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minded emperor procured the assassination of his minister, Alaricianum. It contains six books of the code of Theothe only Roman who had proved himself able to cope with dosius, and is therefore sometimes called the Corpus the Gothic forces, and broke all the treaties which Stilicho Theodosii. The full text has been given by Savigny. had made with Alaric. The latter at once marched upon Alaric was of a peaceful disposition, and endeavoured Rome (408) by the Via Flaminia, and laid siege to the strictly to maintain the treaty which his father had concity. On coming to treat with him, the Romans found his cluded with the Franks. Clovis, however, desiring to demands so extravagant that they threatened a desperate obtain the Gothic province in Gaul, found a pretext for resistance, to which Alaric made the well-known reply, war in the Arianism of Alaric. The intervention of “ The closer hay is pressed, the easier is it mown.”

mown." At Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of last the barbarian was induced to retire by the promise of Alaric, proved unavailing. The two armies met in 507 at 5000 pounds of gold and 30,000 pounds of silver, besides Voglade (Vouillé), near Poitiers, where the Goths were other treasure. The respite, however, was but for a time. defeated, and their king, who took to flight, was overtaken Honorius, who had left Rome for Ravenna, refused to and slain by Clovis himself. ratify by treaty certain conditions, moderate in themselves, ALASCO, John (in Polish, Lascki), a Polish nobleman, on which Alaric firmly insisted, and the capital was again born in 1499, who travelled extensively in his youth, and at the mercy of the enemy. With commendable forbear- during a residence in Zurich imbibed the doctrines of the ance, Alaric contented himself at first with taking posses- Reformation from Zwingli. At Basel in 1525 he had sion of Ostia, from which he summoned the city to sur- frequent intercourse with Erasmus, who held him in great render, threatening the immediate destruction of the food esteem, and bequeathed his library to him. On his return stores in case of refusal. The terrified people at once to his native country he was offered more than once opened their gates, and agreed that the conqueror should ecclesiastical preferment, which the change in his religious appoint another emperor in place of Honorius. Alaric's opinions prevented him from accepting. With the view of choice fell upon Attalus, the prefect of the city, who, securing more freedom, he quitted Poland, and after travel. though well received at first, soon proved himself thoroughly ling for a time, became pastor of a Protestant congregation incompetent, and Honorius had to be restored. While the at Embden, in East Friesland, in 1542. Foreseeing per: conferences as to the restoration were still being carried secution there, he went to London in 1551, on the invitaon at Ravenna, the treachery of Honorius occasioned yet tion of Cranmer, and became superintendent of the conanother and more disastrous siege of Rome by the Goths. gregation of foreign Protestants, most of whom were driven Sarus, a barbarian and a hereditary enemy of the house of into exile like himself in consequence of the Interim. The Balti, was permitted by the emperor to attack the camp of revenues of the church of Augustin Friars were assigned the Goths and return in triumph to Ravenna.

Alaric was

to support him and four assistant ministers, who had to be naturally indignant, iaid siege to Rome for the third time, approved by the king. On the accession of Mary in 1553, and gained an entrance by the Salarian gate on the night Alasco and all his congregation were banished. In 1556 of the 24th August 410. For six days the city was he returned to Poland, where he died on the 13th January given over to the horrors of a pillage, which the humane 1560. Alasco wrote a number of theological treatises, orders of Alaric did but little to mitigate. On the 29th chiefly in defence of the doctrine of the sacraments as held August Alaric withdrew his troops from Rome, and led by the Swiss Reformers, and he was one of the eighteen them into southern Italy, which he ravaged for several divines who prepared the Polish version of the Bible, months. Towards the close of the year, while engaged in which was published in 1563. the siege of Cosentia (Cosenza), he was seized with an ALA-SHEHR, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in the pashalic illness which proved fatal after a very short duration. He of Anatolia, 83 miles E. of Smyrna. It is dirty and illwas buried with his treasures in the bed of the river built ; but, standing on elevated ground, and commanding Busentinus, which was diverted from its channel for that the prospect of the extensive and fertile plain of the purpose, and all the prisoners who were engaged in the Hermus, presents at a distance an imposing appearance. work were put to death in order that the place of his It is the seat of a Greek archbishop, and has five Christian sepulture might remain unknown. The character of Alaric churches and fifteen mosques. The city occupies the site has been somewhat variously represented by historians of the ancient Philadelphia, one of the “seven churches In forming an estimate of it many have been misled by in Asia" of the Apocalypse. The ancient city, founded the use of the term barbarian, which, as applied to him, it two centuries B.c., was subject to frequent earthquakes. should be remembered, indicates a national and not a In more modern times it was celebrated for its prolonged personal distinction. Many proofs may be found of his resistance to the Turks, who took it in 1390, after all the humanity and moderation in trying circumstances, while, other cities of Asia Minor had surrendered. Ala-Shehr on the other hand, the charges of cruelty brought against has an active trade, and the population is about 18,000. him are not borne out by evidence. His marked respect ALASKA, or ALIASKA, formerly RUSSIAN AMERICA, for Christianity is explained by the fact that, if he was not but now a territory of the United States, is a vast tract of himself a Christian, he had come early under Christian country forming the north-west portion of North America, influence, having had frequent intercourse with Arian | bounded on the N. by the Arctic Ocean, on the E. by teachers.

