts, until at length he became During the execution of this project, the infant king was little better than a puppet in the hands of the most powercarried off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to Shoa, ful of his chiefs. In 1805 the country was visited by where his authority was acknowledged, while Judith reigned | Lord Valentia and Mr Salt, and again by Šalt in 1810. In

1829 Messrs Gobat and Kugler were sent out as missionaries | talents for governing, and gaining the esteem of others. by the Church Missionary Society, and were well received He had further a noble bearing and majestic walk, a frame by the Ras of Tigré. Mr Kugler died soon after his capable of enduring any amount of fatigue, and is said to arrival, and his place was subsequently supplied by Mr have been the best shot, the best spearman, the best Isenberg, who was followed by Messrs Blumhardt and Krapf. runner, and the best horseman in Abyssinia." Had he In 1830 Mr Gobat proceeded to Gondar, where he also contented himself with what he now possessed, the sovemet with a favourable reception. In 1833 he returned to reignty of Amhara and Tigré, he might have maintained his Europe, and published a journal of his residence here. In position; but he was led to exhaust his strength against the following year he went back to Tigré, but in 1836 he the Gallas, which was probably one of the chief causes of was compelled to leave from ill health. In 1838 other his ruin. He obtained several victories over that people, missionaries were obliged to leave the country, owing to ravaged their country, took possession of Magdala, which the opposition of the native priests. Messrs Isenberg and he afterwards made his principal stronghold, and enlisted Krapf went south, and established themselves at Shoa. many of the chiefs and their followers in his own ranks. The former soon after returned to England, and Mr Krapf He shortly afterwards reduced the kingdom of Shoa, remained in Shoa till March 1842. Dr Rüppel, the German and took Ankobar, the capital; but in the meantime his naturalist, visited the country in 1831, and remained own people were groaning under his heavy exactions, nearly two years.

MM. Combes and Tamisier arrived at rebellions were breaking out in various parts of his proMassowah in 1835, and visited districts which had not been vinces, and his good queen was now dead. He lavished traversed by Europeans since the time of the Portuguese. vast sums of money upon his army, which at one time In 1839 the French Government sent out a scientific com- amounted to 100,000 or 150,000 fighting men; and in mission under M. Lefebvre. Its labours extended over five order to meet this expenditure, he was forced to exact years, and have thrown great light on the condition and exorbitant tributes from his people. The British consul, productions of the country. In 1841 a political mission Plowden, who was strongly attached to Theodore, having was sent by the Governor-General of India to Shoa, under been ordered by his Government in 1860 to return to the direction of Major Harris, who subsequently published Massowah, was attacked on his way by a rebel named an account of his travels. One who has done much to ex- Garred, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. Theodore tend our geographical knowledge of this country is Dr Beke, attacked the rebels, and in the action the murderer of Mr who was there from 1840 to 1843. Mr Mansfield Parkyns Plowden was slain by his friend and companion Mr Bell, was there from 1843 to 1846, and has written the most but the latter lost his life in preserving that of Theodore. interesting book on the country since the time of Bruce. The deaths of the two Englishmen were terribly avenged by Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay the slaughter or mutilation of nearly 2000 rebels. Theodore missionaries into the country, who would engage in secular soon after married his second wife Terunish, the proud occupations as well as carry on missionary work, Dr Krapf daughter of the late governor of Tigré, who felt neither and Mr Flad arrived in 1855 as pioneers of that mission. affection nor respect for the upstart who had dethroned her Six came out at first, and they were subsequently joined by father, and the union was by no means a happy one. In others. Their work, however, was more valuable to Theodore | 1862 he made a second expedition against the Gallas, which than their preaching, so that he employed them as work was stained with atrocious cruelties. Theodore had now men to himself, and established them at Gaffat, near his given himself up to intoxication and lust. When the capital. Mr Stern arrived in Abyssinia in 1860, but re news of Mr Plowden's death reached England, Captain turned to Europe, and came back in 1863, accompanied by Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and Mr and Mrs Rosenthal.

