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for neglecting it, because the uncircumcised person was and was buried by Isaac and Ishmael beside Sarai in thought to be a breaker of the covenant and a despiser Machpelah. The book of Genesis gives two lists of Arab of its Author, seems a harsh measure on the part of tribes, descended partly from Abram and Keturah, partly Abram; yet it can hardly be counted an arbitrary trans- from him and Hagar or Ishmael. These dwelt in Arabia ference of the later Levitical severities to the progenitor of Deserta and Petræa, as also in the northern half of Arabia the race, since it is in the Elohist.

Felix. Accompanied by two angels, Jehovah appeared again to 1. We cannot adopt the opinion of Von Bohlen and Dozy Abram at the oak of Mamre, accepted his proposed hospi- that Abram is a mythical person. He must be regarded as a tality, and promised him a son by Sarai within a year. historical character, though the accounts of his life have Though she laughed incredulously, thepromise was definitely mythical elements intermingled with much that is tradirepeated. When the angels left, Jehovah communicated tional or legendary. The difficulty of separating the historic to Abram the divine purpose of destroying the dwellers from the merely traditional, hinders the presentation of a in Siddim because of their wickedness, but acceded to the natural portrait. Later legends have invested him with expatriarch's intercession, that the cities of the plain should traordinary excellence. They have made him a worshipper be spared if ten righteous men could be found in them. of Jehovah, a prophet, the friend of God, favoured with The two angels, who had gone before, arrived at Sodom in the visible manifestations of His presence, and receiving evening, and were entertained by Lot, but threatened with repeated promises of the most far-reaching character. He shameful treatment by the depraved inhabitants. Seeing is the typical ancestor of the chosen race, living under the that the vengeance of Heaven was deserved, they proceeded constant guidance of God, prospering in worldly goods, to execute it, saving Lot with his wife and two daughters, delivered from imminent perils. A superhuman halo and sparing Zoar as a place of refuge for them. Jehovah surrounds him. It is the Jehovist in particular who rained down fire and brimstone from heaven, turning all invests him with the marvellous and improbable, conthe Jordan district to desolation, so that when Abram necting him with altars and sacrifices—a cultus posterior looked next morning from the spot where Jehovah and to both his time and mental development—making him himself had parted, he saw a thick smoke ascend from the the subject of theophanies, talking familiarly to Jehovah ruins.

himself, and feeding angels with flesh. The Elohist's Abram then journeyed from Hebron to the Negeb, settled descriptions are simpler. His patriarchs are usually colourbetween Kadesh and Shur in Gerar, where Sarai is said to less men, upright and plain." They have neither charhave been treated as a prior account makes her to have been acteristic features nor distinct outline. Abram stands in Egypt. At the patriarch's prayer the plague inflicted on out an honest, peaceable, generous, high-minded patriarch; the king and his wives was removed. This is a duplicate of a prince, rich, powerful, and honoured, fitted for rule, the other story. Whatever historical truth the present nar and exercising it with prudence. We need not expect rative has belongs to an earlier period of Abram's life. His a full history of the man from writers long posterior, the second removal to Gerar originated in the former journeying representatives of popular traditions. Only fragments through it into Egypt. He must have remained in the neigh- of the life are given, designed to show his greatness. bourhood of Hebron, his first settlement, where Isaac was Legend assigned ideal lineaments to the progenitor whom born according to the Elohistic account. After the birth of a remote antiquity shrouded with its hoary mantle, and the legitimate heir, succeeding events were the expulsion of thus he became a model worthy of imitation. Hagar and Ishmael from the paternal home, and the making 2. The biblical sources of his biography are three at of a covenant between Abimelech and Abram at Beersheba. least; and sometimes all appear in a single chapter, as in Here Abram "called on the name of the Lord,” and is Gen. xxii., which describes the severest trial of faith. The said to have planted a noted tainarisk in commemoration oldest or Élohim-document is seen in verses 20-24, which of the event.

link on to chap. xxi. 2-5, from the same. The rest of the Abram was now commanded by God to offer up Isaac in chapter belongs to the junior Elohist, except verses 14–18, the land of Moriah. Proceeding to obey, he was prevented added by the Jehovist to connect Abram’s sacrifice with by an angel just as he was about to slay his son, and Jerusalem. These different documents, out of which the sacrificed a ram that presented itself at the time. In general narrative was finally put together by a redactor, reward of his obedience he received the promise of a numer create diversities and contradictions. Thus the Elohist ous seed and abundant prosperity. Thence he returned to makes Abram laugh at the announcement of a son by Sarai Beersheba.