British America, and on the S. and W. by the Pacific ALARIC II., eighth king of the Goths in Spain, suc Ocean. The name was formerly confined to a long narrow ceeded his father Euric or Evaric about 484. His dominions peninsula stretching into the Pacific, but has been extended not only included the greater part of Spain (Hispania to the whole territory. Alaska comprises the whole of Tarraconensis and Bætica), but extended into Gaul as far North America from 141° W. long. to Behring Strait, and as the rivers Rhone and Loire. In religion Alaric was also numerous islands along the coast, notably Prince of an Arian, but that he was tolerant of the orthodox Catholics Wales Islands, King George III. Archipelago, the Kodiak is shown by the decrees of the Council of Agde, summoned Islands, and the Aleutian Islands, which stretch seaward by him in 506. He displayed similar wisdom and liber- from the extremity of the peninsula. From the main ality in political affairs by appointing a commission to portion of the territory a narrow strip, with a breadth of prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial about 50 miles, extends south-east along the Pacific coast, decrees, which should form the authoritative code for his and terminates at the confines of British Columbia, in dominions. This is generally known as the Breviarium | 54° 40' N. lat. From north to south the extreme length of

Alaska is about 1100 miles, and the greatest breadth from | ing tribes of Inliars and Esquimaux. Portions of Alaska east to west is 800 miles. The area of the whole territory have also been recently explored by the employés of the is estimated at 514,700 square miles.

Russo-American Telegraph Company in surveying a route
Coast. The numerous islands, creeks, and inlets of Alaska for a line of telegraph which was designed to cross from

lengthen out its coast-line to 7860 miles, an extent America to Asia near Behring Strait—a project which was
greater than that of the eastern coast-line of the United abandoned, after an expenditure of £600,000, on communi-
States. Beginning at the south-east, the chief creeks and cation with Europe being secured by the Atlantic cable.
bays are Cook's Inlet, Bristol Bay, Norton Sound, and The climate of the south-western coast of Alaska is Climate.
Kotzebue Sound; while, following the same order, the tolerably mild, considering its high latitude. The great
principal headlands, in addition to the extremity of the warm current of the Pacific, sweeping in a north-easterly
peninsula, are Cape Newenham and Cape Romanzoff in circuit from the East India Islands, and corresponding
the Pacific, Cape Prince of Wales in Behring Strait, and very much in character and effects to the Gulf Stream of
Cape Lisburne, Icy Cape, and Point Barrow in the Arctic the Atlantic, washes its shores ; and while it modifies the
Ocean. Point Barrow is in 71° 23' N. lat., and is the temperature, also causes an excessive rainfall. At Sitka
extreme northern point of the country. The exploration the mean temperature is 42°:9, and the average rainfall about
of the northern coast was chiefly the work of the British 80 inches. Alaska will never have any great agricultural Produce.