arrived at Massowah in February 1862. He proceeded to Lij Kassa, who came subsequently to be known as the the camp of the king, to whom he presented a rifle, a pair Emperor Theodore, was born in Kuara, a western province of pistols, and a letter in the Queen's name. In October of Abyssinia, about the year 1818. His father was of noble Captain Cameron was dismissed by Theodore, with a letter family, and his uncle was governor of the provinces of to the Queen of England, which reached the Foreign Office Dembea, Kuara, and Chelga. He was educated in a con on the 12th of February 1863. For some reason or other vent, but, preferring a wandering life, he became leader of this letter was put aside and no answer returned, and to a band of malcontents. On the death of his uncle he was this in no small degree is to be attributed the difficulties made governor of Kuara, but, not satisfied with this, he that subsequently arose with that country. After forwardseized upon Dembea, and having defeated several generals ing the letter, Captain Cameron, hearing that the Christians sent against him, peace was restored on his receiving of Bogos had been attacked by the Shangallas and other Tavavitch, daughter of Ras Ali, in marriage. This lady is tribes under Egyptian rule, proceeded to that district, and said to have been his good genius and counsellor, and during afterwards went to Kassala, the seat of the Egyptian adher life his conduct was most exemplary. He next turned ministration in that quarter. Thence he went to Metemeh, his arms against the Turks, but was defeated; and the mother where he was taken ill, and in order to recruit his health of Ras Ali having insulted him in his fallen condition, he he returned to Abyssinia, and reached Jenda in August proclaimed his independence. The troops sent against him 1863. In November despatches were received from were successively defeated, and eventually the whole of the England, but no answer to the emperor's letter, and this, possessions of Ras Ali fell into his hands. He next de together with the consul's visit to Kassala, greatly feated the chief of Godjam, and then turned his arms offended him, and in January 1864 Captain Cameron and against the governor of Tigré, whom he totally defeated in his suite, with Messrs Stern and Rosenthal, were cast into February 1855. In March of the same year he took the prison. When the news of this reached England, the title of Theodore III., and caused himself to be crowned Government resolved, when too late, to send an answer to king of Ethiopia by the Abuna. Theodore was now in the the emperor's letter, and selected Mr Hormuzd Rassam to zenith of his career. He is described as being generous be its bearer. He arrived at Massowah in July 1864, and to excess, free from cupidity, merciful to his vanquished immediately despatched a messenger requesting permission enemies, and strictly continent, but subject to violent bursts to present himself before the emperor. Neither to this nor of anger, and possessed of unyielding pride and fanatical a subsequent application was any answer returned till religious zeal. He was also a man of education and intelli- August 1865, when a curt note was received, stating that gence, superior to those among whom he lived, with natural | Consul Cameron had been released, and if Mr Rassam still

desired to visit the king, he was to proceed by the route of Wadela. In the meantime Theodore had been reduced to Metemeh. They reached Metemeh on 21st November, and great straits. His army was rapidly deserting him, and he five weeks more were lost before they heard from the could hardly obtain food for his followers. He resolved to emperor, whose reply was now courteous, informing them quit his capital Debra Tabor, which he burned, and set that the governors of all the districts through which they out with the remains of his army for Magdala. During had to march had received orders to furnish them with this march he displayed an amount of engineering skill in every necessary. They left Metemeh on the 28th December, the construction of roads, of military talent, and fertility and on 25th January following arrived at Theodore's camp of resource, that excited the admiration and astonishment in Damot. They were received with all honour, and were of his enemies. On the afternoon of the 10th of April a afterwards sent to Kuarata, on Lake Dembea, there to await force of about 3000 men suddenly poured down upon the the arrival of the captives. The latter reached this on 12th English in the plain of Arogié, a few miles from Magdala. March, and everything appeared to proceed very favourably. They advanced again and again to the charge, but were A month later they started for the coast, but had not pro- each time driven back, and finally retired in good order. ceeded far when they were all brought back and put into Early next morning Theodore sent Lieut. Prideaux, one of confinement. Theodore then wrote a letter to the Queen, the captives, and Mr Flad, accompanied by a native chief, requesting European workmen and machinery to be sent to to the English camp to sue for peace. Answer was returned, him, and despatched it by Mr Flad. The Europeans, that if he would deliver up all the Europeans in his hands, although detained as prisoners, were not at first unkindly and submit to the Queen of England, he would receive treated; but in the end of June they were sent to Magdala, honourable treatment. The captives were liberated and where they were soon afterwards put in chains. They sent away, and along with a letter to the English general suffered hunger, cold, and misery, and were in constant was a present of 1000 cows and 500 sheep, the acceptance fear of death, till the spring of 1868, when they were of which would, according to Eastern custom, imply that relieved by the British troops. In the meantime the power peace was granted. Through some misunderstanding, word of Theodore in the country was rapidly waning. In order was sent to Theodore that the present would be accepted, to support his vast standing army, the country was drained and he felt that he was now safe; but in the evening he of its resources: the peasantry abandoned the fertile plains, learned that it had not been received, and despair again and took refuge in the fastnesses, and large fertile tracts seized him. Early next morning he attempted to escape remained uncultivated. Rebellions broke out in various with a few of his followers, but subsequently returned. parts of the country, and desertions took place among his The same day (13th April Magdala was stormed and troops, till his army became little more than a shadow of taken, and within they found the dead body of the what it once was. Shoa had already shaken off his yoke; emperor, who had fallen by his own hand. The inhabitants Godjam was virtually independent; Walkeit and Samen and troops were subsequently sent away, the fortifications were under a rebel chief; and Lasta Waag and the destroyed, and the town burned. The queen Terunish country about Lake Ashangi had submitted to Wagsham having expressed her wish to go back to her own country, Gobaze, who had also overrun Tigré, and appointed Dejach accompanied the British army, but died during the march, Kassai his governor. The latter, however, in 1867 rebelled and her son Alam-ayahu, the only legitimate son of the against his master, and assumed the supreme power of that emperor, was brought to England, as this was the desire province. This was the state of matters when the English of his father. The success of the expedition was in no troops made their appearance in the country. With a view small degree owing to the aid afforded by the several native if possible to effect the release of the prisoners by con chiefs through whose country it passed, and no one did ciliatory measures, Mr Flad was sent back, with some more in this way than Prince Kassai of Tigré. In acknowartisans and machinery, and a letter from the Queen, ledgment of this several pieces of ordnance, small arms, stating that these would be handed over to his Majesty on and ammunition, with much of the surplus stores, were the release of the prisoners and their return to Massowah. handed over to him, and the English troops left the country This, however, failed to influence the emperor, and the in May 1868. Soon after this Prince Kassai declared his English Government at length saw that they must have independence; and in a war which broke out between him recourse to arms. In July 1867, therefore, it was resolved and Wagsham Gobaze, the latter was defeated, and his to send an army into Abyssinia to enforce the release of territory taken possession of by the conqueror. In 1872 the captives, and Sir Robert Napier was appointed com Kassai was crowned king of Abyssinia with great ceremony mander-in-chief. A reconnoitring party was despatched at Axam, under the title of King Johannes. In that year the beforehand, under Colonel Merewether, to select the landing- governor of Massowah, Munzinger Bey, a Swiss, by complace and anchorage, and explore the passes leading into mand of the Viceroy of Egypt, marched an armed force the interior. They also entered into friendly relations against the Bogos country. The king solicited the aid of with the different chiefs in order to secure their co-operation. England, Germany, and Russia against the Egyptians, whose The landing-place selected was Mulkutto, on Annesley Bay, troops, however, were after a time withdrawn. Sir Bartle the point of the coast nearest to the site of the ancient Frere, in the blue-book published respecting his mission to Adolis, and we are told that “the pioneers of the English Zanzibar, is of the opinion that England, having regard to expedition followed to some extent in the footsteps of the the passage to India by the Red Sea, should not have wholly radventurous soldiers of Ptolemy, and met with a few faint abandoned Abyssinia.