(xvii. 17); the Jehovist, jealous for the patriarch's honour, Sarai died and was buried in the cave of Machpelah near assigns the laughter to the woman as a sign of incredulity Hebron, which Abram purchased, with the adjoining field, (xviii. 12). from Ephron the Hittite. The measures taken by the 3. The account of the change of names given to Abram patriarch for the marriage of Isaac are circumstantially and Sarai when circumcision was instituted, cannot be described.

His steward Eliezer was sent to the country regarded as historical. The Elohist says that Abram became and kindred of Abram to find a suitable bride, which he Abraham, the latter meaning father of much people. But did in Haran, whither he was divinely conducted. Rebekah | the Hebrew tongue has no word rahôi and no root with appeared as the intended one; she parted from Bethuel the three letters onn. Hence the Jews found the etymoand her family with their full approbation, was brought logy a puzzle. The old reading was undoubtedly Abram to Isaac, and became a maternal ancestor of the chosen and Sarai, though the later Jews expressly forbade Abram people.

either in speaking or writing. The difference is one of It is curious that, after Saral's death, Abram should mere orthography. The forms 077 and on are cognate have contracted a second marriage with Keturah, and ones, as are nw and now. The etymologising propensity begotten six sons. The Chronicles, however, make her of the Elohist is well known. The names signify father of his concubine (1 Chron. i. 32), so that these children may height and princess respectively. have been born earlier. Probably the narrative intends 4. The religion of Abram was not pure Jehovism. Acto account for the diffusion of Abram's posterity in Arabia. cording to Exodus vi. 3, the name Jehovah was unknown Keturah's sons were sent away with gifts from their home before Moses. Pure Jehovism was a growth not reached into Arabia, and all the father's substance was given to Isaac. The patriarch died at the age of 175 years,

I See Beer's Leben Abraham's, pp. 150, 151.

before the prophets. It was a late development, the creed Abram—"Is it a sacrifice I shall offer, Lord? Where is the of the most spiritual teachers, not of the people generally. priest to prepare it?” “Be thou invested with that digAbram was a distinguished Oriental sheikh, who laid aside nity as Shem was formerly." Abram—“But that land the grossness of idolatry, and rose by degrees, through con counts several mountains, which shall I ascend ?” “The tact with many peoples and his own reflection, to the con- top of the mountain where thou shalt see my glory veiled ception of a Being higher than the visible world, the God in the clouds,” &c. (Beer, pp. 59, 60.) of the light and the sun. He was a civilised nomad, The Arabic legends about Ibrahim are mostly taken from having wider and more spiritual aspirations than the the Jewish fountain, very few being independent and prepeoples with whom he lived. As a worshipper of God, Islamite. Mohammed collected all that were current, and his faith was magnified by later ages throwing back presented them in forms best suited to his purpose. His their more advanced ideas into his time, because he was sources were the biblical accounts and later Jewish legends. the founder of a favoured race, the type of Israel as Those about the patriarch building the Kaaba along with they were or should be.