navigators Cook, Beechy, and Franklin, and of the officers value. From the great amount of rain and the want of Rivers. of the Hudson's Bay Company. The principal river of heat, cereals grow, but will not ripen, and vegetables do

Alaska is the Yukon, or Kwichpak, which rises in British not thrive. Native grasses and berries grow plentifully, America, and, receiving the Porcupine river at Fort but the chief wealth of the country is in its vast forests, Yukon, flows westward across the territory, and falls in the furs of its wild animals, and in the fish with which into the Pacific Ocean to the south of Norton Sound. its rivers and seas abound. The forests, rising from the At a distance of 600 miles from the sea this magnificent coast and covering the mountains to a height of 2000 feet, river has a width of more than a mile. Its tributaries consist of a very durable yellow cedar, spruee, larch, and would in Europe be reckoned large rivers, and its volume is fir of great size, and also cypress and hemlock. The wild so great that 10 miles out from its principal mouth the animals include the elk, the deer, and various species of water is fresh. Among the other rivers of Alaska are bear, and also many fur-bearing animals, such as the wolf the Copper river, the Suschitna, the Nuschagak, and the and fox, the beaver, ermine, marten, otter, and squirrel.

Kuskokwim, falling into the Pacific, and the Colville, Near the coast and islands there are innumerable furMountains. flowing northward into the Arctic Ocean. A great moun- bearing seals, which are caught in great numbers by the

tain range extends from British Columbia, in a north-west settlers; but from the rigour of the climate and the
direction, along the coast of Alaska, the summit being arduous nature of the work, the trapping of the animals of
covered with snow and glaciers. Mount St Elias, an the interior is left to the Indians. The salmon abounds in
active volcano, in 60° 18' N. lat., and 140° 30' W. long., the rivers, and there are great banks along the shores, the
rises to the height of 14,970 feet above the sea. The favourite haunt of cod and other fish. About eighty whalers
mountain chain runs out along the peninsula which has prosecute their fishing off the coast of Alaska. Coal and
given its name to the country, and at the western extremity iron are the most important minerals, but the value of the
there are several volcanic cones of great elevation ; while deposits remains to be ascertained.
in the island of Uminak, separated from the mainland by The population is very limited, consisting of 8000 whites Popula-
only a narrow strait, there are enormous volcanoes, one and 15,000 Indians, with some Esquimaux on the northern tion.
rising to more than 8000 feet in height. In the interior coast. The Indians are rapidly decreasing in number, and
and to the north the country is also mountainous, with are described as treacherous and discontented. New Arch-
great intervening plains.

angel, now called Sitka, in the island of Sitka, in 57° 3' History. The north-west coast of this part of America was dis- N. lat., and 135° 18' W. long., was the seat of the Russian

covered and explored by a Russian expedition under governor, and is the headquarters of the United States Behring in 1741 ; and at subsequent periods settlements authorities. It contains about 1500 inhabitants, is the were made by the Russians at various places, chiefly for residence of a Greek bishop, and has fortifications, magathe prosecution of the fur trade. In 1799 the territory zines, and a magnetic observatory. Of the other settlewas granted to a Russo-American fur company by the ments, Fort Nicholas on Cook's Inlet, and Fort St Michael Emperor Paul VIII., and in 1839 the charter of the com on Norton Sound, are the more important. The admirable pany was renewed.