(D. K.) traces of this old world enterprise.”—C. R. Markham. (See Travels of Bruce, 1768-73; Lord Valentia, Salt, The force amounted to upwards of 16,000 men, besides 1809-10; Combes et Tamisier, 1835-37; Ferret et Galinier, 12,640 belonging to the transport service, and followers, 1839-43; Rüppell, 1831-33; MM. Th. Lefebvre, A. Petit, et making in all upwards of 32,000 men. The task to be Quartin-Dillon, 1839-43; Major Harris; Gobat; Dr C. accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous Beke; Isenberg and Krapf, 1839-42; Mansfield Parkyns ; and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to Von Heuglin, 1861-62; H. A. Stern, 1860 and 1868; the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel him to deliver Dr Blanc, 1868; A. Rassam, 1869; C. R. Markham, 1869; up his captives. The commander-in-chief landed on 7th W. T. Blanford, 1870; Record of the Expedition to Abyssinia, Januar, 1868, and soon after the troops began to move compiled by order of the Secretary of State for War, by forward through the pass of Senafé, and southward through Major T. J. Holland and Captain H. Hozier, 2 vols. 4to, the districts of Agame, Tera, Endarta, Wojerat, Lasta, and I and plates, 1870; various Parliamentary Papers, 1867-68.)

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ACACIA, a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to of Australia are species of Acacia with astringent barks, the natural family Leguminosæ and the section Mimoseæ. Acacia dealbata is used for tanning. An astringent The fowers are small,

medicine, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several arranged in rounded or

species, but more especially from Acacia Catechu, by boiling elongated clusters. The

down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get leaves compound

an extract. The bark of Acacia arabica, under the pinnate in general. In

name of Babul or Babool, is used in Scinde for tanning. instances, how

Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber called ever, more especially in

sabicu. Acacia Seyal is the plant which is supposed to be the Australian species,

the shittah tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. the leaf-stalks become

The pods of Acacia nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, are flattened, and serve the

used by tanners. The seeds of Acacia Niopo are roasted purpose of leaves; the

and used as snuff in South Ameriea. The seeds of all the plants are hence call

varieties of Acacia in South Australia to the west, called ed leafless Acacias, and

