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sented to it in intuition, to recognise and attend exclusively | least in its subjective aspect, is invariably an abstraction to their points of agreement, and so to classify them in made by comparing phenomena--an abstraction under accordance with their perceived resemblances. Further, which phenomena are classed in order to the extension of this process is admitted without much dispute to belong knowledge, just as under a concept are grouped the parto the discursive or elaborative action of the intellect; ticulars presented in intuition. As proof of this identity although, perhaps -- should the view of some modern it is found that the same differences exist regarding the psychologists be correct, that all intelligence proceeds by objective or subjective nature of the “natural law” as the establishment of relations of likeness and unlikeness regarding that of the concept. Some affirm that the law -abstraction will be better conceived as thus related to is brought ready-made by the mind and superinduced on intelligence in general and typical of all its processes, than the facts; others, that it is never in any sense more than as the action merely of a special and somewhat indefinite a mere mental conception, got by observing the facts; faculty. No such harmony, however, exists regarding the while there are yet others who maintain it to be such a subnature of the product of abstraction; for that is the subject- jective conception, but one corresponding at the same time matter of Nominalism and Realism, which has produced to an external relation which is real though unknowable. more controversy, and stimulated to more subtlety of ABSURDUM, REDUCTIO AD, a mode of demonstrating thought, than any other subject ever debated in philo- the truth of a proposition, by showing that its contrasophy. The concept or abstract idea has been represented dictory leads to an absurdity. It is much employed by in a multitude of ways : sometimes as an idea possessing Euclid. an objective existence independent of particulars, even ABU, a celebrated mountain of Western India, between more real and permanent than theirs; sometimes as an 5000 and 6000 feet in height, situated in 24° 40' N. lat., idea composed of all the circumstances in which the par- and 72° 48' E. long., within the Rájputáná State of Sirohí. ticulars agree, and of no others; again, as the idea of an It is celebrated as the site of the most ancient Jain temples individual, retaining its individualising qualities, but with in India, and attracts pilgrims from all parts of the country. the accompanying knowledge that these are not the pro- The Jains are the modern Indian representatives of the perties of the class ; and yet again, as the idea of a Buddhists, and profess the ancient theistic doctrines of that miscellaneous assemblage of individuals belonging to a sect, modified by saint worship and incarnations. The class. It is still impossible to say that the many-sided elevations and platforms of the mountain are covered with controversy is at an end. The only conclusion generally elaborately sculptured shrines, temples, and tombs. On admitted seems to be, that there exists between the con- the top of the hill is a small round platform containing a cept and the particular objects of intuition some very cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the impression of intimate relation of thought, so that it is necessary, for all the feet of Dátá-Bhrigu, an incarnation of Vishnu. This purposes of reasoning, that the general and particular go is the chief great place of pilgrimage for the Jains, Shrawaks, hand in hand, that the idea of the class—if such exists and Banians. The two principal temples are situated at —be capable of being applied, in every completed act of Deulwárá, about the middle of the mountain, and five miles thought, to the objects comprised within the class. south-west of Guru Sikrá, the highest summit. They are

To the student of ontology, also, abstraction is of built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for their special interest, since, according to many distinguished beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in thinkers, the recognition of abstraction as a powerful and India. The following description is condensed from Mr universal mental process is to explain all ontology away, Fergusson's History of Architecture, vol. ï. pp. 623 to and give the ontologist his eternal quietus. The thorough- 625 :—The more modern of the two was built by two going nominalist professes to discover in the mind an brothers, rich merchants, between the years 1197 and inveterate tendency to abstraction, and a proneness to 1247, and for delicacy of carving and minute beauty of ascribe separate existence to abstractions, amply sufficient detail stands almost unrivalled, even in this land of patient to account for all those forms of independent reality which and lavish labour. The other was built by another metaphysics defend, and to exhibit them all in their true merchant prince, Bimalá Shah, apparently about 1032 A.D., colours as fictitious assumptions. In reply, the ontologist, and although simpler and bolder in style, is as elaborate as strengthened by the instinct of self-preservation, commonly good taste would allow in a purely architectural object. contends that the analogy between general notions and It is one of the oldest as well as one of the most complete metaphysical principles does not hold good, and that the examples of Jain architecture known. The principal object latter are always more than simple abstractions or mere within the temple is a cell lighted only from the door, connames. Only after abstraction is understood can the taining a cross-legged seated figure of the god Paresnáth. question be settled.