New Archangel, in the island of harbours on the coast and the great navigable river Yukon Sitka, was the principal settlement, but the company had afford facilities for the formation of new settlements and about forty stations. They exported annually 25,000 the increase of trade by the Americans. At the junction skins of the seal, sea-otter, beaver, &c., besides about of the Porcupine river and the Yukon a fort was estab20,000 sea-horse teeth. The privileges of the company lished by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1847. (See expired in 1863; and in 1867 the whole Russian posses- Whymper, Travels in Alaska and on the Yukon, 1868; sions in America were ceded to the United States for a Dall, Alaska and its Resources, 1870.) money payment of $7,200,000. The treaty was signed on ALATRI, the ancient Alatrium, a town of Italy, 6 miles 30th March, and ratified on 20th June 1867; and on 9th N. of Frosinone, in the province of that name, which until October following, the possession of the country was 1870 formed part of the papal territory. It is the see formally made over to a military force of the United of a bishop, and has considerable remains of Pelasgian States at New Archangel. It still remains in the military antiquity. Population of commune, 11,370. keeping of the United States, no steps having been taken ALAVA, one of the Provincias Vascongadas, or Basque to organise a territorial government. It has, however, Provinces, in the north of Spain. It is of a triangular been constituted a revenue district, with New Archangel, shape, and is bounded on the N. by Guipuzcoa and Biscay, or Sitka, as the port of entry. Since Alaska was ceded to on the E. by Navarre, on the S.W. by Logrono, and on the United States considerable information has been col- the W. by Burgos; with an area of about 1200 square lected as to the resources of the less sterile parts of the miles. The surface of Alava is very mountainous, especountry; but the central and northern parts of this region cially on the north, where a part of the Pyrenees forms its are only known as the inhospitable home of some wander- | natural houndary. It is separated from Logrono by the

Ebro, and the other rivers are the Zadorra and the Ayuda. I were baptized on Easter-day to wear an alb for the eight The soil in the valleys is fertile, yielding wheat, barley, days following, and hence the Sunday after Easter was maize, flax, hemp, and fruits. Oil, and a poor kind of called Dominica in Albis. wine called chacoli, are also produced. Many of the ALBA, the ancient Alba Pompeia, a town of Italy, in mountains are clothed with forests of oak, chestnuts, the province of Cuneo, situated on the Tanaro, 30 miles beeches, and other trees, and contain iron, copper, lead, S.E. of Turin. It is the seat of a bishop, and contains a and marble. Salt is also found in large quantities in the cathedral, founded in 1486, as well as other churches and province. The manufactures of Alava are unimportant; religious establishments. It has a large trade in cattle, coarse cloth, iron ware, earthenware, hats, and shoes being and the surrounding district is very fertile, producing silk, among the chief. The capital of the province is Vitoria. wine, oil, grain, and fruits, and also marble and rock-salt. Population in 1870, 102,494.

Population of the commune (1865), 9687. ALAVA, DON MIGUEL RICARDO D', a Spanish general ALBA LONGA, the most ancient town in Latium, and statesman, born at Vitoria in 1771. He served first was situated 15 miles S.E. from Rome, on a ridge be. in the navy, and had risen to be captain of a frigate when tween the mountain and the lake that were both called he exchanged into the army, receiving corresponding rank. from it Albanus. It derived its name probably from its In politics he followed a very devious course. At the elevated or Alpine situation, the story of the white sow assembly of Bayonne, in 18 )8, he was one of the most discovered by Æneas on landing (Virgil, Æneid, iii. 390– prominent of those who accepted the new constitution 392) being of course mythical. Little beyond the bare from Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain. In 1811, when fact of its existence for a considerable period as the foremost Joseph's position was becoming insecure, Alava joined the town in Latium can be accepted as strictly historical. national independent party, who were fighting in alliance According to the legendary accounts, it was founded by with the English. The Spanish Cortes appointed him Ascanius, the son of Æneas, 300, or, as a later version commissary at the English headquarters, and Wellington, has it, 360 years before the foundation of Rome. Fourwho seems to have regarded him with great favour, made teen kings, whose names are all preserved, are said to have him one of his aides-de-camp. Before the close of the reigned over it in succession. The names, however, are campaign he had risen to the rank of brigadier-general. evidently an invention, having probably this substratum of On the restoration of Ferdinand, Alava was cast into historic truth, that the ruling family belonged to the prison, but the influence of his uncle Ethenard, the in- Silvian gens. The city was destroyed by the Romans quisitor, and of Wellington, secured his speedy release. He under Tullus Hostilius, and its inhabitants removed to soon contrived to gain the favour of the king, who ap- Rome. Several of the patrician families, such as the pointed him in 1815 ambassador to the Hague. Four Julii, Curiatii, Servilii, Tullii, Quintii, ascribed their origin years later he was recalled, owing, it is said, to the marked to these immigrants from Alba. kindness he had shown to his banished fellow-countrymen. ALBACETE, one of the new provinces of Spain, was On the breaking out of the revolution of 1820 he was formed in 1833 out of districts taken from Murcia and chosen by the province of Alava to represent it in the New Castile. It is bounded on the N. by Cuença, on Cortes, where he became conspicuous in the party of the the E. by Valencia and Alicant, on the S. by Murcia, Exaltados, and in 1822 was made president. In the and on the W. by Ciudad Real and Jaen. The area is latter year he fought with the militia under Ballasteros 5971 square miles. The province is generally hilly, some and Murillo to maintain the authority of the Cortes of the peaks of the sierras rising to a height of 5000 feet; against the rebels. When the French invested Cadiz, but it contains rich plains and many fertile valleys. The Alava was commissioned by the Cortes to treat with the principal rivers are the Mundo in the southern and the Duc d'Angoulême, and the negotiations resulted in the Jucar in the northern part of the province; and there are restoration of Ferdinand, who pledged himself to a liberal numerous smaller streams. Some parts of the country have policy. No sooner had he regained power, however, than a bare appearance, being destitute of wood, but the neighhe ceased to hold himself bound by his promises, and Alava bourhood of Alcarez is covered with fruit trees, and prefound it necessary to retire first to Gibraltar and then to Eng- sents the aspect of a garden. Agriculture is in a tolerably land. On the death of Ferdinand, he returned to Spain, and, prosperous state, more advanced than in the centre of espousing the cause of Maria Christina against Don Carlos, Castile, but less so than in the rich districts of Murcia was appointed ambassador to London in 1834, and to and Valencia. Cereals, pulse, and fruits of all kinds are Paris in 1835. After the insurrection of La Granja, he produced, as well as wine of fair quality, and excellent refused to sign the constitution of 1812, declaring himself honey. Saffron also is produced in large quantities, and tired of taking new oaths, and was consequently obliged some attention is given to the keeping of silk-worns. to retire to France, where he died at Barèges in 1843. Many of the inhabitants devote themselves to the rearing