Ishmael, his giving this son the house and all the country 5. The leading idea forming the essence of the story re in which it was, his going as a pilgrim to Mecca every specting Abram's sacrifice of Isaac, presents some difficulty year, seeing Ishmael, and then returning to his own land, of explanation. The chapter did not proceed from the Syria, his foot-print on the black stone of the temple, earliest writer, but from one acquainted with the institu- and similar stories, are of genuine Arabic origin. The tion of animal sacrifices. That the patriarch was familiar rest are Jewish, with certain alterations. The collected with human sacrifices among the peoples round about is narratives of the Arabic historians are given by Tabari, beyond a doubt. Was he tempted from within to comply, constituting a confused mass of legends drawn from the on one occasion, with the prevailing custom; or did the Old Testament, the Koran, and the Rabbins. (See disaffected Canaanites call upon him to give such proof Ewald's Geschichte des Volkes Israel, vol. i. pp. 440–484, of devotion to his God? Perhaps there was a struggle in third edition; Bertheau's Zur Geschichte der Israeliten, his mind between the better ideas which led to the habitual p. 206, et seq.; Tuch's Kommentar ueber die_Genesis, renunciation of the barbarous rite, and scruples of the uni- 1838; Knobel's Die Genesis, 1852; Dozy's Die Israeliten versal impropriety attaching to it. The persuasion that it zu Mekka, p. 16, et seq.; B. Beer's Leben Abraham's could never be allowed may have been shaken at times. nach Auffassung der jüdischen Sage, 1859; Chronique The general purport of the narrative is to place in a strong ď Abou Djafar Mohammed Tabari, par L. Dubeux, tome light the faith of one prepared to make the most costly premier, chapters 47–60; Chwolson's Ssabier und der sacrifice in obedience to the divine command, as well as Ssabismus, vol. ii.)

(s. D.) God's aversion to human offerings.

ABRAHAM-A-SANCTA-CLARA, was born at Krähen6. It is impossible to get chronological exactness in heimstetten, a village in Suabia, on the 4th of June 1642. Abram's biography, because it is composed of different tra His family name was Ulrich Megerle. In 1662 he joined ditions incorporated with one another, the product of dif- the order of Barefooted Augustinians, and assumed the ferent times, and all passing through the hands of a later name by which alone he is now known. In this order he redactor for whom the true succession of events was not rose step by step until he became prior provincialis and of primary importance. The writers themselves did not definitor of his province. Having early gained a great know the accurate chronology, having to do with legends reputation for pulpit eloquence, he was appointed court as well as facts impregnated with the legendary, which the preacher at Vienna in 1669. There the people flocked in redactor afterwards altered or adapted. The Elohist is crowds to hear him, attracted by the force and homeliness much more chronological than the other writers. It is of his language, the grotesqueness of his humour, and the even impossible to tell the time when Abram lived. Ac

Ac- impartial severity with which he lashed the follies of all cording to Lepsius, he entered Palestine 1700–1730 B.C. ; classes of society. The vices of courtiers and court-life according to Bunsen, 2886; while Schenkel gives 2130-2140 in particular were exposed with an admirable intrepidity. B.O. In Beer's Leben Abraham's his birth is given 1948 In general he spoke as a man of the people in the lanA.M., i.e., 2040 B.C.

guage of the people, the predominating quality of his 7. The Midrashim contain a good deal about Abram style, which was altogether unique, being an overflowing which is either founded on biblical accounts or spun out and often coarse wit. There are, however, many passages of the fancy. Nimrod was king of Babylon at the time. in his sermons in which he rises to loftier thought, and The patriarch's early announcement of the doctrine of one uses more refined and dignified language. He died at God, his zeal in destroying idols, including those worshipped Vienna on the 1st December 1709. In his published by his father, his miraculous escape from Nimrod's wrath, writings Abraham-a-Sancta-Clara displayed much the same his persuading Terah to leave the king's service and go qualities as in the pulpit. Perhaps the most favourable with him to Canaan, are minutely told. During his life specimen of his style is furnished in Judas der Erzschelm. he had no fewer than ten temptations. Satan tried to ruin His works have been several times reproduced in whole him, after the fiend had appeared at the great feast given or part, though with many spurious interpolations, within when Isaac was weaned, in the form of a poor bent old man, the last thirty years, and have been very extensively read who had been neglected. We can only refer to one speci- by both Protestants and Catholics. A selection was issued men of rabbinic dialogue-making. God appeared to at Heilbronn in 1845, and a complete edition in 21 vols. Abram by night, saying to him, " Take thy son"-(Abram appeared at Passau and Lindau, in 1835–54. interrupting), “Which? I have two of them." The voice ABRANTES, a town of Portugal, Estremadura province, of God—“Him who is esteemed by you as your only son.” on the Tagus, about 70 miles N.E. of Lisbon, delightfully Abram—“Each of them is the only son of his mother.” situated on the brow of a hill, of which the slopes are God's voice“ Him whom thou lovest." Abram—“I love covered with olive trees, gardens, and vineyards. It has both.” God's voice—“ Him whom thou especially lovest." considerable trade with Lisbon, particularly in fruit, Abram—“I cherish my children with like love." God's corn, and oil. The town is strongly fortified, and is voice—“Now, then, take Isaac.” Abram—“And what an important military position. At the convention of shall I begin with in himp God's voice—“Go to the land Cintra it was surrendered to the British. Junot derived where at my call mountains will rise up out of valleys from it his title of Duke of Abrantes. Populatiou about