Nundo, are used as food after being roasted. Acacia as the leaf-stalks are

melanoxylon, black wood of Australia, sometimes called often placed with their

light wood, attains a great size ; its wood is used for edges towards the sky

furniture, and receives a high polish. Acacia homalophylla, and earth, they do not Leaf of Acacia heterophylla. myall wood, yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental intercept light so fully

purposes. A kind of Acacia is called in Australia Bricklow. as ordinary trees. There are about 420 species of In common language the term Acacia is often applied to Acacias widely scattered over the warmer regions of the species of the genus Robinia, which belongs also to the globe. They abound in Australia and Africa. Various Leguminous family, but is placed in a different section. species, such as Acacia vera, arabica, Ehrenbergii, and Robinia Pseudo-acacia, or false Acacia, is cultivated in tortilis, yield gum arabic; while Acacia Verek, Seyal, and the milder parts of Britain, and forms a large tree, with Adansonii furnish a similar gum, called gum Senegal. These beautiful pink pea-like blossoms. The tree is sometimes species are for the most part natives of Arabia, the north-called the Locust tree. eastern part of Africa, and the East Indies. The wattles

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ACADEMY CADEMY, åkadņuera, a suburb of Athens to the north, Athenian, who came to laugh at Xenocrates, and remained

forming part of the Ceramicus, about a mile beyond to listen (Horace, Sat., Ü. 3, 253); Crates, and Crantor, the the gate named Dypilum. It was said to have belonged latter of whom wrote a treatise, Tepi Trévbovs, praised by to the hero Academus, but the derivation of the word is Cicero. Speusippus, like the Pythagoreans, with whom unknown. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, Aristotle compares him, denied that the Platonic Good and adorned with walks, groves, and fountains by Cimon, could be the first principle of things, for (he said) the the son of Miltiades, who at his death bequeathed it as a Good is not like the germ which gives birth to plants and public pleasure-ground to his fellow-citizens. The Academy animals, but is only to be found in already existing things. was the resort of Plato, who possessed a small estate in the He therefore derived the universe from a primeval indeterneighbourhood. Here he taught for nearly fifty years, till minate unit, distinct from the Good; from this unit he his death in 348 B.C.; and from these “groves of the deduced three principles—one for numbers, one for magniAcademy where Plato taught the truth," 2 his school, as tude, and one for the soul. The Deity he conceived as distinguished from the Peripatetics, received the name of that living force which rules all and resides everywhere. the Academics.

Xenocrates, though like Speusippus infected with Pytha The same name (Academia) was in after times given by goreanism, was the most faithful of Plato's successors. He Cicero to his villa or country-house near Puteoli. There distinguished three essences: the sensible, the intelligible, was composed his famous dialogue, The Academic Ques- and a third, compounded of the other two. The sphere of tions.

the first is all below the heavens, of the second all beyond Of the academic school of philosophy, in so far as it the heavens, of the third heaven itself. To each of these diverged from the doctrines of its great master (see Plato), three spheres one of our faculties corresponds. To the senwe must treat very briefly, referring the reader for parti- sible, sense; to the intelligible, intellect or reason; to the culars to the founders of the various schools, whose names mixed sphere, opinion (86&a). So far he closely follows we shall have occasion to mention.

the psychology and cosmogeny of his master; but Cicero The Academy lasted from the days of Plato to those of notes as the characteristic of both Speusippus and XenoCicero. As to the number of successive schools, the critics crates, the abandonment of the Socratic principle of are not agreed. Cicero himself and Varro recognised only hesitancy. two, the old and the new; Sextus Empiricus adds a third, Of the remaining three, the same writer (who is our printhe middle; others a fourth, that of Philo and Charmidas; cipal authority for the history of the Academic school) tells and some even a fifth, the Academy of Antiochus. us that they preserved the Platonic doctrine, but emphasised

Of the old Academy, the principal leaders were Speusip- the moral part. On the old Academy he pronounces the pus, Plato's sister's son, and his immediate successor; following eulogium (De F'in. v. 3): “Their writings and Xenocrates of Chalcedon, who with Speusippus accompanied method contain all liberal learning, all history, all polite Plato in his journey to Sicily; Polemo, a dissolute young discourse; and besides, they embrace such a variety of

arts, that no one can undertake any noble career without 1 The bye-form irædnia, which occurs in Diogenes Laertius, is pro- | their aid. bably a rationalistic attempt to interpret the word, such as we com

In a word, the Academy is, as it were, the monly meet with in the writings of Plato.

workshop of every artist." Modern criticism has not en? Horace, Ep. ii. 2, 45.

dorsed this high estimate. They preserved, it is true, and

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