ALAY (lit. a triumphant procession), a Turkish cere of cattle, sheep, and goats. The bulls of Albacete are in mony observed on the assembling of the forces at the out- request for bull-fights; there is a good breed of mules, break of war. Its essential feature is the public display and the horses of the province have long mounted the of the sacred standard of Mahomet, which may be seen Spanish cavalry. Manufactures are confined to the spinonly by Moslems and touched only by the emirs. On one ning of hemp, and the making of coarse cloths, porcelain, occasion, when, owing to a long interval of peace, this earthenware, and cutlery. There are several distilleries, rule had been forgotten, the Christians, who had witnessed and a considerable trade in wood. The district is rich in the spectacle in large numbers, were cruelly massacred. minerals, including silver, iron, copper, zinc, sulphur, The procession in which the standard is carried is headed gypsum, and coal; but, excepting stones and marble for by artisans bearing the implements of their respective building purposes, they are little wrought. In addition trades.

to agricultural produce, small quantities of zinc, iron, and ALB, or ALBE, a vestment of white linen, hanging down sulphur are exported. There are numerous mineral to the feet, worn by priests at all the more solemn services springs, chiefly sulphureous, and hot as well as cold, at of the church. It corresponds to the surplice of the various places in the province. Among the chief towns English clergy, the difference being that the alb is closer in are Albacete, Chinchilla, Bonillo, and Alcarez. "The railthe sleeves, and bound at the waist by a girdle. In the way from Madrid to Valencia traverses the province, and ancient church it was customary for the neophytes who | at Chinchilla a line branches southward to Murcia

his eye.