to Moriah, and offer thy son Isaac as a holocaust.” | 6000.

ABRANTES, DUKE AND DUCHESS OF. See Junot. tain fastnesses; and in the extensive oak forests numerous

ABRAXAS, or ABRASAX, a word engraved on certain herds of swine are fed, the hams of which are in high antique stones, which were called on that account Abraxas repute. The manufactures are very inconsiderable, being stones, and were used as amulets or charms. The Basili- chiefly woollen, linen, and silk stuffs, and earthen and dians, a Gnostic sect, attached importance to the word, if, wood wares. Abruzzo was of great importance to the indeed, they did not bring it into use. The letters of kingdom of Naples, being its chief defence to the north, åßpačás, in the Greek notation, make up the number 365, and presenting almost insurmountable difficulties to the and the Basilidians gave the name to the 365 orders of advance of an enemy. The country is now free of the spirits, which, as they conceived, emanated in succession daring brigands by whom it was long infested. The from the Supreme Being. These orders were supposed to inhabitants are a stout, well-built, brave, and industrious occupy as many heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior race. Their houses are generally miserable huts; their to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was food principally maize, and their drink bad wine. The thought to be the abode of the spirits who formed the railway from Ancona to Brindisi passes through Abruzzo earth and its inhabitants, and to whom was committed Ulteriore I. and Abruzzo Citeriore, skirting the coast; and the administration of its affairs. The Abraxas stones, a line has been projected from Pescara, by Popoli, the Lago which are frequently to be met with in the cabinets di Fucino, and the valley of the Liris, to join the railway of the curious, are of very little value. In addition to from Rome to Naples, and thus open up the interior of the the word Abraxas and other mystical characters, they country. The line is open for traffic between Pescara have often engraved on them cabalistic figures. The com- and Popoli. monest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms ABRUZZO ULTERIORE I. is the most northerly of the and bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of three provinces, and has an area of 1283 square miles, with a serpent.

