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represents the other in different regions of the earth. A imports amounted to 2,664,027 ib, and in 1872 they were great deal of doubt and confusion has existed as to the 3,878,739 1b; the value of average qualities being from number of species into which the llamas can be divided—a 2s. 6d. to 2s. 10d. per ib. The introduction of the various very common occurrence in dealing with domesticated or species of llama into Europe has been frequently urged, semi-domesticated creatures. Most authorities now, how Geoffrey St Hilaire and other French naturalists having ever, agree in regarding them as separable into four specially pointed out the desirability of their introduction species, following the classification of Von Tschudi, who into France, and at one time a herd existed in the has given much careful consideration to the subject. The Pyrenees; but in Europe the creatures must be still respecies, according to that naturalist, are the llama (Auchenia garded as curiosities of zoological collections. In 1859 lama), the huanaco or guanaco (4. huanaco), the alpaca or systematic and costly attempts were made to acclimatise paco (A. paco), and the vicugna (A. vicunna.) The two the alpaca in our Australian colonies by Mr Ledger, a genfirst-named species are, or rather were, more valued as tleman who had devoted many years to observation of the beasts of burden, and for their flesh, than as sources of conditions of life of the animal. At first the experiment wool, being able to bear from 120 to 150 tb burden over presented most encouraging prospects; the herds continued long distances daily. The guanaco attains a size not much healthy and increased in numbers; but gradually the subtle less than our red deer; and is the largest and most widely influences of the loss of their native mountain climate spread of all the species, being found from the equator became apparent,—the creatures drooped, their numbers southward to Patagonia. The llama is next in size, but dwindled, and for the present the undertaking must be its habitat is limited to the loftier mountains of North regarded as a complete failure. Peru. Although both species yield a serviceable quality of ALP ARSLAN or AXAN, MOHAMMED BEN DAOUD, the wool, which is used by the Peruvians and found in com- second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and greatmerce, it is chiefly to the alpaca we owe the supply of grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. He was wool imported into this country under that name. The born in the year 1029 A.D., 421 of the Hegira. He assumed alpaca is considerably smaller than either the llama or the the name of Mohammed when he embraced the Mussulman guanaco, but in general outline all the species resemble faith; and on account of his military prowess he obtained each other. In its native condition the alpaca ranges the surname Alp Arslan, which signifies "a valiant lion." between 10° and 20° S. lat., from the centre of Peru into | He succeeded his father Daoud as ruler of Khorassan in Bolivia, not coming lower down in vertical distribution 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, than between 8000 and 9000 feet above the sea-level. and thus became sole monarch of Persia, from the river At and above these heights it lives in herds in a semi- Oxus to the Tigris. In consolidating his empire and subdomesticated condition, being only driven into the villages duing contending factions he was ably assisted by Nizamto be shorn The wool, which varies in length from 2 to al-Mulk, his vizier, one of the most eminent statesmen 6 inches, is of a very lustrous and fine quality, and is in early Mahometan history. Peace and security being mostly white, black, or gray, shades of brown or fawn established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of being rarer. The vicugna is a much rarer animal than the states, and declared his son Malik Shah his heir and the alpaca, being found sparsely scattered from Ecuador, successor. With the hope of acquiring immense booty in throughout Peru, into Bolivia, but seldom descending the rich temple of St Basil in Cæsarea, the capital of under 13,000 feet above the sea-level. It is about the Cappadocia, he placed himself at the head of the Turkish same size as the alpaca, and yields an exceedingly delicate cavalry, crossed the Euphrates, and entered and plundered wool, varying in colour from a reddish yellow to a dull that city. He then marched into Armenia and Georgia, white. It is usually worth about twice as much as which, in the year 1064, he finally subdued. To punish alpaca, and is greatly valued for fine felts.