The state of education throughout the province is very low. , esteem. His wife and children were very beautiful, and In the town of Albacete, where it is best, little more than served him for models. But while thus studying from half the population can read; while at Yeste, where it is nature, his love of artificial refinement and conventional worst, the proportion is only 1 in 15. The graver crimes expression was so great, that even his best works are defiare of infrequent occurrence; but the inhabitants always cient in breadth and vigour, as well as in unaffected grace wear arms, and offences against the person are numerous. and natural feeling. The learning displayed in the comPopulation in 1867, 221,444.

position of his pictures, and their minute elaboration ALBACETE, a town of Spain, capital of the above pro and exquisite finish, gave them great celebrity, and entitle vince, is situated about 140 miles S.E. of Madrid, and is a them to a distinctive place among the products of the station on the railway between Madrid and Valencia. It Bolognese school. is surrounded by a fertile plain, and has considerable trade

“In point of original invention,” says Lanzi, "Albani is superior to in saffron and in the agricultural products of the district. Domenichino, perhaps to any other of the school; and in his repreA great market, chiefly for the sale of cattle, is held annu sentation of female forms, according to Mengs, he has no equal. By ally in September, and extends over several days. The some he is denominated the Anacreon of painting. Like that poet, town is well built, and has several churches, two hospitals,

with his short odes, so Albani, from his small paintings, acquired

great reputation; and as the one sings Venus and the Loves, and maids and a normal school. At one time it had an extensive

and boys, so does the artist hold up to the eye the same delicate trade in cutlery, from which it received the name of the and graceful subjects. Nature, indeed, formed, the perusal of the Sheffield of Spain. This manufacture has been very

much poets inclined, and fortune enco

ncouraged his genius for this kind of reduced by the importation of cutlery from England and

painting; and possessing a consort and twelve children, all of sur

prising beauty, he was at the same time blest with the finest Germany, but Albacete is still famous for its daggers,

models for the pursuit of his studies. He had a villa most delightwhich are held in high repute and much worn by the fully situated, which further presented him with a variety of objects Spaniards. They are formidable weapons, of coarse manu

enabling him to represent the beautiful rural views so familiar to facture, but with richly-ornamented handles, and frequently bear proverbial inscriptions suitable to their murderous A great number of his works are at Bologna. Among appearance. Population, 15,150.

the most celebrated of his pictures are the “Four Seasons ;" ALBAN, ST, usually styled the protomartyr of Britain, "Diana and Venus,” in the Florentine gallery; the "Toilet was born at Verulamium, and flourished towards the end of Venus,” in the Louvre; “Venus landing at Cythera," of the third century. In his youth he took a journey to in the Ghigi palace at Rome, &c. Among the best of his Rome in company with Amphibalus, a monk of Caerleon, sacred subjects are a “St Sebastian” and an “ Assumption and served seven years as a soldier under the Emperor of the Virgin," both in the church of St Sebastian at Diocletian. On his return home he settled at Verulamium, Rome. He was among the first of the Italian painters to and, influenced by the example and instructions of Amphi- devote himself to the painting of cabinet pictures. balus, renounced the errors of paganism, in which he had ALBANIA, a country of considerable extent, which been educated, and became a convert to the Christian though frequently ruled by turbulent and nearly independ religion. It is generally agreed that Alban suffered ent chiefs, ranks as one of the provinces of the Turkish martyrdom during the great persecution in the reign empire. The tract of land to which this name is now of Diocletian; but authors differ as to the precise date. applied extends from 39° to 43° N. lat., and from 18° 24' Bede, who gives a full account of the event, fixes it in 286; to 21° 48' E. long.; from the Gulf of Cattaro in the north some refer it to the year 296; while Usher reckons it to the Gulf of Arta in the south, and from the coast of amongst the events of 303. Between 400 and 500 years the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea on the west to an irregular after St Alban's death, Offa, king of the Mercians, built ill-defined line inland towards the east, roughly indicated a large and stately monastery near Verulamium to his in its northern part by the Tchar Dagh, the ancient Scardus, memory, and around it the present town of St Albans was a part of the Hæmus or Balkan range, and southwards by gradually erected.

