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ABIES. See FiR.
above, appropriated to the summer assizes for the county, ABILA, a city of ancient Syria, the capital of the and the transaction of other public business. The town tetrarchy of Abilene, a territory whose limits and extent it contains two churches, which are said to have been erected is impossible now to define. The site of Abila is indi- by the abbots of Abingdon, one dedicated to St Nicholas cated by some ruins and inscriptions on the banks of the and the other to St Helena ; several charitable institutions, river Barada, between Baalbec and Damascus, about twelve and a free grammar school, with scholarships at Pembroké miles from the latter city. Though the names Abel and College, Oxford. In 1864 a memorial of Prince Albert Abila differ in derivation and in meaning, their similarity was erected at Abingdon, a richly ornamented structure, has given rise to the tradition that this was the scene of surmounted by a statue of the Prince. Abingdon was Abel's death.
incorporated by Queen Mary. It sends one member to ABILDGAARD, NIKOLAJ, called “the Father of Danish Parliament, and is governed by a mayor, four aldermen, Painting," was born in 1744. He formed his style on and twelve councillors. In the beginning of the century that of Claude and of Nicolas Poussin, and was a cold it manufactured much sail-cloth and sacking; but its chief theorist, inspired not by nature but by art. As a technical trade now is in corn and malt, carpets, and coarse linen. painter he attained remarkable success, his tone being It is a station on a branch of the Great Western Railway very harmonious and even, but the effect, to a foreigner's Population (1871), 6571. eye, is rarely interesting. His works are scarcely known ABIOGENESIS, as a name for the production of living out of Copenhagen, where he won an immense fame in his by not-living matter, has of late been superseding the less own generation, and where he died in 1809. He was the accurate phrase Spontaneous Generation.” Professor founder of the Danish school of painting, and the master Huxley, who made use of the word in his presidential of Thorwaldsen and Eckersberg.
address to the British Association in 1870, distinguished ABIMELECH (prar, father of the king, or rather Abiogenesis from “Xenogenesis” or “Heterogenesis," perhaps king father), occurs first in the Bible as the name which occurs, or is supposed to occur, not when dead of certain kings of the Philistines at Gerar (Gen. xx. 2, matter produces living matter, but when a living parent xxi. 22, xxvi. 1). From the fact that the name is applied gives rise to offspring which passes through a totally in the inscription of the thirty-fourth psalm to Achish, it different series of states from those exhibited by the has been inferred with considerable probability that it was parent, and does not return into the parent's cycle of used as the official designation of the Philistinian kings. changes. When a “living parent gives rise to offspring The name was also borne by a son of Gideon, judge of which passes through the same cycle of changes as itself, Israel, by his Shechemite concubine (Judges viii. 31). there occurs “ Homogenesis."
." "Biogenesis” includes both On the death of Gideon, who had refused the title of king of these. Other names for Abiogenesis are Generatia both for himself and his children, Abimelech set himself Æquivoca, Generatio Primaria, Archigenesis (Urzeugung), to obtain the sovereignty through the influence of his Archebiosis, &c. The question of Abiogenesis-whether mother's relatives. In pursuance of his plan he slew under certain conditions living matter is produced by notseventy of his brethren“
upon one stone at Ophrah, living matter—as it is one of the most fundamental, is perJotham, the youngest of them, alone contriving to escape. haps also the oldest in Biology; but within recent years— This is one of the earliest recorded instances of a practice partly because the means of accurate experimentation have exceedingly common on the accession of Oriental despots. been increased and the microscope improved, and partly Abimelech was eventually made king, although his election because the question has been recognised in its impor was opposed by Jotham, who boldly appeared on Mount tant bearings on evolution, the correlation of forces, and Gerizim and told the assembled Shechemites the fable of the theory of infectious diseases—naturalists have been the trees desiring a king. At the end of the third year led to bestow more attention upon it than at any previous of his reign the Shechemites revolted, and under the period. While, therefore, the doctrine of Abiogenesis leadership of Gaal made an unsuccessful attempt to throw cannot be said to be either finally established or refuted, off the authority of Abimelech. In Judges ix. there is it is at least reasonable to believe that we are gradually an account of this insurrection, which is specially interest- advancing to a solution. Among the older observers ing owing to the full details it gives of the nature of the of phenomena bearing on the question may be named military operations. After totally destroying Shechem, Aristotle, who, with the ancients generally, favoured Abimelech proceeded against Thebez, which had also re-Abiogenesis ; Redi, the founder of the opposite view; volted. Here, while storming the citadel, he was struck on