a population in 1871 of 245,684. The western part of the ABRUZZO, originally one of the four provinces of the province is very mountainous, the highest crest of the Apencontinental part of the kingdom of the two Sicilies, after- nines dividing it from Abruzzo Ulteriore II. The valleys ward subdivided into Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Abruzzo Ulte- possess a rich soil, well watered by rivulets and brooks in riore II., and Abruzzo Citeriore, which were so named from the winter and spring, but these are generally dried up in their position relative to Naples, and now form three of the summer months. The streams run mostly into the the provinces of the kingdom of Italy. The district, Pescara, which bounds the province towards Abruzzo which was the most northerly part of the kingdom of the Citeriore, or into the Tronto, which is the northern two Sicilies, is bounded by the Adriatic on the E., and boundary. The city of Teramo is the capital of the by the provinces of Ascoli Piceno on the N., Umbria and province. Rome on the W., and Terra di Lavoro, Molise, and Capi ABRUZZO ULTERIORE II. is an inland district, nearly tanata on the S. The Abruzzi provinces have an area of covered with mountains of various heights, one of which nearly 4900 English square miles, and extend from N. lat. is the Gran Sasso. There are no plains; but among the 41° 40' to 42°55. Though presenting to the Adriatic a coast mountains are some beautiful and fruitful valleys, watered of about 80 miles in length, they have not a single good by the various streams that run through them. None of port. This territory is mostly rugged, mountainous, and the rivers are navigable. The province has an area of 2510 covered with extensive forests, but contains also many square miles, and in 1871 contained 332,782 inhabitants. fertile and well-watered valleys. The Apennines traverse Its chief town is Aquila. its whole extent, running generally from N.W. to S.E., and ABRUZZO CITERIORE lies to the south and east of the here attaining their greatest elevation. Near Aquila is other two provinces. It is the least hilly of the three, but Monte Corno, the loftiest peak of that chain, called Il gran the Apennines extend through the south-west part. They, Sasso d'Italia, or the great rock of Italy, which rises to the however, gradually decline in height, and stretch away height of 9813 feet. Monte Majella and Monte Velino plains of sand and pebbles. The rivers all run to the attain the height of 9500 and 8792 feet respectively. Adriatic, and are very low during the summer months. from the main range of the Apennines a number of smaller The soil is not very productive, and agriculture is in a branches run off towards the west. The country is

very backward state ; the inhabitants prefer the chase watered by numerous small rivers, most of which fall into and fishing. The province contains 1104 square miles, the Adriatic. They are often suddenly swollen by the with a population of 340,299 in 1871. Its chief town is rains, especially in the spring, and thus cause considerable Chieti. damage to the lands through which they pass. The ABSALOM (obvar, father of peace), the third son of principal rivers are the Tronto, Trentino, Pescara, and David, king of Israel.

David, king of Israel. He was deemed the handsomest Sangro. In Abruzzo Ulteriore II. is lake Celano or Lago man in the kingdom. His sister Tamar having been di Fucino, the Lacus Fucinus of the Romans, now reduced violated by Amnon, David's eldest son, Absalom caused to about one-third of its former extent. The climate varies his servants to murder Amnon at a feast, to which he had with the elevation, but, generally speaking, is temperate invited all the king's sons. After this deed he fled to the and healthy. Agriculture is but little understood or kingdom of his maternal grandfather, where he remained attended to, although in many of the lower parts of the three years; and it was not till two years after his return country the land is fertile. The rivers are not embanked, that he was fully reinstated in his father's favour. Absalom nor is irrigation practised; so that the best of the land is

seems to have been by this time the eldest surviving son frequently flooded during the rainy season, and parched in of David, but he was not the destined heir of his father's the heat of summer. The principal productions are corn, throne. The suspicion of this excited the impulsive hemp, flax, almonds, olives, figs, grapes, and chestnuts. Absalom to rebellion. For a time the tide of public In the neighbourhood of Aquila saffron is extensively opinion ran so strong in his favour, that David found it excultivated, although not to such an extent as formerly. pedient to retire beyond the Jordan. But, instead of adoptThe rearing and tending of sheep is the chief occupation ing the prompt measures which his sagacious counsellor of the inhabitants of the highlands; and the wool, which Ahithophel advised, Absalom loitered at Jerusalem till a is of a superior quality, is an important article of com- large force was raised against him, and when he took the merce, while the skins are sent in large quantities to the field his army was completely routed. The battle was Levant. Bears, wolves, and wild boars inhabit the moun- fought in the forest of Ephraim; and Absalom, caught in

into

the boughs of a tree by the superb hair in which he gloried, absinthe distilleries are scattered generally throughout was run through the body by Joab. The king's grief for Switzerland and France. The liqueur is chiefly consumed his worthless son vented itself in the touching lamentation in France, but there is also a considerable export trade to

-"O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom ! would the United States of America. In addition to the quanGod I had died for thee, 0 Absalom, my son, my son!” tity distilled for home consumption in France, the amount