the Pindus chain, or rather the portions of it now called ALBANI, or ALBANO, FRANCESCO (1578-1660), a the mountains of Sagori, Metzovo, and Suli. Within these celebrated Italian painter, was born at Bologna. His limits is included the ancient Epirus, corresponding to father was a silk merchant, and intended to bring up his the southern part of the country now comprehended son to the same occupation; but Albani was already, at under the general name of Albania, and divided from the age of twelve, filled with so strong an inclination for Albania, properly so called, by the river Voyutza or Viosa, painting, that on the death of his father he devoted him which enters the Adriatic a few miles north of Avlona. self entirely to art. His first master was Denis Calvart, Albania, therefore, is bounded on the N. by Dalmatia, with whom Guido Reni was at the same time a pupil. He Montenegro (from which it is separated by the river was soon left by Calvart entirely to the care of Guido, and Moroka), and Bosnia ; on the E. by Servia and the contracted with him a close friendship. He followed Guido Turkish province of Rum-ili, in which Macedonia, or the to the school of the Caracci ; but after this, owing to greater part of it, is included; and on the S. by Hellas mutual rivalry, their friendship began gradually to cool. or Northern Greece, which was the Turkish province of They kept up for a long time a keen competition, and their Livadia before Greece regained its independence, and from mutual emulation called forth some of their best produc- which it is separated by the river Garla or Suli. The tions. Notwithstanding this rivalry, they still spoke of superficial area of Albania is estimated at about 18,944 each other with the highest esteem. Albani, after having square miles, and it has a coast-line of about 280 miles greatly improved himself in the school of the Caracci, from north to south, without reckoning indentations, &c. went to Rome, where he opened an academy and resided It nowhere extends more than 100 miles from the sea, for many years. Here he painted, after the designs of and in the southern part not more than 30 miles. Annibal Caracci, the whole of the frescoes in the chapel of St According to the most recent division of the Turkish Diego in the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli. His empire into eyalets, sanjaks, and livas, Albania is combest frescoes are those on mythological subjects, of which prehended in three eyalets, namely, Uskub or Uskup there is a large number in the Verospi Palace, now Tor- in the north ; Roumelia, which also includes part of lonia. On the death of his wife he returned to Bologna, Macedonia, in the centre; and Yania, corresponding pretty where he married a second time, and resided till his death nearly to the ancient Epirus, in the south. The chief in the enjoyment of much domestic happiness and general towns of these eyalets are respectively Scutari, Monastir,

and Joannina, sometimes written Janina or Yanina; and mountainous districts still preserved their independence. these divisions are therefore spoken of by some writers as It was the motives of pay and plunder, rather than comthe pashaliks of Scutari, Monastir, and Joannina. The pulsion, that brought these hardy soldiers into the Turkish divisions chiefly recognised by the Albanians themselves ranks. In proportion as the Ottoman empire declined are those formed by the varieties of the native tribes. in vigour, its hold of Albania became less firm ; and the Colonel Leake, who is considered one of the best informed vigorous and enterprising genius of Ali Pasha again conauthorities on this head, divides them into the Ngege or verted this dependency into what might almost be called a Ghegides, whose principal towns are Dulcigno, Scutari, and separate kingdom. Durazzo; the Toske or Toskides, who occupy Berat and In the grand insurrection of Greece (1821-1829), the Elbasan; the Liape, a poor and predatory race, who in- Albanians, accustomed to view with disdain the Ottoman habit the mountains between the Toske and Delvino; and yoke, showed a considerable disposition to make common the Tsami, who inhabit the most southerly district, and cause with the Greeks, and their co-operation would have whose principal towns are Suli and Paramithia. The almost ensured success. But the Greeks, imprudently and country is mountainous, the interior being traversed by a unhappily, could not divest themselves of the feelings of range which forms a prolongation of the Dinaric Alps, enmity cherished during the long series of wars which Ali and which is continued southwards in the Pindus range. had waged against them. At the siege of Tripolizza These mountains, from which numerous spurs are thrown (October 5, 1821) overtures were made to them by a corps out to the east and west, run in a direction from north to of 3000 Albanians, who formed part of the garrison; but south, parallel to the course of the Tchar Dagh. Along the the Greeks, having succeeded in entering the place, began southern part of the coast-line, and parallel with it, run the a dreadful and indiscriminate massacre, in which the Khimara mountains, known to the ancients as the Acro- Albanians were not spared. At the siege of Arta, alceraunian range, terminating northwards in the bold head-though the capture was much facilitated by the coming land of Cape Glossa. There are three lakes of great size over of a corps of Albanians, the Greeks treated them in Albania-Scutari in the north, Okhrida in the centre, extremely ill. The Albanian nation was thus forcibly and Joannina in the south. The rivers for the most part thrown into the arms of the Porte, to which it has since are short, and run, generally speaking, from east to west, continued nominally subject. The allegiance of the Albaor in a north-westerly direction. The Moroka and Zenta nians, however, to Turkey rests on a very precarious basis enter the lake of Scutari, which is connected with the sea even at the present day, and, it will be remembered, in the by the Boyana, that flows into the Adriatic near Dulcigno. Crimean war many Albanian chiefs fought under the The White Drin, flowing in a southerly direction, and the Russian flag against the combined forces of England, Black Drin, running northwards from Lake Okhrida, form France, and Turkey. the head streams of the Drin. The principal streams in The inhabitants of Albania are estimated at 1,200,000, of addition to these are the Skombia, Voyutza, Calamas, whom a considerable proportion are Turks and Greeks; but Arta, and Gurla (the ancient Acheron), with its tributary the basis of the population consists of the original race, the Vuvo (the ancient Cocytus). The climate is generally called Arnauts. About half of the entire population are healthy, though cold and bleak in the highlands; the Mahometans; of the other moiety, about 520,000 belong Warmer regions along the coast are also frequently visited to the Greek Church, and the remainder to the Latin by cold northerly winds.