The portico is composed of forty-night pillars, the whole In like manner to logic, whether regarded as the science enclosed in an oblong court-yard about 140 feet by 90 of the formal laws of thought, or, more widely, as the science feet, surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pillars, of scientific methods, a true understanding of abstraction forming porticos to a range of fifty-five cells, which enclose is of the greatest importance. It is important in pure it on all sides, exactly as they do in a Buddhist monastery logic, because, as we have seen, every act of judgment and (vihára). In this temple, however, each cell, instead of reasoning postulates a concept or concepts, and so pre- being the residence of a monk, is occupied by an image of supposes abstraction. Abstraction, determining the possi- Paresnáth, and over the door, or on the jambs of each, are bility alike of reason and speech, creates those notions sculptured scenes from the life of the deity. The whole that bear common names; it is indispensable to the interior is magnificently ornamented. The Emperor Akbar, formation of classes, great or small; and just according as by a farmán dated in the month of Rabi-ul-ául, in the it ascends, increasing the extension and diminishing the 37th year of his reign, corresponding with 1593, made a intension of classes, the horizon visible to reason and to grant of the hill and temples of Abu, as well as of the logic gradually recedes and widens. And to logic as the other hills and places of Jain pilgrimage in the empire, to science of the sciences a true doctrine of abstraction is not Harbijai Sur, a celebrated preceptor of the Setámbari sect less necessary ; because the process of extending know- of the Jain religion. He also prohibited the slaughter of ledge is, in all its developments, essentially the same as animals at these places. The farmán of this enlightened the first rudimentary effort to form a concept and think of monarch declared that “it is the rule of the worshippers particulars as members of a class ; a “natural law," at of God to preserve all religions.”

ABU-BEKR (father of the virgin), was originally called quently transferred to the see of Aleppo, and was elected Abd-el-Caaba (servant of the temple), and received the name in 1266 Maphrian or Primate of the eastern section of by which he is known historically in consequence of the the Jacobite Christians. This dignity he held till his marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to Mohammed. He death, which occurred at Maragha, in Azerbijan, in 1286. was born at Mecca in the year 573 A.D., a Koreishite of Abulfaragius wrote a large number of works on various the tribe of Benn-Taim. Possessed of immense wealth, subjects, but his fame as an author rests chiefly on his which he had himself acquired in commerce, and held in History of the World, from the creation to his own high esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams, and a day. It was written first in Syriac, and then, after a depositary of the traditions of his race, his early accession considerable interval, an abridged version in Arabic to Islamism was a fact of great importance. On his con was published by the author at the request of friends. version he assumed the name of Abd-Alla (servant of God). The latter is divided into ten sections, each of which conHis own belief in Mohammed and his doctrines was so tained the account of a separate dynasty. The historic thorough as to procure for him the title El Siddik (the value of the work lies entirely in the portions that treat of faithful), and his success in gaining converts was corre eastern nations, especially in those relating to the Saracens, spondingly great. In his personal relationship to the the Tartar Mongols, and the conquests of Genghis Khan. prophet he showed the deepest veneration and most un The other sections are full of mistakes, arising partly no swerving devotion. When Mohammed fled from Mecca, doubt from the author's comparative ignorance of classical Abu-Bekr was his sole companion, and shared both his languages. A Latin translation of the Arabic abridgement hardships and his triumphs, remaining constantly with was published by Dr Pococke at Oxford in 1663. A