Vallisnieri ; Buffon; Needham ; and Spallanzani; among the head by the fragment of a millstone thrown from the later observers, Schwann and Schulze, Schræder and wall by a woman. To avoid the disgrace of perishing by Dusch, Pasteur, Pouchet, Haeckel, Huxley, Bastian, and I woman's hand, he requested his armour-bearer to run many others. The experiments and observations made by him through the body. Though the immediate cause of these naturalists, and their results—the ingenious exhis death was thus a sword-thrust, his memory was not pedients employed to prevent inaccuracy—the interesting saved from the ignominy he dreaded (2 Sam. xi. 21). It and often marvellous transformations which microscopists has been usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first declare they have witnessed—will be discussed in the attempt to establish a monarchy in Israel. The facts, article HistoloGY; here it will be enough to note the however, seem rather to support the theory of Ewald general nature of the reasonings with which the opponents (Gesch. ii. 444), that Shechem had asserted its independ and defenders of Abiogenesis support their views. The ence of Israel, when it chose Abimelech as its king. opponents maintain that all trustworthy observations
ABINGDON, a parliamentary and municipal borough have hitherto shown living matter to have sprung from and market town of England, in Berkshire, on a branch pre-existing living matter; and that the further we search of the Thames, 7 miles south of Oxford, and 51 miles and examine, the smaller becomes the number of those W.N.W. of London. It is a place of great antiquity, and organisms which we cannot demonstrate to have arisen from was an important town in the time of the Heptarchy. Its living parents. They hold that seeming instances of Dame is derived from an ancient abbey. The streets, which spontaneous generation are usually to be explained by the are well paved, converge to a spacious area, in which the germ-theory—the presence of invisible germs in the air ; market is held. In the centre of this area stands the and they call to their aid such high authorities as Pasteur market-house, supported on lofty pillars, with a large hall | and Tyndall. The defenders of Abiogenesis, on the other
hand, while interpreting the results of past observation ABKHASIA, or ABASIA, a tract of Asiatic Russia, on and experiment in their own favour, are yet less disposed the border of the Black Sea, comprehending between lat. to rest on these, rather preferring to argue from those 42° 30' and 44° 45' N. and between long. 37° 3' and 40° 36' wide analogies of evolution and correlation which seem to | E. The high mountains of the Caucasus on the N. and support their doctrine. Thus Haeckel expressly embraces | N.E. divide it from Circassia; on the S.E. it is bounded Abiogenesis as a necessary and integral part of the theory by Mingrelia ; and on the S. W. by the Black Sea. Though of universal evolution; and Huxley, in the same spirit, the country is generally mountainous, there are some deep though from the opposite camp, confesses that if it were well-watered valleys, and the climate is mild. The soil given him to look beyond the abyss of geologically is fertile, producing grain, grapes, and other fruits. recorded time to the still more remote period when the Some of the inhabitants devote themselves to agriculture, earth was passing through physical and chemical con some to the rearing of cattle and horses, and not a few ditions, he should expect to be a witness of the evolution support themselves by piracy and robbery. Honey is of living protoplasm from not-living matter. (Critiques largely produced, and is exported to Turkey; and excellent and Addresses, p. 239.), From this point of view, of arms are made. Both in ancient and in modern times course, any microscopic observations that have been made there has been considerable traffic in slaves. This country seem very limited and comparatively unimportant. The was early known to the ancients, and was subdued by the Abiogenists, indeed, are not without arguments to oppose Emperor Justinian, who introduced civilisation and Christhe results of past observation that seem unfavourable to tianity. Afterwards the Persians, then the Georgians, and their views; they argue that, as yet, all the forms more recently the Turks, ruled over the land. Under observed and shown to be produced by Biogenesis are the Turks Christianity gradually disappeared, and Mohamforms possessing a certain degree of organisation, which medanism was introduced in its stead. By the treaties of in their case makes Abiogenesis unlikely, from the first; Akerman and Adrianople, Russia obtained possession of whereas it has not been shown that the simplest struc- the fortresses of this