the Georgians for the brave defence which they had made, There is evidence of these animals having been held and as a badge of their humiliating condition, the conqueror domesticated and used for their wool in their native regions obliged them to wear at their ears horse-shoes of iron. In from remote antiquity. Remains of clothing made from the year 1068 Alp Arslan invaded the Roman empire, alpaca wools have been found in the graves of the Incas; the seat of which was then at Constantinople. The Emperor and when, in the early part of the 16th century, Europeans Romanus Diogenes, assuming the command in person, first visited Peru, these animals formed the chief wealth of met the invaders in Cilicia. In three several campaigns the natives, being the carriers of their commerce as well as his arms were victorious, and the Turks were forced to the main source of their food and clothing. Small quan- retreat beyond the Euphrates. In the fourth he advanced tities of the wool were occasionally met with in English com with an army of 100,000 men into the Armenian territory, merce; but it was not till 1836 that it became established for the relief of that country. Here he was met by Alp as a regular trading commodity with Europe. In that year Arslan; and the sultan having proposed terms of peace, Mr (now Sir) Titus Salt, a wool-broker and manufacturer which were insultingly rejected by the emperor, a bloody in Bradford, purchased a quantity he met with in a Liver- and decisive engagement took place near Malazkurd, in pool warehouse at 8d. per it, and set himself to discover which the Greeks, after a terrible slaughter, were totally its capabilities. The amount and manner of his success routed. Romanus was taken prisoner and conducted into will be described in the articles WooL and WORSTED | the presence of Alp Arslan, who treated him with a noble MANUFACTURES; it need only be remarked here that his generosity. A ransom of a million and an annual tribute of experiments have resulted in making alpaca a staple second 3000 pieces of gold, an intermarriage between the families, in importance to wool, and so creating an industry of and the deliverance of all the captive Mussulmans in the great and rapidly increasing dimensions. The success of power of the Greeks, having been agreed to as the terms his experiments led to the erection of his great manu of peace and the liberty of the emperor, Romanus was facturing establishment of Saltaire, in which upwards of dismissed, loaded with presents and respectfully attended 3000 hands are employed in the alpaca manufacture. The by a military guard. He was unable, however, to fulfil quantity of alpaca imported into England from 1836-the the terms of the treaty, and the war was accordingly year of Sir Titus Salt's first experimental purchase—to renewed. At this time the dominion of Alp Arslan 1840, averaged 560,800 1 yearly, which sold at about extended over the fairest part of Asia: 1200 princes or 100 per lb. In 1852 the imports had risen to 2,186,480 sons of princes surrounded his throne, and 200,000 soldiers Ib, and the price advanced to 2s. 6d. per Ib. In 1864 the were ready to execute his commands. He now declared

his purpose of attempting the eaquest of Turkestan, the tion of about 13,000 feet above the sea, the highest sumoriginal seat of his ancestors. After great preparations mits in France. The Drac, flowing northwards into the for the expedition, he marched with a powerful army, and Isère, and the Durance, with its tributaries the Guil and arrived at the banks of the Oxus. Before he could pass the Buech, are the chief rivers of Hautes Alpes. The the river with safety, it was necessary to gain possession climate is cold in winter, and in summer variable; the soil of some fortresses in its vicinity, one of which was for is barren, yielding only oats, barley, potatoes, rye, and several days vigurously defended by the governor, Yussuf timber, except in a few favoured valleys, where wine of Kothual, a Kharizmian. He was, however, obliged to sur a fair quality and fruits of various kinds are produced. render, and was carried a prisoner before the sultan. Large numbers of sheep and other domestic animals are Being condemned to suffer a cruel death, Yussuf became reared or pastured in the department. Game, both large incensed, rushed upon the sultan, and stabbed him and small, is found in great abundance. The mines in the breast. The wound proved mortal, and Alp Arslan produce lead, copper, iron, and other metals. There are expired a few hours after he received it, on the 15th Dec. no manufactures of any commercial importance, although 1072.

some leather, coarse woollen cloth, hats, woodwork, and ALPES, the name of three departments in the south- iron wares are made. Hautes Alpes, a part of the old east of France, — Basses Alpes, Hautes Alpes, and Alpes province of Dauphiné, is divided into three arrondisse. Maritimes.