porhim until the day of his death. During his last illness tion of the original text, with Latin translation, edited, by the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr as his successor, by desir no means carefully or accurately, by Bruns and F. W. ing him to offer up prayer for the people. The choice Kirsch, appeared at Leipsic in 1788. was ratified by the chiefs of the army, and ultimately con ABULFAZL, vizier and historiographer of the great firmed, though Ali, Mohammed's son-in-law, disputed it, Mongol emperor, Akbar, was born about the middle of asserting his own title to the dignity. After a time Ali the 16th century, the precise date being uncertain. His submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his claims career as a minister of state, brilliant though it was, would gave rise to a controversy which still divides the followers probably have been by this time forgotten but for the of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and record he himself has left of it in his celebrated history, Shiites. Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed his new position The Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, as Abulfazl's chief under the title Khalifet-Resul-Allah (successor of the prophet literary work is called, consists of two parts,—the first being of God), when he was called to suppress the revolt of the a complete history of Akbar's reign, and the second, tribes Hedjaz and Nedjd, of which the former rejected entitled Ayin-i-Akbari, or Institutes of Akbar, being an Islamism, and the latter refused to pay tribute. He en account of the religious and political constitution and countered formidable opposition from different quarters, administration of the empire. The style is singularly but in every case he was successful, the severest struggle elegant, and the contents of the second part possess a being that with the impostor Mosailima, who was finally unique and lasting interest. An excellent translation of defeated by Khaled at the battle of Akraba. Abu-Bekr's that part by Mr Francis Gladwin was published in Calzeal for the spread of the new faith was as conspicuous as cutta, 1783-6. It was reprinted in London very inthat of its founder had been. When the internal disorders accurately, and copies of the original edition are now had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he exceedingly rare and correspondingly valuable. Abulfazl directed his generals to foreign conquest.

The Irak of died by the hand of an assassin, while returning from a Persia was overcome by Khaled in a single campaign, and mission to the Deccan in 1602. Some writers say that the there was also a successful expedition into Syria. After murderer was instigated by the heir-apparent, who had the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing that become jealous of the minister's influence. the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten ABULFEDA, ISMAEL BEN-ALI, EMAD-EDDIN, the celewhen those who had listened to them had all been re brated Arabian historian and geographer, born at Damascus moved by death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preserva- in the year 672 of the Hegira (1273 A.D.), was directly tion in a written form. The record, when completed, was descended from Ayub, the father of the emperor Saladin. deposited with Hafsu, daughter of Omar, and one of the In his boyhood he devoted himself to the study of the wives of Mohammed. It was held in great reverence by all Koran and the sciences, but from his twelfth year he was Moslems, though it did not possess canonical authority, almost constantly engaged in military expeditions, chiefly and furnished most of the materials out of which the against the crusaders. In 1285 he was present at the Koran, as it now exists, was prepared. When the authori- assault of a stronghold of the Knights of St John, and he tative version was completed, all copies of Hafsu's record took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre, and Roum. In were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and 1298 the princedom of Hamah and other honours, origindivisions. Abu-Bekr died on the 23d of August 634, ally conferred by Saladin upon Omar, passed by inherithaving reigned as Khalif fully two years. Shortly before ance to Abulfeda; but the succession was violently dishis death, which one tradition ascribes to poison, another puted by his two brothers, and the Court availed itself of to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, after the opportunity to supersede all the three, and to abolish the manner Mohammed had observed in his own case. the principality. The sultan Melik-el-Nassir ultimately

ABULFARAGIUS, GREGOR ABULFARAJ (called also (1310) restored the dignity to Abulfeda, with additional BARHEBRÆUS, from his Jewish parentage), was born at honours, as an acknowledgment of his military services Malatia, in Armenia, in 1226. His father Aaron was a against the Tartars and Bibars, the sultan's rival. He physician, and Abulfaragius, after studying under him, received an independent sovereignty, with the right of also practised medicine wita great success. His command coining money, &c., and had the title Melik Mowayyad of the Arabic, Syriac, and Greek languages, and his know- (victorious prince) conferred upon him. For twenty years, ledge of philosophy and theology, gained for him a very till his death in October 1331, he reigned in tranquillity high reputation. In 1244 he removed to Antioch, and and splendour, devoting himself to the duties of governshortly after to Tripoli, where he was consecrated Bishop ment and to the composition of the works to which he is of Guba, when only twenty years of age. He was subse- chiefly indebted for his fame.

chiefly indebted for his fame. He was a munificent patron

of men of letters, who repaired in large numbers to his about 50 miles S.W. of Derr, remarkable for its ancient court. Abulfeda's chief historical work is an Abridgement Egyptian temples and colossal figures hewn out of the of the Ilistory of ihe Human Race, in the form of annals, solid rock. For a description of these see Nubia. extenåing from the creation of the world to the