territory; but till the insurrection of tures—the Monera—do not arise by Abiogenesis. But 1866, the chiefs had almost unlimited power. The prinit is not so much on grounds of fact and experiment the cipal town is Sukumkaleh. The population of Abkhasia defenders of the Abiogenesis theory are convinced of is variously stated at from 50,000 to 250,000. See Palits truth, as because it seems to gain confirmation from grave's Essays on Eastern Questions, 1872. reasonings of much wider scope; because Abiogenesis aids ABLUTION, a ceremonial purification, practised in the theory of evolution by tracing the organic into the nearly every age and nation. It consisted in washing the inorganic ; because it fosters the increasing unpopularity body in whole or part, so as to cleanse it symbolically of the hypothesis of a special “ vital force;” and because, from defilement, and to prepare it for religious observances. if this theory of the "perpetual origination of low forms Among the Jews we find no trace of the ceremony in patriof life, now, as in all past epochs,” were established, it archal times, but it was repeatedly enjoined and strictly would agree well with the principle of uniformity, and by enforced under the Mosaic economy. It denoted eitherdisclosing the existence of unknown worlds of material for (1.) Cleansing from the taint of an inferior and less pure development, would relieve natural selection with its assist condition, and initiation into a higher and purer state, as ing causes from what many consider the too Herculean in the case of Aaron and his sons on their being set apart labour of evolving all species from one or a very few to the priesthood; or (2.) Cleansing from the soil of primary forms. The fullest discussion of the subject of common life, in preparation for special acts of worship, as Abiogenesis, from the Abiogenist's point of view, is to be in the case of the priests who were commanded, upon pain found in Dr Bastian's Beginnings of Life. Professor of death, to wash their hands and feet before approaching Huxley's address, already referred to, contains an interest- the altar; or (3.) Cleansing from the pollution occasioned ing historical survey, as well as a masterly summary of by particular acts and circumstances, as in the case of the facts and arguments in favour of Biogenesis. For many eleven species of uncleanness mentioned in the Mosaic interesting experiments, see Nature, 1870-73.
law; or (4.) The absolving or purifying one's self from the ABIPONES, a tribe of South American Indians, inhabit-guilt of some particular criminal act, as in the case of ing the territory lying between Santa Fé and St Iago. Pilate at the trial of the Saviour. The sanitary reasons They originally occupied the Chaco district of Paraguay, which, in a warm climate and with a dry sandy soil, renbut were driven thence by the hostility of the Spaniards. dered frequent ablution an imperative necessity, must not According to M. Dobrizhoffer, who, towards the end of be allowed to empty the act of its symbolic meaning. In last century, lived among them for a period of seven years, the Hebrew different words are used for the washing of they have many singular customs and characteristics. the hands before meals, which was done for the sake of They seldom marry before the age of thirty, are chaste cleanliness and comfort, and for the washing or plunging and otherwise virtuous in their lives, though they practise enjoined by the ceremonial law. At the same time it is infanticide, and are without the idea of God. “With the impossible to doubt that the considerations which made Abipones,” says Darwin, “when a man chooses a wife, he the law so suitable in a physical point of view were present bargains with the parents about the price. But it fre- to the mind of the Lawgiver when the rite was enjoined. quently happens that the girl rescinds what has been Traces of the practice are to be found in the history of agreed upon between the parents and bridegroom, obsti- nearly every nation. The customs of the Mohammedans, nately rejecting the very mention of marriage. She often in this as in other matters, are closely analogous to those runs away and hides herself, and thus eludes the bride of the Jews. With them ablution must in every case pregroom.” The Abiponian women suckle those infants that cede the exercise of prayer, and their law provides that in are spared for the space of two years,—an onerous habit, the desert, where water is not to be found, the Arabs may which is believed to have led to infanticide as a means of perform the rite with sand. Various forms of ablution. escape. The men are brave in war, and pre-eminently practised by different nations are mentioned in the sixth expert in swimming and horsemanship. Numerically the book of the Æneid, and we are told that Æneas washed tribe is insignificant. M. Dobrizhoffer's account of the his ensanguined hands after the battle before touching his Abiponians was translated into English by Sara Coleridge, Penates. Symbolic ablution finds a place under the New at the suggestion of Mr Southey, in 1822.