Church. The conversion of those who profess MahoAlbania includes not only the ancient Epirus, but also metanism has been, however, very imperfect, and chiefly part of the ancient Macedonia, Illyria, and Chaonia. induced by political motives. In every family the males This country was in early times, as now, distinguished by usually go to the mosque, the females to church ; and some the rude valour of its inhabitants. Its remote situation, members of a family are seen in the most amicable manner and the want of union among its tribes, generally pre- eating from the same table, and even from the same plate, vented it from acting any conspicuous part in Grecian meats forbidden to the others. With the Turks, accordpolitics. The only remarkable exception occurs in the reign ingly, infidel and Albanian are terms nearly synonymous. of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (296–272 B.c.), who was justly The native Albanian is of middle stature; his face is ranked among the greatest captains of antiquity. After his oval, with high cheek-bones; his neck long; his chest full death the country was again split into a number of petty and broad. His air is erect and majestic to a degree which states, which were unable to resist the united strength of never fails to strike the traveller. He holds in utter conMacedon; and to that kingdom Epirus continued subject tempt that dissimulation which is characteristic of the till both were alike subdued by the Roman arms (167 B.c.) Greek, and, unlike the Turk, he is gay, lively, and active.

It was during the time of the Greek empire that thé Averse, however, to regular industry, his whole delight is name of Albania was first given to this district. During in arms and plunder. He goes constantly armed; and the decline of the empire the Albanians gradually rose to there are few Albanians who have not, in the prime of distinction, and at last to independence. Their valour their life, belonged to some of the numerous bands of enabled them to maintain their ground against the Bul- robbers who infest the mountains of their native country, garians, who had occupied all the neighbouring districts of of Thessaly, and of Macedonia. This occupation carries Greece. Nor were they less successful against the Turks, with it no disgrace: it is common for the Albanian to a more formidable enemy. Under the command of the mention circumstances which occurred “when he was a celebrated George Castriot, called by the Turks Scander- robber.” In proportion as the trade of robbing becomes beg, they baffled all the efforts of Mahomet II., the con- overstocked, part of those engaged in it seek employment queror of Constantinople. That powerful monarch entered in the service of the sultan and the different pashas Albania only to experience a succession of defeats, and was throughout the Turkish empire, by all of whom the Alba at length compelled to acknowledge its independence by a nians are regarded as the most valuable of their troops. formal treaty. On the death of Scanderbeg, the Turks This fierce and haughty race display a greater degree of redoubled their efforts against Albania, which was at contempt for the female sex than is usual even among the length reduced to a state of nominal subjection. The most barbarous nations. The females are literally regarded siege of Scutari, in 1478, formed the termination of this as inferior animals, and treated accordingly; but in the memorable struggle. The subjection, however, was always country districts they are not confined or veiled, as is custhe imperfect; revolts were frequent, and the inhabitants of tomary in Mahometan countries.

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