year

1328. ABU-TEMAN, one of the most highly esteemed of A great part of it is compiled from the works of previous Arabian poets, was born at Djacem in the year 190 of the writers, and it is difficult to determine accurately what is Hegira (806 A.D.) In the little that is told of his life it the author's and what is not. Up to the time of the birth is difficult to distinguish between truth and fable. He of Mohammed, the narrative is very succinct; it becomes | seems to have lived in Egypt in his youth, and to have more full and valuable the nearer the historian approaches been engaged in servile employment, but his rare poetic his own day. It is the only source of information on , talent speedily raised him to a distinguished position at many facts connected with the Saracen empire, and alto- the court of the caliphs of Bagdad. Arabian historians gether is by far the most important Arabian history we assert that a single poem frequently gained for him many now possess. Various translations of parts of it exist, thousand pieces of gold, and the rate at which his conthe earliest being a Latin rendering of the section relating temporaries estimated his genius may be understood from to the Arabian conquests in Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic the saying, that " no one could ever die whose name had professor at Palermo, in 1610. This is preserved in been praised in the verses of Abu-Teman.” Besides Muratori’s Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol. i. The his- writing original poetry, he made three collections of select tory from the time of Mohammed was published with a pieces from the poetry of the East, of the most important Lotin translation by Reiske, under the title Annales Mos- of which, called Hamasa, Sir William Jones speaks highly. lemici (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789–94), and a similar Professor Carlyle quoted this collection largely in his Speciedition of the earlier part was published by Fleischer at mens of Arabic Poetry (1796). An edition of the text, Leipsic in 1831, under the title Abulfedæ Historia Ante- with Latin translation, was published by Freytag at Islamitica. His Geography is chiefly valuable in the his- Bonn (1828–51), and a meritorious translation in German torical and descriptive parts relating to the Moslem empire. verse by Rückert appeared in 1846. Abu-Teman died From his necessarily imperfect acquaintance with astro 845 A.D. nomy, his notation of latitude and longitude, though fuller ABYDOS (1.), in Ancient Geography, a city of Mysia than that of any geographer who preceded him, can in no in Asia Minor, situated on the Hellespont, which is here case be depended on, and many of the places whose posi- scarcely a mile broad. It probably was originally a tion he gives with the utmost apparent precision cannot Thracian town, but was afterwards colonised by Milesians. be now identified. A complete edition was published by Nearly opposite, on the European side of the Hellespont, MM. Reinaud and De Slane at Paris in 1840; and Reinaud stood Sestos; and it was here that Xerxes crossed the published a French translation, with notes and illustrations, strait on his celebrated bridge of boats when he invaded in 1848. MSS. of both Abulfeda's great works are pre- Greece. Abydos was celebrated for the vigorous resistance served in the Bodleian Library and in the National it made when besieged by Philip II. of Macedon; and is Library of France.

famed in story for the loves of Hero and Leander. The ABÚLGHAZI-BAHADUR (1605–1663), a khan of old castle of the Dardanelles, built by the Turks, lies a Khiva, of the race of Genghis Khan, who, after abdicating little southward of Sestos and Abydos. in favour of his son, employed his leisure in writing a ABYDOS (2.), in Ancient Geography, a town of Upper history of the Mongols and Tartars. He produced a Egypt, a little to the west of the Nile, between Ptolemais valuable work, which has been translated into German, and Diospolis Parva, famous for the palace of Memnon and French, and Russian.

the temple of Osiris. Remains of these two edifices are ABÚNA, the title given to the archbishop or metropoli- still in existence. In the temple of Osiris Mr Bankes tan of Abyssinia.

discovered in 1818 the tablet of Abydos, containing a ABUSH EHR. See BUSHIRE.

double series of twenty-six shields of the predecessors of ABU-SIMBEL, or IPSAMBUL, the ancient Aboccis or Rameses the Great This tablet is now deposited in the Abuncis, a place in Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, British Museum.

ABYSSINIA

BYSSINIA is an extensive country of Eastern Africa, about 200,000 square miles, and a population of from

the limits of which are not well defined, and authorities 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. are by no means agreed respecting them. It may, however, The name Abyssinia, or more properly Habessinia, is be regarded as lying between 7° 30' and 15° 40' N. lat., and derived from the Arabic word Habesch, which signifies 35° and 40° 30' E. long., having, N. and N.W., Nubia ; E., mixture or confusion, and was applied to this country by the territory of the Danakils ; S., the country of the Gallas; the Arabs on account of the mixed character of the people. and W., the regions of the Upper Nile. It has an area of This was subsequently Latinised by the Portuguese into

The 1 It is usual to include in Abyssinia the flat country which lies between Abyssinians call themselves Itiopyavan, and their country