ABSALON, Archbishop of Lund, in Denmark, was born imported from Switzerland in recent years has not been in 1128, near Soroe in Zealand, his family name being less than 2,000,000 gallons yearly. The introduction of Axel. In 1148 he went to study at Paris, where a college this beverage into general use in France is curious. Durfor Danes had been established. He afterwards travelled ing the Algerian war (1844–47) the soldiers were advised extensively in different countries; and returning to Den- to mix absinthe with their wine as a febrifuge. On their mark in 1157, was the year after chosen Bishop of Roes- return they brought with them the habit of drinking it, kilde or Rothschild. Eloquent, learned, endowed with which is now so widely disseminated in French society, uncommon physical strength, and possessing the confidence and with such disastrous consequences, that the custom is of the king, Waldemar I., known as the Great, Absalon justly esteemed a grave national evil. A French physician, held a position of great influence both in the church and M. Legrand, who has studied the physiological effects of state. In that age warlike pursuits were not deemed in- absinthe drinking, distinguishes two trains of results accordconsistent with the clerical office, and Absalon was a ing as the victim indulges in violent excesses of drinking renowned warrior by sea and land, as well as a zealous or only in continuous steady tippling. In the case of ecclesiastic, his avowed principle being that “both swords, excessive drinkers there is first the feeling of exaltation the spiritual and the temporal, were entrusted to the peculiar to a state of intoxication. The increasing dose clergy." To his exertions as statesman and soldier Wal necessary to produce this state quickly deranges the digesdemar was largely indebted for the independence and con- tive organs, and destroys the appetite. An unappeasable solidation of his kingdom. In 1177 he was chosen by the thirst takes possession of the victim, with giddiness, tingling chapter Archbishop of Lund and Primate of the church, in the ears, and hallucinations of sight and hearing, followed but he declared himself unwilling to accept the appoint by a constant mental oppression and anxiety, loss of brain ment; and when an attempt was made to install him by power, and, eventually, idiocy. The symptoms in the force, he resisted, and appealed to Rome. The Pope de case of the tippler commence with muscular quiverings and cided that the choice of the chapter must be respected, decrease of physical strength; the hair begins to drop off, the and commanded Absalon to accept the Primacy on pain of face assumes a melancholy aspect, and he becomes emaexcommunication. He was consecrated accordingly by the ciated, wrinkled, and sallow. Lesion of the brain follows, papal legate Galandius in 1178. He set the Cistercian horrible dreams and delusions haunt the victim, and gradumonks of Soroe the task of preparing a history of the ally paralysis overtakes him and lands him in his grave. country, the most valuable result being the Danish It has been denied by a French authority, M. Moreau, that Chronicle of Saxo Grammaticus, who was secretary to these symptoms are due to wormwood or any of the essenAbsalon and his companion in an expedition against the tial oils contained in absinthe, and he maintains that the Wendish pirates. A tower or castle which the archbishop strong spirit and such adulterations as salts of copper are caused to be built as a defence against these pirates, was sufficient to account for the effects of the liqueur. There the commencement of the present capital, Copenhagen, is, however, no doubt that proportionately the consumption which from this circumstance is sometimes known in hisa of absinthe is much more deleterious to the human frame tory as Axelstadt. The archbishop died in 1201, in the than the drinking of brandy or other strong spirits. The monastery at Soroe, and was buried in the parish church, use of absinthe has been prohibited in both the army and where his grave may still be seen.

navy of France. ABSCESS, in Surgery (from abscedo, to separate), a ABSOLUTE (from the Latin absolvere), having the collection of pus among the tissues of the body, the result general meaning of loosened from, or unrestricted, in which of inflammation. Abscesses are divided into acute and sense it is popularly used to qualify such words as “monchronic. See SURGERY.