ments: Gap on the west, Embrun on the south-east, and BASSES ALPES is bounded on the N. by the department Briançon on the north-east, with 24 cantons and 89 comof Hautes Alpes; on the E. by the kingdom of Italy and munes. The capital is Gap, the seat of the bishop ; Em. the department of Alpes Maritimes; on the S. by the brun and Briançon being the only other towns of any size. departments of Var and Bouches du Rhône; and on the Population, 118,898. W. by those of Vaucluse and Drôme. It extends at the ALPES MARITIMES, bounded on the N. by Basses Alpes widest points 90 miles from N.E. to S.W., and 70 from and the kingdom of Italy, which also forms its boundary E. to W., and contains an area of 2680 square miles. Its on the E.; on the S. by the Mediterranean Sea; and on surface is mountainous, especially on the north-east, where the W. by Var and Basses Alpes. It extends at the offshoots of the Maritime Alps penetrate into the country, widest points 55 miles from N. to S., and 50 from E. to rising near the river Ubaye to an elevation of over W.; and contains an area of 1517 square miles. The 9000 feet above the level of the sea. With the excep- surface of this department, like that of the two former, is tion of the south-eastern corner, which is drained by more or less mountainous, branches of the Maritimes Alpes the Var, the whole department is in the basin of the covering the greater part of the territory. It is watered Durance, which for a considerable distance separates by the Roya, the Paillon, the Var (with its tributaries the Basses from Hautes Alpes, but eventually strikes south-Tinéa and the Esteron), the Loup, and the Siagne. The ward through the former. Its chief tributaries are the climate is on the whole warm and gentle, except among Buech and the Jabron on the right, and the Ubaye, the the higher mountains; while the mildness of the temperaBléone, the Asse, and the Verdon on the left. The climate ture along the shores of the Mediterranean has made that in the mountainous districts of the north is cold and portion of the department a favourite resort for invalids. variable. The soil there is poor, but it is cultivated with The upper valleys and mountain slopes are chiefly devoted great industry - producing rye, oats, barley, potatoes, to pasture for sheep, being ill-suited for cultivation, although and timber. In the south and south-west, however, where a little barley and maize is grown; the richer districts of the the country is comparatively flat, the temperature is milder south produce fruits of various kinds, tobacco, honey, and and the soil more fertile; here plums, almonds, apricots, flowers, used in the making of perfumes. The other manupeaches, and other fruits are produced in large quantities, factures are of dried fruits, olive-oil, preserved anchovies as well as wine of an excellent description, chiefly for home and sardines, silk, soap, and paper. Alpes Maritimes is consumption. Considerable numbers of cattle, sheep, goats, divided into three arrondissements—Grasse and Nice on and pigs are reared in the Basses Alpes, besides which the south, and Puget Théniers on the north, containing many flocks of sheep, from Var and Bouches du Rhône, 25 cantons and 146 communes. The arrondissements of are pastured during summer in the upper valleys of the Nice and Puget Théniers constitute the bishopric of Nice; department. Game is abundant. There are mines of lead Grasse belongs to that of Fréjus. Nice is the capital; and and other metals of some value. The manufactures are among the other towns are Mentone, Villafranche, Grasse, few and of little importance, the chief being leather, Antibes, Cannes, and Puget Théniers. The Marseilles, coarse woollen cloths, cutlery, earthenware, and paper. Nice, and Ventimille railway, skirting the coast, connects Basses Alpes, one of the departments formed out of ancient Cannes, Antibes, Nice, and Mentone, and joins an Italian Provence, is divided into five arrondissements—Digne, in the line which affords direct railway communication with centre; Barcelonnette and Castellane, on the east; Sisteron Genoa. The department of Alpes Maritimes was formed and Forcalquier on the west; which together contain 30 in 1860 from the territory of Nice, which had been ceded cantons and 251 communes. Digne is the capital and to France, together with Mentone and Roccabruna, purthe seat of a bishop, whose diocese is co-extensive with the chased from the Prince of Monaco, and the arrondissedepartment; and among the other towns are Barcelonnette, ment of Grasse, transferred from Var. It had a populaCastellane, Sisteron, Forcalquier, and Manosque. Popu- tion of 119,037 in 1871. lation (1871), 139,332.