Testament dispensation in the rite of baptism, which is ABJURATION. Sce ALLEGIANCE, OATII OF.
observed, though with some variety of form and circun
Opican tribes. In modern times the term Aborigines has of the mother or the fætus. For Criminal Abortion, see been extended in signification, and is used to indicate MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. the inhabitants found in a country at its first discovery, in ABOUKIR, a small village on the coast of Egypt, 13 contradistinction to colonies or new races, the time of whose miles N.E. of Alexandria, containing a castle which was introduction into the country is known.
used as a state prison by Mehemet Ali. Near the village, ABORTION, in Midwifery (from aborior, I perish), and connected with the shore by a chain of rocks, is a the premature separation and expulsion of the contents of small island remarkable for remains of ancient buildings. the pregnant uterus. When occurring before the eighth Stretching to the eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of lunar month of gestation, abortion is the term ordinarily the Nile is the spacious bay of Aboukir, where Nelson employed, but subsequent to this period it is designated fought "the Battle of the Nile,” defeating and almost premature labour. The present notice includes both these destroying the French fleet that had conveyed Napoleon terms. As an accident of pregnancy, abortion is far from to Egypt. It was near Aboukir that the expedition to uncommon, although its relative frequency, as compared Egypt, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, in 1801, effected a with that of completed gestation, has been very differently landing in the face of an opposing force. estimated by accoucheurs. It is more liable to occur in ABRABANEL, ISAAC (called also Abravanel, Abarbanel, the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and it Barbanella, and Ravanella), a celebrated Jewish statesman, would also appear to occur more readily at the periods philosopher, theologian, and commentator, was born at corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge. Abor-Lisbon in 1437.
Abor- Lisbon in 1437. He belonged to an ancient family that tion may be induced by numerous causes, both of a local claimed descent from the royal house of David, and his and general nature. Malformations of the pelvis, acci- parents gave him an education becoming so renowned a dental injuries, and the diseases and displacements to lineage. He held a high place in the favour of King which the uterus is liable, on the one hand; and, on the Alphonso V., who intrusted him with the management of other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta important state affairs. On the death of Alphonso in leading to the death of the fætus, are among the direct 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated local causes of abortion. The general causes embrace by his successor John; and Abrabanel was, in consequence, certain states of the system which are apt to exercise a compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years more or less direct influence upon the progress of utero- (1484–1492), the post of a minister of state under Ferdigestation. A deteriorated condition of health, whether nand and Isabella. When the Jews were banished from hereditary or as the result of habits of life, certainly pre- Spain in 1492, no exception was made in Abrabanel's disposes to the occurrence of abortion. Syphilis is known favour. He afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu, and to be a frequent cause of the death of the fætus. Many Monopoli, and in 1503 removed to Venice, where he held diseases arising in the course of pregnancy act as direct office as a minister of state till his death in 1508. Abraexciting causes of abortion, more particularly the eruptive banel was one of the most learned of the rabbis. His fevers and acute inflammatory affections. Prolonged writings are chiefly exegetical and polemical ; he displays irritation in other organs may, by reflex action, excite in them an intense antipathy to Christianity, though he the uterus to expel its contents. Strong impressions lived on terms of friendship with Christians. He wrote made upon the nervous system, as by sudden shocks and commentaries on the greater part of the Old Testament, mental emotions, occasionally have a similar effect. Further, in a clear but somewhat diffuse style, anticipating much certain medicinal substances, particularly ergot of rye, that has been advanced as new by modern theologians. borax, savin, tansy, and cantharides, are commonly be ABRACADABRA, a meaningless word once supposed lieved to be capable of exciting uterine action, but the to have a magical efficacy as an antidote against agues and effects, as regards at least early pregnancy, are very un other fevers. Ridiculously minute directions for the certain, while the strong purgative medicines sometimes proper use of the charm are given in the Præcepta de employed with the view of procuring abortion have no Medicina