Abassia and Abassinos, and hence the present name. the east. This, however, is not strictly correct. Abyssinia proper com- | Itiopia, or Manghesta Itiopia, the kingdom of Ethiopia. prises only the mountainous portion of this territory, the low lying por. The country of Abyssinia rises rather abruptly from the tion being inhabited by distinct and hostile tribes, and claimed by the low arid district on the borders of the Red Sea in lofty Viceroy of Egypt as part of his dominions. The low country is very unhealthy, the soil dry and arid, and with few exceptions uncultivated, ranges of mountains, and slopes away more gradually to whereas the highlands are generally salubrious; well watered, and in the westward, where the tributaries of the Nile have formed many parts very fertile. This arid track of country is only a few miles numerous deep valleys. It consists for the most part of broad at Massowah, in the north, but widens out to 200 or 300 miles at extensive and elevated table-lands, with mountain ranges being thus cut off from intercourse with the civilised world by this in extending in different directions, and intersected by numerous hospitable region, which has for three centuries been in the hands of valleys. The table-lands are generally from 6000 to 9000 enemies, that it is at present so far sunk in ignorance and barbarism. feet above the level of the sea, but in the south there are

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some of considerable extent, which attain a height of more | 11° 25' N., long. 41° 40' E. The principal lake of Abyssinia than 10,000 feet. The mountains in various parts of the is the Dembea, which lies between 110 30' and 12° 30' N. country rise to 12,000 and 13,000 feet above the sea, and lat., and 37° and 37° 35' E. long., being about 60 miles in some of the peaks of Samen are said to reach to 15,000 length by 40 in width, and containing a number of small feet, and to be always covered with snow. The average islands. It is fed by numerous small streams. The lake height of the range which divides the streams flowing to of Ashangi, in lat. 12° 35' N., long. 39° 40' E., is about 4 the east from those that flow westward is about 8000 feet, miles long by 3 broad, and upwards of 8000 feet above the rising to 10,000 or 11,000 in the south, and sinking in the sea. north. The whole country presents the appearance of The fundamental rocks of Tigré, and probably of all having been broken up and tossed about in a remarkable Abyssinia, are metamorphic. They compose the mass of manner, the mountains assuming wild and fantastic forms, the table-land, and while they occupy no inconsiderable with sides frequently abrupt and precipitous, and only portion of its surface, they are exposed, in Tigré at least, in accessible by very difficult passes. The Samen range of every deep valley. The metamorphics vary greatly in mountains are the highest in Abyssinia, and together with mineral character, “every intermediate grade being found the Lamalmon and Lasta mountains form a long but not between the most coarsely crystalline granite and a slaty continuous chain, running from north to south.

rock so little altered that the lines of the original bedding

are still apparent. Perhaps the most prevalent form of RED

rock is a rather finely crystalline gneiss. Hornblende-schist and mica-schist are met with, but neither of the minerals from which they are named appears to be so abundant as in some metamorphic tracts. On the other hand, a compact felspathic rock, approaching felsite in composition, is prevalent in places, as in the Suru defile, between Komayli and Senafé." There are a few exceptions, but as a general rule it may be asserted that in the neighbourhood of the route followed by the British army, so much of the country as is more than 8000 feet above the sea consists of bedded traps, and this is probably the case in general over Abyssinia. “ Between the traps and the metamorphics a series of sandstones and limestones intervene, one group of the former underlying the latter. The limestone alone is fossiliferous, and is of Jurassic age.” “On the route to Magdala volcanic rocks were first met with at Senafé, where several hills consist of trachyte, passing into claystone and basalt. Trap hills, chiefly of trachyte, are dotted over the country to the southward as far as Fokada, a distance of nearly 30 miles. Here a great range of bedded traps commences, and extends for about 25 miles to the south, passing to the west of Adigerat.” At Meshek, two marches south of Antalo, “ the route entered high ranges entirely composed of trap, and thence no other rocks were seen as far as Magdala. “The trappean rocks belong to two distinct and unconformable groups. The lower of these is much inclined, while the higher rests on its upturned and

denuded edges." Denudation has evidently been going on Sketch Chart of Abyssinia.