ALPHA and OMEGA (A and 2), the first and last HAUTES ALPES is bounded on the N. by the depart- letters of the Greek alphabet, frequently employed to ments of Isère and Savoir; on the E. by the kingdom symbolise the idea of completeness or infinity. They are of Italy; on the S. by the department of Alpes Basses; used as a designation of himself by the speaker in Rev. i. and on the W. by that of Drôme. It extends nearly 80 8; xxi. 6; xxii. 13. In the last passage the speaker is miles from N.E. to S.W., and contains an area of 2158 undoubtedly Jesus Christ. In the symbolism of the early square miles. Its surface is very mountainous, being tra- church A and 1, combined with a cross or with the mono versed in all directions by the Cottian and Dauphiné Alps, gram of Xplotós, represented Christianity, or, more speci. which, in Mont Pelvoux and other peaks, rise to an eleva fically, faith in the divinity of Christ.

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A L P H A BET BY

Y an alphabet we mean a list of symbols which repre- | the particular step which we want to prove has un.

sent conventionally to the eye the sounds which are doubtedly been made under similar circumstances. Still, heard in the speech of a nation. An alphabet will it may with some truth be said that we can only prove the therefore be perfect if the number of its symbols exactly possibility of such a process, while any given alphabet may corresponds to the number of simple sounds which are have had a perfectly independent origin; the Phænician commonly distinguishable in the spoken language. But alphabet may have been developed in Phænicia itself, and this perfection has probably never yet been reached : all never been hieroglyphic at all." But this is very difficult known alphabets have failed, either by defect, i.e., from to conceive. The a priori argument for the derivation of not representing all the simple sounds; or by redundancy, phonetic from hieroglyphic characters is strong. Hieroin having more than one symbol for the same sound. glyphics have unquestionably been the first attempt of They must also necessarily become imperfect by lapse of many nations in a rude state to record their thoughts in a time. No nation keeps the sound of its language unaltered permanent and universally intelligible form. It is also through many centuries : sounds change as well as certain that these hieroglyphics have undergone progressive grammatical forms, though they may endure longer, so degradation of shape, so that their visible connection with that the symbols no longer retain their proper values; the thing signified was often lost; they became in many often, too, several different sounds come to be denoted by cases the expression of those combinations of sounds by the same symbol; and in strictness the alphabet should be which the things were denoted in the spoken language, changed to correspond to all these changes. But little though they still generally retained their original value as inconvenience is practically caused by the tacit acceptance well. Here, at all events, a certain connection between of the old symbol to express the new sound; indeed the hieroglyphics and sounds establishes itself ; and a priori it change in language is so gradual that the variation in the is more probable that all alphabets should have derived the values of the symbols is imperceptible. It is only when single sounds of which they consist from hieroglyphics, we attempt to produce the exact sounds of the English through the medium of their derived phonetic values, than language less than three centuries ago that we realise the that any alphabet should have been produced independently fact that if Shakespeare could now stand on our stage he of hieroglyphics (which are admitted to have existed), by would seem to us to speak in an unknown tongue; though some arbitrary process of formation for which absolutely one of his plays, when written, is as perfectly intelligible no testimony can be adduced. As we have said above, now as then. Such changes of sound are most developed such a process is not impossible, and may be true for any in countries where many different dialects, through con- particular alphabet; but the opposite theory has the most quest, immigration, or otherwise, exist side by side : they internal probability and all the evidence of which the case are checked by the increase of education and by facility of admits. Against this it seems insufficient to urge (as has locomotion—both of which causes tend to assimilate all been done) that there exist upon earth savages who have dialects to that one which by some lucky chance has become never developed any alphabetic writing out of their rude the literary speech of the nation.

attempts a fact which may be readily granted; or that The term alphabet has come to us from the Latin civilised men often return to the simple methods employed alphabetum, which, however, occurs in no prose writer by uncivilised nations, such as cutting notches on sticks or before Tertullian. It could not have been used, for tying knots in strings—such return being apparently metrical reasons, by Juvenal, when he wrote, “Hoc discunt adduced to prove that two totally different methods of omnes ante alpha et beta puellæ”—their A B C. But there expression can co-exist without there being any tendency is no reason why it should not have existed earlier : the to pass from one to the other; nay, it is added that in word was borrowed from the Greek, as seems clear from Egypt the hieroglyphic and the common (or demotic) the compound avalpáßntos, which is as old as the comedian character aid certainly exist side by side; and if the latter Philyllius (Meineke, Com. Frag. ii. 857), and he was alive were borrowed from the former, it would have superseded in 392 B.C. It does not seem likely that this compound it, which it did not do. Now, in answer to this, reasons adjective would have been coined if the noun itself had will appear shortly why the hieroglyphic characters lingered not already existed in the same sense which it now bears. so persistently, even when the later phonetic character was