of Serenus Sammonicus. The paper on which effect whatever upon the uterus, and can only act remotely the word was written had to be folded in the form of and indirectly, if they act at all, by irritating the alimen- a cross, suspended from the neck by a strip of linen so as tary canal. In cases of poisoning with carbonic acid, to rest on the pit of the stomach, worn in this way for abortion has been observed to take place, and the experi- nine days, and then, before sunrise, cast behind the wearer ments of Dr Brown Sequard show that anything inter- | into a stream running to the east. The letters of this word fering with the normal oxygenation of the blood may were usually arranged to form a triangle in one or other of cause the uterus to contract and expel its contents. Many the following ways : cases of abortion occur without apparent cause, but in such instances the probability is that some morbid condition of the interior of the uterus exists, and the same may be said of many of those cases where the disposition to abort has become habitual. The tendency, however, to the recurrence of abortion in persons who have previously miscarried is well known, and should ever be borne in mind with the view of avoiding any cause likely to lead to a repetition of the accident. Abortion resembles ordinary labour in its general phenomena, excepting that in the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one of the leading symptoms. The treatment of abortion ABRAHAM or ABRAM, father of the Israelite race, embraces the means to be used by rest, astringents, and was the first-born son of Terah, a Shemite, who left Ur sedatives, to prevent the occurrence when it merely of the Chaldees, in the north-east of Mesopotamia, along threatens; or when, on the contrary, it is inevitable, to with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, and turned westwards in the accomplish as speedily as possible the complete removal direction of Canaan. Abram had married his half-sister of the entire contents of the uterus. The artificial induc- Sarai, who was ten years younger than himself; and tion of premature labour is occasionally resorted to by though such relationship was afterwards forbidden by the accoucheurs under certain conditions involving the safety law, it was common in ancient times, both among other
peoples, and among the Hebrews themselves at least before | The manifold wisdom of Egypt impressed him. InterMoses. The cause of Terah's removing from his native course with men far advanced in civilisation taught him country is not given. Having come to Haran, he abode much. Later tradition speaks of his communicating to there till his death, at the age of 205. According to the Egyptians the sciences of arithmetic and astronomy Genesis xii., Abram left Haran when he was 75 years of (Josephus i. 7); but this is founded upon the notion age, that is, before the death of his father, in consequence entertained at the time of the civilised Chaldeans of of a divine command, to which was annexed a gracious Babylon, whereas Ur of the Chaldees was a district promise, “ And I will make of thee a great nation, and I remote from the subsequent centre of recondite knowledge. will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt Abram received more than he imparted, for the Egyptians be a blessing. And I will bless them that bless thee, and were doubtless his superiors in science. He found the curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families rite of circumcision in use. There, too, he acquired great of the earth be blessed” (xii. 2, 3). Another tradition substance—flocks and herds, male and female slaves. makes him leave Haran only after Terah's decease (Acts After returning to Canaan, to his former locality, Abram vii. 4). The later account is that Abram's departure was and Lot separated, because of disputes between their the result of religious considerations, because he had herdsmen, there not being sufficient room for all their already become emancipated from surrounding idolatry. cattle in common. After this separation the possession of Perhaps the desire of a nomadic life, the love of migration Canaan was again assured to Abram and to his seed, who natural to an Oriental, had more to do with his pilgrimage should be exceedingly numerous. This is the third than a spiritual impulse from within ; but it is likely that theocratic promise he received. He is also commanded his culture advanced in the course of his sojournings, and by Jehovah to walk through it in its length and breadth that he gradually attained to purer conceptions of duty as a token of inheritance, –a later Jehovistic tradition that and life. Traditions subsequent to the Jehovistic represent must be judged according to its inherent verisimilitude. him as driven forth by the idolatrous Chaldeans (Judith | Abram settled again at the oak of Mamre near Hebron. v. 6, &c.) on account of his monotheistic doctrines, and This was his headquarters. After Lot had been taken then dwelling in Damascus as its king (Josephus's