archy” or “power,” has been variously employed in philoABSINTHE, a liqueur or aromatised spirit, prepared by sophy. Logicians use it to mark certain classes of names. pounding the leaves and flowering tops of various species Thus a term has been called absolute in opposition to attriof wormwood, chiefly Artemisia Absinthium, along with butive, when it signifies something that has or is viewed as angelica root (Archangelica officinalis), sweet flag root having independent existence; most commonly, however, (Acorus Calamus), the leaves of dittany of Crete (Origanum the opposition conveyed is to relative. A relative name Dictamnus), star-anise fruit (Illicium anisatum), and other being taken as one which, over and above the object aromatics, and macerating these in alcohol. After soaking which it denotes, implies in its signification the existence for about eight days the compound is distilled, yielding an of another object, also deriving a denomination from the emerald-coloured liquor, to which a proportion of an same fact, which is the ground of the first name (Mill), essential oil, usually that of anise, is added. The liqueur as, e.g., father and son, the non-relative or absolute name thus prepared constitutes the genuine Extrait d'Absinthe is one that has its meaning for and in itself, as man. of the French; but much of an inferior quality is made This distinction is a convenient one, although, as has been with other herbs and essential oils, while the adulterations observed, it can hardly in perfect strictness be maintained. practised in the manufacture of absinthe are very numerous The so-called absolute name, if used with a meaning, does and deleterious. In the adulterated liqueur the green always stand in some relation, however variable or incolour is usually produced by turmeric and indigo, but the definite, and the meaning varies with the relation. Thus presence of even cupric sulphate (blue vitriol) as a colour-man, which is a word of very different meanings, as, e.g., ing ingredient has been frequently detected. In com not woman, not boy, not master, not brute, and so forth, merce two varieties of absinthe are recognised—common may be said to have them according to the different and Swiss absinthe—the latter of which is prepared with relations in which it admits of being viewed, or, as it has highly concentrated spirit; and when really of Swiss manu been otherwise expressed, according to the different notions facture, is of most trustworthy quality as regards the herbs whose“

“universe it composes, along with its different used in its preparation. The chief seat of the manufac- correlatives. From this point of view there is always one ture is in the canton of Neufchâtel in Switzerland, although relation in which a real thing must stand, namely, the

relation to its contradictory (as not man) within the but this was ultimately abolished, and the Roman Canon universe of being; the correlatives, under less general Law now stands, Nec venialia nec mortalia possumus notions, being then generally expressed positively as con- confiteri sacramentaliter, nisi sacerdoti. A change in the traries (woman, boy, master, brute, and so forth, for man). form of absolution was almost a logical sequence of the If there is thus no name or notion that can strictly be change in the nature of the confession. At first the priest called absolute, all knowledge may be said to be relative, acted ministerially as an intercessory, using the formula or of the relative. But the knowledge of an absolute has absolutionis precativa or deprecativa, which consisted of the also been held impossible, on the ground that knowing is words : Dominus absolvat te- Misereatur tui omnipotens itself a relation between a subject and an object; what is Deus et dimittat tibi omnia peccata tua. This is still the known only in relation to a mind cannot be known as only form in the Greek Church, and it finds a place in the absolute. This doctrine, now commonly spoken of under Roman Catholic service, though it is no longer used in the name of the Relativity of Knowledge, may, indeed, be the act of absolution. The Romish form was altered in brought under the former view, in which subject object the 13th century, and the Council of Trent decreed the marks the relation of highest philosophical significance use of the formula absolutionis indicativa, where the priest within the whole universe of things. Keeping, however, acts judicially, as himself possessed of the power of bindthe two views apart, we may say with double force that | ing and loosing, and says, Ego absolvo te. Where a form of the absolute there is no knowledge, (1), because, to be of absolution is used in Protestant Churches, it is simply known, a thing must be consciously discriminated from declarative, the state being only indicated, and in no sense other things; and (2), because it can be known only in or degree assumed to be caused by the declaration. relation with a knowing mind. Notwithstanding, there ABSORPTION, in the animal economy, the function have been thinkers from the earliest times, who, in dif- possessed by the absorbent system of vessels of taking up ferent