The symbols of our alphabet are nearly those of the in common use—nay, in the very same inscription or docuLatin ; these in their turn were borrowed from a Greek ment with the hieroglyphic. Still, the argument would alphabet; and there seems no reasonable ground for have some weight if it were not grounded on the false doubting the common tradition that the Greeks derived assumption that the demotic alphabet was a purely phonetic their characters from a Phænician source. All these one, totally unconnected with its more aged rival. But borrowings will be fully described hereafter. At this modern research has proved incontestably that the demotic point absolute certainty ends. We cannot prove to de- characters can be traced back to their original hieroglyphic monstration the origin of our alphabet; but positive facts shape through the medium of the hieratic; in fact, that and analogical arguments may be adduced which enable the cumbrous hieroglyphics were successively put into us to attain a very high degree of probability. It is now more and more abbreviated shapes, for convenience of commonly believed that the characters were originally writing, as its use increased. hieroglyphics, and in that ultimate form were devised in Excluding, then, attempts of savages such as have been Egypt. There, for convenience of writing, they took a mentioned above, which were neither durable nor insimpler form (called hieratic). In this shape they were telligible enough to make them of service, except for the borrowed by the Phænicians; and thus, in their long smallest number of men during the most limited timecourse down to us, they passed gradually from being the excluding these as not deserving the name, we derive all written expression of an idea into the written expression real writing from hieroglyphics, such hieroglyphics being each of a single sound. It is true that the proof is not either purely pictorial, the expression of visible objects in clear throughout: sometimes the links are feeble, and here the external world; or symbolic, when some external we have to employ the analogy of other languages, in which object is conventionally chosen to represent some action or

I. - 76

some abstract idea. These two methods were probably remember the fruitless attempts which have been made to nearly contemporaneous in their origin, because the work a reform in it, to be convinced that no people will of necessity of writing at all supposes a considerable advance its own accord strike out a thoroughly new system of in civilisation, and therefore a considerable development of writing. Such revolutions can only be produced by the ideas. To this system as a whole the convenient term meeting of two different civilisations, and the reception ideography is now generally applied. From this men have by the one of the arts and ideas of the other. But such a passed to phonetic writing, first, apparently, in the form meeting may, and more commonly does, only stimulate the of syllabism, in which each syllable of a word is regarded inferior race to some partial development. For the new as an independent whole and represented by a single sign; ideas new names are required : these may be metaphorithen from this to alphabetism, in which the syllable is no cally represented out of the old vocabulary, as when the longer denoted by an indivisible symbol, but is resolved Romans called the unknown elephant the Lucanian ox, into vowel and consonant, each with its own accepted and of course wrote it so. But suppose the inferior people sign.

to be one which has not yet advanced beyond hieroIt seems probable that all known alphabets (with one or glyphic writing; their simplest and most obvious plan two possible exceptions) may be traced back to four or five will be to take the strange name, and express it by those parents. These have differed much in fruitfulness, but all symbols out of their old stock which denote the nearest were originally hieroglyphic. These five systems of writing sounds to that of the name required. Such symbols then are the Egyptian, the cuneiform, the Chinese, the Mexican cease to represent ideas only, as they used to do; they are or Aztec, and the curiously cumbrous characters of Yucatan consciously employed to represent mere sounds, and thus and central America : these last may be seen interspersed arise the first beginnings of phonetism. A good example with figurative paintings in a facsimile given by M. de of this process may be found in the Aztec (Lenormant, i. Rosny at p. 20 of his very useful little summary, Les Ecri- 29; De Rosny, p. 19, who also gives others). When tures Figuratives des Differents Peuples Anciens et Modernes. Christianity was introduced into Mexico, the Lord's Prayer Of these, the first three alone can be said to have had any was reduced to writing in the following manner :—The great extension; and the first, if the Phænician, and by Mexican symbols nearest to the two syllables of pater were consequence the European alphabets, were derived from it, a flag (sounded as pantli), and a rock (tetl) : pater was therefar exceeds in importance all the rest together. These fore represented pictorially by a flag and a rock; we cannot systems were perfectly independent, and developed them tell whether it was sounded as pan-tetl, or only as pa-tem selves, each in the same course, but in its own manner, and the nearest possible equivalent in the Mexican language, each in the main to a different degree. At certain points which has no r. Similarly, noster was phonetically reprein their history all but one became crystallised, and sented by noch-tetl, pictorially by the Indian fig (nochtli) remained to show us the steps by which the progress to