to a great extent in this country. One of its most striking The principal rivers of Abyssinia are tributaries of the features are the deep ravines which have been worked out Nile. The western portion of the country may be divided by the action of the streams, sometimes to the depth of into three regions, drained respectively by the Mareb, the 3000 or 4000 feet. “How much of the Abyssinian highAtbara, and the Abai. The most northern of these rivers lands has been removed by these great torrents, and spread is the Mareb, which rises in the mountains of Taranta, as an alluvial deposit over the basin of the Nile ?" "Probably flows first south, then west, and afterwards turns to the over the whole of northern Abyssinia there existed at least north, where it is at length, after a course of upwards of 4000 feet of bedded traps, of which now only a few vestiges 500 miles, lost in the sand, but in the rainy season it falls remain.”—W. T. Blanford. into the Atbara. The Atbara, or Takazza, rises in the Abyssinia is said to enjoy "probably as salubrious a mountains of Lasta, and flowing first north, then west, and climate as any country on the face of the globe.”— again turning to the north, at length falls into the Nile, Parkyns. The heat is by no means oppressive, a fine after a course of about 800 miles. The Abai, Bahr-el-Azrek light air counteracting the power of the sun; and during or Blue River, the eastern branch of the Nile, and considered the rainy season, the sky being cloudy, the weather is by Bruce to be the main stream of that river, rises from always agreeable and cool, while the rain itself is not very two mountains near Geesh, in lat. 10° 59'25” N., long. severe. In certain of the low valleys, however, malarious 36° 55' 30" E., about 10,000 feet above the level of the influences prevail before and after the rainy season, and

It flows first north to the Lake of Dembea or Tzana, bring on dangerous fevers. On the higher parts the cold then takes a long semicircular sweep round the province of is sometimes intense, particularly at night. The natural Godjam, and afterwards flows northward to about the 15th division of the seasons is into a cold, a hot, and a rainy degree of N. lat., where it unites with the Bahr-el-Abiad,

The cold season may be said to extend from which has now been ascertained to be the true Nile. The October to February, the hot from the beginning of March Hawash, the principal river of eastern Abyssinia, rises about to the middle of June, and the wet or monsoon period from lat. 9° 30' N., long. 38° E., and, flowing in a north-easterly this time to the end of September. The rainy season is of direction towards the Red Sea, is lost in Lake Aussa, lat. importance, not only in equalising the temperature, increasing

MAGDAL

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the fertility, and keeping up the water supply of the country, | them as identical in features with the Bedouin Arabs. The but, as Sir S. Baker has shown, it plays a most important tribes inhabiting Tigré, Amhara, Agow, &c., belong to this part in the annual overflow of the Nile.

The Galla race, who came originally from the south, On the summits and slopes of the highest mountains have now overrun the greater part of the country, constithe vegetation is of a thoroughly temperate and even tuting a large portion of the soldiery, and, indeed, there are English character; the plateaux have a flora of the same few of the chiefs who have not an intermixture of Galla character; while on the lower slopes of the hills and in the blood in their veins. They are fierce and turbulent in ravines occur many trees and shrubs of warmer climes. character, and addicted to cruelty. Many of them are still "The general appearance of the plateaux and plains is that idolaters, but most of them have now adopted the Mohamof a comparatively bare country, with trees and bushes medan faith, and not a few of them the Christianity of the tninly scattered over it, and clumps and groves only occur- Abyssinians. They are generally large and well-built, of a ring round villages and churches. But the glens and ravines brown complexion, with regular features, small deeply-sunk in the plateau sides, each with its little bright spring, are but very bright eyes, and long black hair. A race of Jews, often thickly wooded, and offer a delicious contrast to the known by the name of Falashas, inhabit the district of open country.”—Markham. This refers more particularly Samen. They affirm that their forefathers came into the to the northern portion of the country, that drained by the country in the days of Rehoboam, but it seems more Mareb; the central and southern parts are much more fertile probable that they arrived about the time of the destruction and productive. Here the fertility is so great that in some of Jerusalem. From the 10th century they enjoyed their parts three crops are raised annually. Agriculture receives own constitutional rights, and were subject to their own considerable attention, and large quantities of maize, wheat, kings, who, they pretend, were descended from King David, barley, peas, beans, &c., are grown. Very extensively until the year 1800, when the royal race became extinct, cultivated is teff (Poa abyssinica), a herbaceous plant with and they then became subject to Tigré. grains not larger than the head of a pin, of which is made The prevailing religion of Abyssinia is a very corrupted the bread in general use throughout the country. The low form of Christianity. This is professed by the majority of grounds produce also a kind of corn called tocussa, of the people, as well as by the reigning princes of the different which a black bread is made, which constitutes the food of states. There are also scattered over the country many the lower classes. Coffee grows wild on the western Mohammedans, and some Falashas or Jews. Christianity mountains, and the vine and sugar-cane are cultivated in was introduced into this country about the year 330, but favourable localities. Cotton is also grown to a consider- since that time it has been so corrupted by errors of various able extent. Among the fruit-trees are the date, orange, kinds as to have become little more than a dead formality lemon, pomegranate, and banana. Myrrh, balsam, and mixed up with much superstition and Judaism. Feasts various kinds of valuable medicinal plants are common. and fast-days are very frequent, and baptism and the Lord's