ways, and more or less explicitly, allow of no such nutritive and other fluids. See PHYSIOLOGY. restriction upon knowledge, or at least consciousness, but, ABSTEMII, a name formerly given to such persons as on the contrary, starting from a notion, by the latter could not partake of the cup of the eucharist on account among them called the absolute, which includes within it of their natural aversion to wine. Calvinists allowed these the opposition of subject and object, pass therefrom to to communicate in the species of bread only, touching the explanation of all the phenomena of nature and of the cup with their lip; which was by the Lutherans mind. In earlier days the Eleatics, Plato, and Plotinus, deemed a profanation. Among several Protestant sects, in modern times Spinoza, Leibnitz, Fichte, Schelling, both in Great Britain and America, abstemii on a someHegel, and Cousin, all have joined, under whatever dif- what different principle have recently appeared. These ferent forms, in maintaining this view. Kant, while are total abstainers, who maintain that the use of stimudenying the absolute or unconditioned as an object of lants is essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used knowledge, leaves it conceivable, as an idea regulative of by Christ and his disciples at the supper was unfermented. the mind's intellectual experience. It is against any such They accordingly communicate in the unfermented "juice absolute, whether as real or conceivable, that Hamilton of the grape. The difference of opinion on this point and Mansel have taken ground, the former in his famous has led to a good deal of controversy in many congregareview of Cousin's philosophy, reprinted in his Discussions, tions, the solution generally arrived at being to allow both the latter in his Bampton Lectures on The Limits of wine and the pure juice of the grape to be served at the Religious Thought, basing their arguments indifferently on communion table. the positions as to the Relativity of Knowledge indicated ABSTRACTION, in Psychology and Logic, is a word above. For absolute in its more strictly metaphysical use, used in several distinguishable but closely allied senses. see METAPHYSICS.

(G. C. R.) First, in a comprehensive sense, it is often applied to that ABSOLUTION, a term used in civil and ecclesiastical process by which we fix the attention upon one part of law, denotes the act of setting free or acquitting. In a what is present to the mind, to the exclusion of another criminal process it signifies the acquittal of an accused part; abstraction thus conceived being merely the negaperson on the ground that the evidence has either dis tive of ATTENTION (2. v.) In this sense we are able in proved or failed to prove the charge brought against him. thought to abstract one object from another, or an attribute It is now little used except in Scotch law, in the forms from an object, or an attribute perceived by one sense assoilzie and absolvitor. The ecclesiastical usage of the from those perceived by other senses. Even in cases word is essentially different from the civil. It refers to when thoughts or images have become inseparably sin actually committed, and denotes the setting of a person associated, we possess something of this power of abstractfree from its guilt, or from its penal consequences, or from ing or turning the attention upon one rather than another. both. It is invariably connected with penitence, and some Secondly, the word is used, with a more special significaform of confession, the Scripture authority, to which the tion, to describe that concentration of attention upon the Roman Catholics, the Greek Church, and Protestants resemblances of a number of objects, which constitutes equally appeal, being found in John xx. 23, James v. 16, classification. And thirdly, not to mention other less &c. In the primitive church the injunction of James was important changes of meaning, the whole process of literally obeyed, and confession was made before the generalisation, by which the mind forms the notions whole congregation, whose presence and concurrence were expressed by common terms, is frequently, through a reckoned necessary to the validity of the absolution pro- curious transposition of names, spoken of as abstraction. nounced by the presbyter. In the 4th century the bishops Especially when understood in its less comprehensive began to exercise the power of absolution in their own connection, the process of abstraction possesses a peculiar right, without recognising the congregations. In conse interest. To the psychologist it is interesting, because quence of this the practice of private confession (confessio there is nothing he is more desirous to understand than auricularis) was established, and became more and more the mode of formation and true nature of what are called common, untii it was rendered imperative once a year by general notions. And fortunately, with regard to the a decree of the fourth Lateran Council (1215). A dis- abstractive process by which these are formed, at least in tinction, indeed, was made for a time between peccata its initial stages, there is little disagreement; since every venialia, which might be confessed to a layman, and one describes it as a process of comparison, by which the peccata mortalia, which could only be confessed to a priest; / mind is enabled to consider the objects confusedly pre

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