and the rock as before. Here, then, we have the application phonetism can be made. We do not propose to describe of symbols to denote sound without regard to the original here fully any of these systems of hieroglyphics. We are sense; just as we might draw the figures of an eye, a saw, only concerned to point out their relative degrees of de and a horse, and convey by them the idea, “I saw a horse." velopment, their deficiencies, and the consequent motives The Aztec would not long have the ideas of a flag, a rock, which must have impelled men by degrees to the produc- and a fig presented to his mind when he read these symbols; tion of a genuine alphabet.1

and so the first conception of phonetism was gained, the There are obvious deficiencies even in the most highly first move from hieroglyphic to alphabetic writing. Yet developed hieroglyphics. In the first place, they must he had not attained the first real step in the progressi.e., have been excessively burdensome to the memory. They syllabic writing—because if he had decomposed his new speedily lost their original form, which was in most cases words, pan would not have represented to his mind merely too cumbrous to be retained when writing became frequent; so much sound-a syllable by itself meaningless : it would their pictorial value was therefore lost, and the new form have given him only the idea of a flag. And further than could not generally have been intelligible to a learner, who this the Aztec language did not pass : probably it only was thus obliged to acquire by memory an

reached this stage incompletely with a small number of number of symbols, compared with which even the Sans- words. The great advance to syllabic writing is to be krit alphabet may be regarded as easy. Secondly, it is found elsewhere ; first in the Chinese, perhaps through the impossible by hieroglyphics to express grammatical rela- accident of the monosyllabic nature of the language; but tions: the order, indeed, in which the symbols are placed with a clearly-developed purpose in the Aramaic cuneiform may denote the distinction between subject and object; inscriptions. plurality may be expressed by the repetition of a symbol; In the Chinese written character we find a considerable some even of the relations in space, denoted in more number of symbols which were unquestionably at first advanced languages by cases, may be pictorially rendered; pictorial. Though but very slight vestiges of their original but all these helps do not go far to remedy this obvious meaning can now be seen in them, yet they can be traced want. Experience, however, shows how much incon- back to older forms which are unmistakeable; and their venience a nation will undergo rather than make any origin is further attested by the name “images,” which radical change in its phonetic system. We have only to the Chinese give them, as distinguished from others which look at our own alphabet, with its numerous and univer- they call letters." These symbols were simple, and sally confessed deficiencies and redundancies, and then denoted very ingeniously natural objects—the sun (by a

circle with a dot inside), the moon (by a crescent with a 1 The authorities referred to chiefly are Endlicher (Chinesische line inside), a mountain (by three peaks side by side), rain Grammatik), Oppert (E.cpédition Scientifique en Mésopotamie, tom. 2), and Bunsen (Egypt's Place in History, vol. v.) Frequent use has Essai sur la Propagation de l'Alphabet Phénicien dans l'Ancien Monde, by M. François Lenormant, of which the first volume only has yet a mother ( a figure expressing the arms and bosom appeared. It contains an introduction to his special subject, in which the labours of Champollion, Young, Lepsius, Bunsen, De Rougé, in effectively enough), &c. These symbols could be combined: Egyptian hieroglyphics, and of Grotefend, Rawlinson, Hincks, and Oppert, among the cuneiform characters, are ably summarised, and set

thus the symbols for water and eye combined denoted forth with much clearness.

tears, an ear and a door expressed hearing and under.

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