Anti- prisoner in the expedition of the kings of Shinar, Ellasar, quities, i. 7). The true cause of departure may be sug- Elam, and Goyim, against the old inhabitants of Basan, gested by Nicolaus of Damascus saying that he came out Ammonitis, Moabitis, Edomitis, and others besides, Abram of Chaldea with an army. The leader of a horde, worsted gave chase to the enemy, accompanied by his 318 slaves in some encounter or insurrection, he emigrated at the and friendly neighbours, rescuing his nephew at Hobah, head of his adherents in quest of better fortunes. The near Damascus. On his return, the royal priest Melchizedek word redeemed, in Isaiah xxix. 22, out of which Ewald of Salem came forth to meet him with refreshments, blessed conjectures so much, as if Abram had been rescued from the patriarch, and received from him the tithe of the spoils. great bodily dangers and battles, does not help the portrait, The king acted generously towards the victor, and was still because it means no more than the patriarch's migration more generously treated in return. from heathen Mesopotamia into the Holy Land. Journey Jehovah again promised to Abram a numerous offspring, ing south-west to Canaan with his wife and nephew, he with the possession of Canaan. He also concluded a arrived at Sichem, at the oak of the seer or prophet, where covenant with him in a solemn form, and revealed the Jehovah appeared to him, assuring him for the first time fortunes of his posterity in Egypt, with their deliverance that his seed should possess the land he had come to. from bondage. In consequence of the barrenness of He travelled thence southward, pitching his tent east of Sarai, she gave her handmaid Hagar to Abram, who, Bethel. Still proceeding in the same direction, he arrived becoming pregnant by him, was haughtily treated by her at the Negeb, or most southern district of Palestine, mistress, and fled towards Egypt. But an angel met whence a famine forced him down to Egypt. His plea her in the desert and sent her back, telling of a numerous that Sarai was his sister did not save her from Pharaoh ; race that should spring from her. Having returned, she for she was taken into the royal harem, but restored to gave birth to Ishmael, in the 86th
of Abram's age. her husband in consequence of divine chastisments inflicted Again did Jehovah appear to the patriarch, promising as upon the lawless possessor of her person, leading to the before a multitudinous seed, and changing hi
name in discovery of her true relationship. The king was glad to conformity with such promise. He assured him and his send the patriarch away under the escort and protection posterity of the possession of Canaan, and concluded a of his men. A similar thing is said to have subsequently covenant with him for all time. At the institution of happened to Sarai at Gerar with the Philistine king circumcision on this occasion, Sarai's name was also changed, Abimelech (Genesis xx.), as also to Rebekah, Isaac's wife because she was to be the maternal progenitor of the (xxvi.) The three narratives describe one and the same covenant people through Isaac her son. Abram, and all event in different shapes. But the more original (the the males belonging to him, were then circumcised. He junior Elohistic)" is that of the 20th chapter, so that Gerar had become acquainted with the rite in Egypt, and transwas the scene, and Abimelech the offender; while the later ferred it to his household, making it a badge of distinction Jehovistic narrative (xii.) deviates still more from veri- between the worshippers of the true God and the idolatrous similitude. Though this occurrence, however, belongs to Canaanites—the symbol of the flesh's subjection to the the southern borders of Palestine, we need not doubt the spirit. Its introduction into the worship of the colony at fact of Abram's sojourn in Egypt, especially as he had an Mamre indicated a decided advance in Abram's religious Egyptian slave (Genesis xvi.) How long the patriarch conceptions. He had got beyond the cruel practice of human remained there is not related; nor are the influences which sacrifice. The gross worship of the Canaanites was left the religion, science, and learning of that civilised land behind; and the small remnant of it which he retained comhad upon him alluded to. That they acted beneficially ported with a faith approaching monotheism. Amid preapon his mind, enlightening and enlarging it, can scarcely vailing idolatry this institution was a protection to his be doubted. His religious conceptions were transformed. family and servants—a magic circle drawn around them.
But, though powerful and respected wherever his name 1 Three documents at least are traceable in the Pentateuch; the Elohistic, the junior Elohistic, and the Jehovistic. These were put
was known, he confined the rite to his own dumestics, together by a redactor. Nearly the whole of the fifth book was
without attempting to force it on the inhabitants of dded by the Deuteronomist.
the land where he sojourned. The punishment of death