Most of the domestic animals of Europe are found here. supper are dispensed after the manner of the Greek Church. The cattle are in general sinall, and the oxen belong to the The children are circumcised, and the Mosaic commandhumped race. The famous Galla oxen have horns some nients with respect to food and purification are observed. times four feet long. The sheep belong to the short and The eating of animals which do not chew the cud and which fat-tailed race, and are covered with wool. Goats are very have not cloven hoofs is prohibited. The ecclesiastical body common, and have sometimes hoins two feet in length. is very numerous, consisting of priests of various kinds, The horses are strong and active. Of wild animals the with monks and nuns, and is looked upon with great awe spotted hyæna is among the most numerous, as well as the and reverence. If a priest be married previous to his fiercest and most destructive, not only roaming in immense ordination, he is allowed to remain so; but no one can numbers over the country, but frequently cntering the marry after having entered the priesthood. The primate towns, and even the houses of the inhabitants. The or chief bishop is called Abuna (i.e., our father), and is elephant and rhinoceros are numerous in the low grounds. nominated by the patriarch of Cairo, whom they acknowThe Abyssinian rhinoceros has two horns; its skin, which ledge as their spiritual father. The churches are rude has no folds, is used for shields, and for lining drinking edifices, chiefly of a circular form, with thatched roofs, the vessels, being regarded as an antidote to poison. Crocodiles interior being divided into three compartments,—an outei and hippopotami are plentiful in the rivers ; lions, panthers, one for the laity, one within for the priests, and in the and leopards are seen occasionally, and buffaloes frequently. centre the Holy of Holies, exactly after the manner of a Among other animals may be mentioned as common various Jewish temple. The worship consists merely in reading species of antelopes, wild swine, monkeys, hares, squirrels, passages of Scripture and dispensing the Lord's supper, several species of hyrax, jackals, &c.

without any preaching. Like the Greek Church, they have The birds of Abyssinia are very numerous, and many of no images of any kind in their places of Worship, but paintthem remarkable for the beauty of their plumage. Great ings of the saints are very common-their faces always in numbers of eagles, vultures, hawks, and other birds of prey full, whatever may be the position of their bodies. They are met with; and partridges, snipes, pigeons, parrots, have innumerable saints, but above all is the Virgin, whom thrushes, and swallows are very plentiful. Among insects they regard as queen of heaven and earth, and the great the most numerous and useful is the bee, honey everywhere intercessor for the sins of mankind. Their reverence for a constituting an important part of the food of the inhabi-saint is often greater than for the Almighty, and a man tants, and several of the provinces paying a large proportion who would not hesitate to invoke the name of his Maker in of their tribute in this article. Of an opposite class is the witness to a falsehood may decline so to use the name of locust, the ravages of which here, as in other parts of St Michael or St George. Legends of saints and works of Northern Africa, are terrible. Serpents are not numerous, religious controversy form almost their entire literature. but several species are poisonous.

"At present,” says Bishop Gobat, “the Christians of The inhabitants of Abyssinia form a number of different Abyssinia are divided into three parties, so inimical to each tribes, and evidently belong to several distinct races. The other that they curse one another, and will no longer parmajority are of the Caucasian race, and are in general well. take of the sacrament together. It is one single point of formed and handsome, with straight and regular features, theology that disunites them—the unceasing dispute conlively eyes, hair long and straight or somewhat curled, and cerning the unction of Jesus Christ.” colour dark olive, approaching to black. Rüppell regards In manners the Abyssinians are rude and barbarous.

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